MeSH
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Bacterium

MeSH ID: T007

Related Concepts:

  • Acetobacter [M0000135]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.
  • Acetobacteraceae [M0025777]
    A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.
  • Acetobacterium [M0449532]
    A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family Eubacteriaceae. Species are homoacetogenic, having the ability to use CARBON DIOXIDE as an electron sink, and to reduce it producing acetate as a typical fermentation product.
  • Acholeplasma [M0000202]
    A genus of gram-negative organisms including saprophytic and parasitic or pathogenic species.
  • Acholeplasma laidlawii [M0000203]
    An organism originally isolated from sewage, manure, humus, and soil, but recently found as a parasite in mammals and birds.
  • Acholeplasmataceae [M0000204]
    Gram-negative organisms including apparently free-living saphrophytes as well as mammalian and avian parasites, and possibly pathogens.
  • Achromatiaceae [M0009580]
  • Achromatium [M0009581]
  • Achromobacter [M0000637]
    A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-spore forming rods. Soil and water are regarded as the natural habitat. They are sometimes isolated from a hospital environment and humans.
  • Achromobacter cycloclastes [M0441396]
    A species of gram negative, aerobic, denitrifying bacteria in the genus ACHROMOBACTER.
  • Achromobacter denitrificans [M0441414]
    The type species of gram negative, aerobic bacteria in the genus ACHROMOBACTER. Previously in the genus ALCALIGENES, the classification and nomenclature of this species has been frequently emended. The two subspecies, Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans and Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans are associated with infections.
  • Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans [M0441415]
  • Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans [M0441416]
  • Achromobacteriaceae [M0009582]
  • Acidaminococcaceae [M0449497]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the order Clostridiales.
  • Acidaminococcus [M0449492]
    A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ACIDAMINOCOCCACEAE, isolated from the INTESTINES of PIGS and humans.
  • Acidiphilium [M0328801]
    A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE consisting of chemoorganotrophic, straight rods with rounded ends. They are aerobic and acidophilic.
  • Acidithiobacillus [M0441909]
    A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.
  • Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans [M0021347]
    A strictly autotrophic species of bacteria that oxidizes sulfur and thiosulfate to sulfuric acid. It was formerly called Thiobacillus thiooxidans.
  • Acidovorax [M0441805]
  • Acinetobacter [M0000227]
    A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
  • Acinetobacter baumannii [M0425329]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.
  • Acinetobacter calcoaceticus [M0025784]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Although considered to be normally nonpathogenic, this bacterium is a causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in debilitated individuals.
  • Actinobacillus [M0000281]
    A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE described as gram-negative, nonsporeforming, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Most members are found both as pathogens and commensal organisms in the respiratory, alimentary, and genital tracts of animals.
  • Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans [M0025807]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria that associates with species of ACTINOMYCES in actinomycotic lesions.
  • Actinobacillus equuli [M0444443]
    A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ACTINOBACILLUS, which is pathogenic for HORSES and PIGS.
  • Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae [M0025808]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.
  • Actinobacillus seminis [M0444445]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ACTINOBACILLUS, which causes EPIDIDYMITIS in SHEEP.
  • Actinobacillus suis [M0444444]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ACTINOBACILLUS. It is mainly a pathogen of PIGS, but also can infect HORSES.
  • Actinobacteria [M0419813]
    Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
  • Actinomyces [M0000283]
    A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
  • Actinomyces viscosus [M0025751]
    A species of ACTINOMYCES found in the oral cavity of man and hamsters. It has been isolated from actinomycotic lesions in swine, cats, and dogs and has been identified as a causative agent of animal diseases.
  • Actinomycetaceae [M0000284]
    A family of bacteria including numerous parasitic and pathogenic forms.
  • Actinomycetales [M0000285]
    An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
  • Aerococcus [M0020565]
  • Aeromonadaceae [M0444195]
    A family of gram-negative facultatively anaerobic bacteria, ubiquitous in fresh and brackish water, and associated with GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES.
  • Aeromonas [M0000511]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.
  • Aeromonas hydrophila [M0025811]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.
  • Aeromonas salmonicida [M0461384]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the family Aeromonadaceae. It is strictly parasitic and often pathogenic causing FURUNCULOSIS in SALMONIDS and ulcer disease in GOLDFISH.
  • Afipia [M0328409]
    A genus of gram-negative, oxidase-positive, nonfermentative rods which are motile by means of a single flagellum. Afipia felis and BARTONELLA HENSELAE are causative agents of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Afipia felis [M0328802]
  • Agrobacterium [M0000587]
  • Alcaligenaceae [M0441353]
    A family of gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore forming rods or cocci. Well known genera include ACHROMOBACTER; ALCALIGENES; and BORDETELLA.
  • Alcaligenes [M0000638]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
  • Alcaligenes faecalis [M0441454]
    The type species of gram negative bacteria in the genus ALCALIGENES, found in soil. It is non-pathogenic, non-pigmented, and used for the production of amino acids.
  • Alcanivoraceae [M0494115]
    A family of halophilic bacteria in the order Oceanospirillales. Its principal carbon and energy sources are linear-chain ALKANES and their derivatives.
  • Alcanivorax [M0444423]
  • Alkalescens-Dispar Group [M0007731]
  • Alphaproteobacteria [M0328413]
    A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
  • Alteromonadaceae [M0405124]
    A family of marine, gram-negative PROTEOBACTERIA including the genera ALTEROMONAS; Colwellia; Idiomarina; MARINOBACTER; MORITELLA; PSEUDOALTEROMONAS; and SHEWANELLA.
  • Alteromonas [M0328414]
    A genus of gram-negative, straight or curved rods which are motile by means of a single, polar flagellum. Members of this genus are found in coastal waters and the open ocean. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Anabaena [M0025877]
    A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.
  • Anabaena cylindrica [M0455837]
    A species in the genus ANABAENA whose trichomes are composed of cylindrical cells.
  • Anabaena flos-aquae [M0455838]
    A species in the genus ANABAENA containing gas vacuoles that gives buoyancy to the organism. It can form extensive blooms in FRESH WATER and is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.
  • Anabaena variabilis [M0455839]
    A species of ANABAENA that can form SPORES called akinetes.
  • Anaerobiospirillum [M0444298]
    A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria in the family SUCCINIVIBRIONACEAE. It has been isolated from the THROAT and COLON of beagle dogs and from human FECES.
  • Aphanizomenon [M0455908]
    A form-genus of planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales.
  • Arcobacter [M0328415]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacteria isolated from water and associated with diarrhea in humans and animals.
  • Arcobacter butzleri [M0328866]
  • Arthrobacter [M0001751]
    A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
  • Atypical Bacterial Forms [M0001952]
    Microorganisms that have undergone greater changes than normal in morphology, physiology, or cultural characteristics.
  • Azoarcus [M0328416]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria including species which are often associated with grasses (POACEAE) and which fix nitrogen as well as species which anaerobically degrade toluene and other mono-aromatic hydrocarbons.
  • Azomonas [M0002086]
  • Azomonas agilis [M0002087]
  • Azorhizobium [M0328419]
    A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, obligate aerobes which are motile by peritrichous flagella on solid medium and one lateral flagellum in liquid medium. Under microaerobic conditions Azorhizobium fixes nitrogen. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Azorhizobium caulinodans [M0328417]
    A species of AZORHIZOBIUM which forms nodules on the roots of the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Azospirillum [M0025779]
    A genus of gram-negative aerobic bacteria that occurs free-living in the soil or associated with the roots of cereal crops or grasses (POACEAE).
  • Azospirillum brasilense [M0024207]
    A species of motile, free-living, gram-negative bacteria that occur in the soil. They are aerobic or microaerophilic and are sometimes capable of nitrogen fixation.
  • Azospirillum lipoferum [M0440271]
    A species of gram-negative to gram-variable, nitrogen-fixing bacteria. They are free-living in SOIL or found in association with PLANT ROOTS. It is the type species of the genus AZOSPIRILLUM.
  • Azotobacter [M0002085]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.
  • Azotobacter vinelandii [M0025778]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Azotobacteraceae [M0002088]
    A subfamily of motile, gram-negative bacteria found in SOIL and WATER and capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen.
  • Bacilan [M0002108]
  • Bacillaceae [M0002101]
    A family of bacteria which produce endospores. They are mostly saprophytes from soil, but a few are insect or animal parasites or pathogens.
  • Bacillus [M0002102]
    A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
  • Bacillus anthracis [M0002103]
    A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
  • Bacillus cereus [M0002104]
    A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
  • Bacillus megaterium [M0002105]
    A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.
  • Bacillus stearothermophilus [M0002106]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.
  • Bacillus subtilis [M0002107]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
  • Bacillus thuringiensis [M0002109]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
  • Bacteria [M0002119]
    One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
  • Bacteria, Aerobic [M0002122]
  • Bacteria, Anaerobic [M0002123]
  • Bacteria, Flesh-Eating [M0020576]
  • Bacteroidaceae [M0002144]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
  • Bacteroides [M0002145]
    A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
  • Bacteroides fragilis [M0002146]
    Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
  • Bacteroidetes [M0439759]
    A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
  • Bartonella [M0002188]
    A genus of gram-negative bacteria characteristically appearing in chains of several segmenting organisms. It occurs in man and arthropod vectors and is found only in the Andes region of South America. This genus is the etiologic agent of human bartonellosis. The genus Rochalimaea, once considered a separate genus, has recently been combined with the genus Bartonella as a result of high levels of relatedness in 16S rRNA sequence data and DNA hybridization data.
  • Bartonella bacilliformis [M0448531]
    The type species of the genus BARTONELLA, a gram-negative bacteria found in humans. It is found in the mountain valleys of Peru, Ecuador, and Southwest Columbia where the sandfly (see PHLEBOTOMUS) vector is present. It causes OROYA FEVER and VERRUGA PERUANA.
  • Bartonella henselae [M0027644]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY). This organism can also be a cause of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
  • Bartonella quintana [M0027642]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in which man is the primary host and the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, the principal vector. It is the etiological agent of TRENCH FEVER.
  • Bartonellaceae [M0002192]
    A family of small gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are parasites of erythrocytes in man and other vertebrates and the etiologic agents of several diseases.
  • Battey Bacillus [M0023508]
  • BCG [M0014286]
  • Bdellovibrio [M0002242]
    A genus of bacteria capable of developing within other bacteria.
  • Beggiatoa [M0444476]
    A genus of colorless, filamentous bacteria in the family THIOTRICHACEAE whose cells contain inclusions of sulfur granules. When found in decaying seaweed beds and polluted water, its presence signals environmental degradation.
  • Beijerinckia [M0440146]
    A genus in the family BEIJERINCKIACEAE.
  • Beijerinckiaceae [M0440144]
    A family of aerobic gram-negative rods that are nitrogen fixers. They are highly viscous, and appear as a semitransparent slime in giant colonies.
  • Beneckea [M0022651]
  • Betaproteobacteria [M0328421]
    A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
  • Bifidobacterium [M0002470]
    A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
  • Bilophila [M0447662]
    A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Desulfovibrionaceae. It was originally recovered from infections in patients with gangrenous and PERFORATED APPENDICITIS. It is also associated with ABSCESS; BACTEREMIA; and BILIARY TRACT sepsis.
  • Bilophila wadsworthia [M0447663]
    The sole species in the genus BILOPHILA.
  • Bordetella [M0002820]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.
  • Bordetella avium [M0441456]
    A species of BORDETELLA isolated from the respiratory tracts of TURKEYS and other BIRDS. It causes a highly contagious bordetellosis.
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica [M0025780]
    A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.
  • Bordetella parapertussis [M0441458]
    A species of BORDETELLA with similar morphology to BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS, but growth is more rapid. It is found only in the RESPIRATORY TRACT of humans.
  • Bordetella pertussis [M0002822]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
  • Borrelia [M0002835]
    A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.
  • Borrelia afzelii [M0373376]
  • Borrelia burgdorferi [M0373374]
    A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
  • Borrelia burgdorferi Group [M0024136]
    Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
  • Borrelia garinii [M0373377]
  • Bradyrhizobiaceae [M0439515]
    A proposed family of bacteria belonging to the alpha-2 subgroup of PROTEOBACTERIA.
  • Bradyrhizobium [M0030008]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.
  • Brevibacterium [M0002921]
    A gram-positive organism found in dairy products, fresh and salt water, marine organisms, insects, and decaying organic matter.
  • Brevibacterium flavum [M0420311]
    A species in the genus CORYNEBACTERIUM, family Corynebacteriaceae, which is used for industrial production of the amino acid LYSINE. It is closely related to Corynebacterium glutamicum.
  • Brucella [M0002985]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.
  • Brucella abortus [M0002987]
    A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
  • Brucella canis [M0425350]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria infecting DOGS, the natural hosts, and causing canine BRUCELLOSIS. It can also cause a mild infection in humans.
  • Brucella melitensis [M0026340]
    A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.
  • Brucella ovis [M0440138]
    A species of the genus BRUCELLA which are pathogenic to SHEEP.
  • Brucella suis [M0425389]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria, primarily infecting SWINE, but it can also infect humans, DOGS, and HARES.
  • Brucellaceae [M0002986]
    A family of gram-negative coccoid to rod-shaped bacteria in the order Rhizobiales. They are obligate parasites chiefly of warm-blooded VERTEBRATES. Many are pathogenic.
  • Buchnera [M0328422]
    A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are obligately intracellular endosymbionts of APHIDS. The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity.
  • Buchnera aphidicola [M0328877]
  • Burkholderia [M0028526]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
  • Burkholderia cepacia [M0025786]
    A species of BURKHOLDERIA considered to be an opportunistic human pathogen. It has been associated with various types of infections of nosocomial origin.
  • Burkholderia cepacia complex [M0441574]
    A group of phenotypically similar but genotypically distinct species (genomovars) in the genus BURKHOLDERIA. They are found in water, soil, and the rhizosphere of crop plants. They can act as opportunistic human pathogens and as plant growth promoting and biocontrol agents.
  • Burkholderia gladioli [M0441791]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that acts as both a human and plant pathogen.
  • Burkholderia mallei [M0441792]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei [M0025787]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.
  • Burkholderiaceae [M0441495]
    A family of gram negative, aerobic, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacteria.
  • Butyribacterium [M0007935]
  • Butyrivibrio [M0449533]
    A species of anaerobic bacteria, in the family Lachnospiraceae, found in RUMINANTS. It is considered both gram-positive and gram-negative.
  • Calymmatobacterium [M0003230]
    A genus of bacteria causing GRANULOMA INGUINALE and other granulomatous lesions.
  • Calymmatobacterium granulomatis [M0425390]
  • Campylobacter [M0003243]
    A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
  • Campylobacter coli [M0025833]
    A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.
  • Campylobacter fetus [M0003244]
    A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.
  • Campylobacter hyointestinalis [M0446361]
    A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from the INTESTINES of PIGS with proliferative ENTERITIS. It is also found in CATTLE and in CRICETINAE and can cause enteritis in humans.
  • Campylobacter jejuni [M0024627]
    A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
  • Campylobacter lari [M0446376]
    A species of thermophilic CAMPYLOBACTER found in healthy seagulls and causing ENTERITIS in humans.
  • Campylobacter rectus [M0446473]
    A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from cases of human PERIODONTITIS. It is a microaerophile, capable of respiring with OXYGEN.
  • Campylobacter sputorum [M0446474]
    A species of CAMPYLOBACTER comprised of three biovars based on their reaction to CATALASE and UREASE. They have been isolated from humans, CATTLE, and SHEEP.
  • Campylobacter upsaliensis [M0446479]
    A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from DOGS; CATS; and humans.
  • Capnocytophaga [M0003302]
    A gram-negative gliding bacterium isolated from the oral cavity. It is a pathogen often causing PERIODONTITIS.
  • Cardiobacteriaceae [M0444302]
    A family of gram-negative, mostly aerobic bacteria, in the order Cardiobacteriales. There are three genera: CARDIOBACTERIUM; DICHELOBACTER; and Suttonella.
  • Cardiobacterium [M0444305]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family CARDIOBACTERIACEAE. It is found in the nasal flora of humans and causes ENDOCARDITIS.
  • Caulobacter [M0025764]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.
  • Caulobacter crescentus [M0025765]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.
  • Caulobacteraceae [M0440149]
    A family of stalked bacteria that reproduces by budding. There are four genera: CAULOBACTER, Asticcacaulis, Brevundimonas, and Phenylobacterium.
  • Cellulomonas [M0420312]
    A genus of aerobic or facultatively anerobic BACTERIA, in the family Cellulomonadaceae. It is found in the SOIL and capable of hydrolyzing CELLULOSE.
  • Cellvibrio [M0328423]
    A genus of aerobic, gram-negative, motile, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Cellvibrio gilvus [M0328878]
  • Cellvibrio mixtus [M0328879]
  • Chlorobi [M0028885]
    A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
  • Chlorobiaceae [M0028888]
  • Chlorobium [M0439589]
    A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.
  • Chloroflexaceae [M0028886]
  • Chloroflexi [M0439558]
    Phylum of green nonsulfur bacteria including the family Chloroflexaceae, among others.
  • Chloroflexus [M0028887]
    A genus of green nonsulfur bacteria in the family Chloroflexaceae. They are photosynthetic, thermophilic, filamentous gliding bacteria found in hot springs.
  • Chromatiaceae [M0004368]
    A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
  • Chromatium [M0004371]
    A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
  • Chromobacterium [M0004391]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring in soil and water. Its organisms are generally nonpathogenic, but some species do cause infections of mammals, including humans.
  • Chromohalobacter [M0444424]
  • Chryseobacterium [M0447533]
    A genus of aerobic, gram-negative bacteria in the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE. Many of its species were formerly in the genus FLAVOBACTERIUM.
  • Chryseobacterium meningosepticum [M0008547]
  • Citrobacter [M0004518]
    A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.
  • Citrobacter freundii [M0025802]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.
  • Citrobacter koseri [M0425449]
    A species of gram-negative enterobacteria found in WATER; SEWAGE; SOIL; and FOOD. It can be present in any clinical specimen as an opportunistic pathogen.
  • Citrobacter rodentium [M0354108]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.
  • Clostridium [M0004635]
    A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum [M0456020]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
  • Clostridium beijerinckii [M0456024]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.
  • Clostridium bifermentans [M0456029]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that ferments both CARBOHYDRATES and AMINO ACIDS.
  • Clostridium botulinum [M0004636]
    A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
  • Clostridium botulinum type A [M0456181]
    Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXIN TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
  • Clostridium botulinum type B [M0456182]
    Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
  • Clostridium botulinum type C [M0460331]
    Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.
  • Clostridium botulinum type D [M0460332]
    Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.
  • Clostridium botulinum type E [M0460334]
    Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
  • Clostridium botulinum type F [M0460335]
    Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.
  • Clostridium botulinum type G [M0461678]
    Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type G. Though it has been isolated from soil, no outbreaks involving this type have been recognized.
  • Clostridium butyricum [M0456039]
    Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.
  • Clostridium cellulolyticum [M0456043]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.
  • Clostridium cellulovorans [M0456046]
    A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.
  • Clostridium chauvoei [M0456047]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae isolated from infected CATTLE; SHEEP; and other animals. It causes blackleg in cattle and sheep and is transmitted through soil-borne spores.
  • Clostridium difficile [M0025018]
    A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
  • Clostridium histolyticum [M0456150]
    A species of gram-positive, strongly proteolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It contains several forms of COLLAGENASE whose action can lead to GAS GANGRENE in humans and HORSES.
  • Clostridium kluyveri [M0456153]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is distinctive for its ability to ferment ETHANOL to caproic acid.
  • Clostridium perfringens [M0004638]
    The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
  • Clostridium septicum [M0487623]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Infections have a strong association with malignancies and also with GAS GANGRENE.
  • Clostridium sordellii [M0460356]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.
  • Clostridium sticklandii [M0460358]
    A species of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae frequently used for the study of ENZYMES.
  • Clostridium symbiosum [M0460403]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Its GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE is commonly used in research.
  • Clostridium tertium [M0460404]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, causing BACTEREMIA in humans and ANIMALS.
  • Clostridium tetani [M0004639]
    The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
  • Clostridium tetanomorphum [M0460410]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Its glutamate mutase is commonly used in research.
  • Clostridium thermocellum [M0460431]
    A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
  • Clostridium tyrobutyricum [M0460432]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae responsible for spoilage of some CHEESE via FERMENTATION of BUTYRIC ACID.
  • Colwellia [M0494109]
  • Comamonadaceae [M0441624]
    A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria in the class BETA PROTEOBACTERIA, encompassing the acidovorans rRNA complex. Some species are pathogenic for PLANTS.
  • Comamonas [M0328426]
    A genus of gram-negative, straight or slightly curved rods which are motile by polar flagella and which accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate within the cells.
  • Comamonas terrigena [M0328823]
  • Comamonas testosteroni [M0328428]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.
  • Corynebacteriaceae [M0000286]
  • Corynebacterium [M0005223]
    A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae [M0005224]
    A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
  • Corynebacterium glutamicum [M0460959]
    A species of gram-positive, asporogenous, non-pathogenic, soil bacteria that produces GLUTAMIC ACID.
  • Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis [M0025752]
    A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria that was originally isolated from necrotic areas in the kidney of a sheep. It may cause ulcerative lymphangitis, abscesses, and other chronic purulent infections in sheep, horses, and other warm-blooded animals. Human disease may form from contact with infected animals.
  • Corynebacterium pyogenes [M0005226]
    A species of CORYNEBACTERIUM isolated from abscesses of warm-blooded animals.
  • Coryneform Group [M0000287]
  • Coxiellaceae [M0444404]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Legionellales. It includes genera COXIELLA and Rickettsiella.
  • Cupriavidus [M0471038]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria, in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, that are mobile by means of peritrichous FLAGELLA. The genus was formerly called Wautersia and species in this genus were formerly in the genus RALSTONIA.
  • Cupriavidus necator [M0029859]
    A gram-negative, facultatively chemoautotrophic bacterium, formerly called Wautersia eutropha, found in water and soil.
  • Cyanobacteria [M0000697]
    A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
  • Cyanothece [M0455904]
    A form-genus of unicellular coccoid to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA, in the order Chroococcales. Three different clusters of strains from diverse habitats are included.
  • Cylindrospermopsis [M0455910]
    A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales, characterized by thin trichomes, cylindrical akinetes, and terminal heterocysts.
  • Cytophaga [M0005608]
    A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
  • Cytophagaceae [M0005609]
    A family of gram-negative, gliding bacteria found in SOIL and SEA WATER.
  • Cytophagales [M0005610]
    Obsolete name for an order of gram-negative, gliding bacteria showing gliding motility on solid surfaces. They have been incorporated into the order Sphingobacteriales, class Sphingobacteria, phylum BACTEROIDETES.
  • Deinococcus [M0405323]
    A genus of gram-positive aerobic cocci found in the soil, that is highly resistant to radiation, especially ionizing radiation (RADIATION, IONIZING). Deinococcus radiodurans is the type species.
  • Deinococcus radiodurans [M0405324]
  • Delftia [M0441806]
    A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family COMAMONADACEAE.
  • Delftia acidovorans [M0328424]
    A species of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria found ubiquitously and formerly called Comamonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas acidovorans. It is the type species of the genus DELFTIA.
  • Deltaproteobacteria [M0328430]
    A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
  • Desulfitobacterium [M0449535]
    A genus of anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family Peptococcaceae, that reductively dechlorinates CHLOROPHENOLS.
  • Desulfotomaculum [M0449536]
    A genus of anaerobic bacteria in the family PEPTOCOCCACEAE, widely distributed in SOIL and the RUMEN of animals. Stains gram-negative but cell well is gram-positive type.
  • Desulfovibrio [M0006088]
    A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
  • Desulfovibrio africanus [M0447667]
    A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, sigmoid-shaped bacteria isolated from salt and freshwater in Africa.
  • Desulfovibrio desulfuricans [M0447687]
    The type species of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria of the genus DESULFOVIBRIO. It is found in FRESHWATER; SOIL, and in marine or brackish water.
  • Desulfovibrio gigas [M0447688]
    A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, spiral-shaped bacteria originally isolated from a saltwater pond in France. It contains a well-characterized metabolic pathway that enables it to survive transient contacts with OXYGEN.
  • Desulfovibrio vulgaris [M0025800]
    A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from soil, animal intestines and feces, and fresh and salt water.
  • Desulfuromonas [M0447691]
    A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming bacteria in the family Desulfuromonadaceae. It is found in anoxic marine sediments.
  • Dichelobacter [M0444308]
    Genus with single species DICHELOBACTER NODOSUS.
  • Dichelobacter nodosus [M0030016]
    A gram-negative, obligate anaerobe of the family Cardiobacteriaceae. It has polar fimbriae and is the causative agent of ovine FOOT ROT. It is the lone species in the genus Dichelobacter.
  • Dipel [M0002110]
  • Ectothiorhodospira [M0328433]
    A genus of vibrioid or rod-shaped cells which are motile by polar flagella. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellar stacks and contain bacteriochlorophyll a or b and carotenoids. Growth occurs photoautotrophically under anaerobic conditions. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii [M0328435]
    A species of ECTOTHIORHODOSPIRA distinguished by its ability to utilize nitrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Ectothiorhodospiraceae [M0439901]
    A family in the order Chromatiales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. These are haloalkaliphilic, phototrophic bacteria that deposit elemental sulfur outside their cells.
  • Edwardsiella [M0328436]
    A genus of small, straight gram-negative rods which are facultatively anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic, and usually motile by peritrichous flagella. Members of this genus are usually found in the intestines of cold-blooded animals and in fresh water. They are pathogenic for eels, CATFISHES, and other animals and are rare opportunistic pathogens for humans. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Edwardsiella ictaluri [M0328438]
    A species of EDWARDSIELLA distinguished by its nonmotility. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Edwardsiella tarda [M0328440]
    A species of EDWARDSIELLA distinguished by its hydrogen sulfide production. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Eikenella [M0025801]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the human mouth and intestine. Organisms of this genus can be opportunistic pathogens.
  • Eikenella corrodens [M0024628]
    Gram-negative bacteria isolated from infections of the respiratory and intestinal tracts and from the buccal cavity, intestinal tract, and urogenital tract. They are probably part of the normal flora of man and animals.
  • Endospore-Forming Bacteria [M0007426]
    A group of rods or cocci whose taxonomic affinities are uncertain. They form endospores, thick-walled bodies formed within the vegetative cells of certain bacteria, able to withstand adverse environmental conditions for prolonged periods.
  • Enterobacter [M0007469]
    Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of man and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.
  • Enterobacter aerogenes [M0355772]
    Gram-negative, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature. Both motile and non-motile strains exist. The species is closely related to KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE and is frequently associated with nosocomial infections
  • Enterobacter cloacae [M0025803]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
  • Enterobacter sakazakii [M0444322]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ENTEROBACTER, found in the environment and in foods. It has biochemical characteristics similar to ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE, but is yellow-pigmented.
  • Enterobacteriaceae [M0007470]
    A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
  • Enterococcus [M0025815]
    A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
  • Enterococcus faecalis [M0020571]
    A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
  • Enterococcus faecium [M0025816]
    A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
  • Enterohemorrhagic E coli [M0028944]
  • Entomoplasmataceae [M0448915]
    A family of gram-negative, nonhelical, arthropod-associated bacteria in the order Entomoplasmatales. It is comprised of two genera: Entomoplasma and Mesoplasma.
  • Epsilonproteobacteria [M0328443]
    A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.
  • Erwinia [M0007674]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.
  • Erwinia amylovora [M0444323]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the genus ERWINIA, causing a necrotic disease of plants.
  • Erysipelothrix [M0007677]
    A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that has a tendency to form long filaments. Its organisms are widely distributed in nature and are found in MAMMALS; BIRDS; and FISHES.
  • Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae [M0460785]
  • Erythrobacter [M0440883]
  • Escherichia [M0007730]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
  • Escherichia coli [M0007732]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections.
  • Escherichia coli K12 [M0460788]
    A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.
  • Escherichia coli O157 [M0028943]
    A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. Recently, a strain from this serogroup, serotype H7 which produces Shiga-like toxins, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods from bovine origin. This serogroup causes hemorrhagic and HEMOLYTIC-UREMIC SYNDROME and predominantly hemorrhagic diarrhea and GASTROENTERITIS in children.
  • Escherichia coli O157-H7 [M0028942]
  • Eubacterium [M0007936]
    A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
  • Ewingella [M0494112]
  • Fibrobacter [M0449469]
    A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
  • Flavobacteriaceae [M0439765]
    A family of bacteria in the order Sphingobacteriales, class Sphingobacteria. They are gram-negative rods, mostly saprophytic in terrestrial and aquatic habitats.
  • Flavobacterium [M0008546]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
  • Flexibacter [M0447535]
    A genus of gram-negative, chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the family Flexibacteraceae. In some species there is a cyclic change in cell morphology.
  • Flexibacteraceae [M0439763]
    A family of bacteria in the order Sphingobacteriales, class Sphingobacteria.
  • Francisella [M0008815]
    The lone genus of bacteria in the family Francisellaceae, frequently found in natural waters. It can be parasitic in humans, other MAMMALS; BIRDS; and ARTHROPODS.
  • Francisella tularensis [M0008816]
    The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.
  • Francisellaceae [M0444472]
    Family with single genus FRANCISELLA.
  • Frankia [M0420330]
    Genus of BACTERIA in the family Frankiaceae. They are nitrogen-fixing root-nodule symbionts of many species of woody dicotyledonous plants.
  • Fundibacter [M0494116]
  • Fusobacteria [M0447417]
    A phylum of anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria with a chemoorganotrophic heterotrophic metabolism. They are resident flora of the OROPHARYNX.
  • Fusobacterium [M0008916]
    A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
  • Fusobacterium necrophorum [M0008919]
    A species of gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacteria isolated from the natural cavities of man and other animals and from necrotic lesions, abscesses, and blood.
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum [M0025797]
    A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.
  • Gadus morhua [M0461334]
    A species of fish in the cod family GADIDAE, known as the Atlantic cod. It is one of the most important commercial FISHES.
  • Gaffkya anaerobia [M0016246]
  • Gaffkya homari [M0020566]
  • Gallionella [M0442913]
    A genus of stalked, chemolithotrophic bacteria in the family GALLIONELLACEAE.
  • Gallionellaceae [M0442912]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Nitrosomonadales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA. It contains a single genus Gallionella.
  • Gammaproteobacteria [M0328444]
    A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
  • Gardnerella [M0025806]
    A genus of bacteria found in the human genital and urinary tract. It is considered to be a major cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL).
  • Gardnerella vaginalis [M0009742]
    The only species in the genus GARDNERELLA, and previously classed as Haemophilus vaginalis. This bacterium, also isolated from the female genital tract of healthy women, is implicated in the cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL). It occasionally causes postpartum bacteremia and bacteremia following a transurethral resection of the prostate.
  • Gastrospirillum [M0027016]
  • Gemella [M0420310]
    Genus in the family.
  • Geobacter [M0447723]
    A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
  • Gluconacetobacter [M0439472]
    A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE comprised of acetate-oxidizing bacteria.
  • Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens [M0439473]
    The type species of GLUCONACETOBACTER.
  • Gluconacetobacter xylinus [M0439475]
    A species of acetate-oxidizing bacteria, formerly known as Acetobacter xylinum.
  • Gluconobacter [M0328446]
    A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped to ellipsoidal bacteria occurring singly or in pairs and found in flowers, soil, honey bees, fruits, cider, beer, wine, and vinegar. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Gluconobacter oxydans [M0328448]
    A rod-shaped to ellipsoidal, gram-negative bacterium which oxidizes ethanol to acetic acid and prefers sugar-enriched environments. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Gluconobacter suboxydans [M0328803]
  • Gordonia Bacterium [M0403526]
    A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.
  • Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria [M0009583]
    A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
  • Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci [M0025776]
    A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
  • Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria [M0009586]
    A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
  • Gram-Negative Anaerobic Cocci [M0025794]
    A group of anaerobic coccoid bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
  • Gram-Negative Anaerobic Straight, Curved, and Helical Rods [M0025795]
    A group of anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria [M0009587]
    Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
  • Gram-Negative Chemolithotrophic Bacteria [M0009588]
    A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.
  • Gram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods [M0009590]
    A large group of facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
  • Gram-Negative Oxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria [M0029238]
    Widely distributed unicellular or multicellular bacteria. The CYANOBACTERIA use chlorophyll a and phycobilins for oxygenic photosynthesis while genera in the Prochlorales use both chlorophyll a and b but not phycobilins.
  • Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods [M0009591]
    A gram-positive, non-spore-forming group of bacteria comprising organisms that have morphological and physiological characteristics in common.
  • Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods, Irregular [M0025820]
    A group of irregular rod-shaped bacteria that stain gram-positive and do not produce endospores.
  • Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods, Regular [M0025821]
    A group of regular rod-shaped bacteria that stain gram-positive and do not produce endospores.
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria [M0009592]
    Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
  • Gram-Positive Cocci [M0009593]
    Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
  • Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Bacteria [M0025766]
    Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.
  • Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Rods [M0025767]
    Rod-shaped bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS and CLOSTRIDIUM.
  • Gram-Positive Rods [M0025819]
    A large group of rod-shaped bacteria that retains the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
  • Haemophilus [M0009738]
    A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.
  • Haemophilus ducreyi [M0009739]
    A species of HAEMOPHILUS that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, CHANCROID.
  • Haemophilus influenzae [M0009741]
    A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b [M0029308]
    A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
  • Haemophilus paragallinarum [M0444446]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus HAEMOPHILUS, causing respiratory tract disease in CHICKENS known as infectious coryza.
  • Haemophilus parainfluenzae [M0444447]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus HAEMOPHILUS, ubiquitous in the human ORAL CAVITY and PHARYNX. It has low pathogenicity but is occasionally implicated in ENDOCARDITIS in humans.
  • Haemophilus paraphrophilus [M0444449]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus HAEMOPHILUS, found in the normal flora of the human ORAL CAVITY and PHARYNX. It can cause SUBACUTE BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and BRAIN ABSCESS, among other conditions.
  • Haemophilus parasuis [M0444450]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus HAEMOPHILUS found, in the normal upper respiratory tract of SWINE.
  • Haemophilus somnus [M0444451]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria (currently incertae sedis) causing multisystem disease in CATTLE.
  • Hafnia [M0328452]
    A genus of straight, gram-negative bacterial rods which are facultatively anaerobic and motile by peritrichous flagella. This genus is found in human and animal feces, soil, water, and dairy products. It is an opportunistic pathogen in humans. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Hafnia alvei [M0328451]
    The type species for the genus HAFNIA. It is distinguished from other biochemically similar bacteria by its lack of acid production on media containing sucrose. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Halomonadaceae [M0444422]
    A family of gram-negative, moderately halophilic bacteria in the order Oceanospirillales. Members of the family have been isolated from temperate and Antarctic saline lakes, solar salt facilities, saline soils, and marine environments.
  • Halomonas [M0328459]
    A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped or pleomorphic bacteria which are halotolerant. Members of this genus are capable of growth in sodium chloride concentrations of up to 20% or more. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Halomonas elongata [M0328885]
  • Halorhodospira halophila [M0328432]
    A species of Halorhodospira distinguished by its ability to grow optimally in an environment of 15-20% salinity. It was formerly called Ectothiorhodospira halophila.
  • Halothiobacillus [M0444612]
    A genus of gram-negative, chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in the family Halothiobacillaceae. Several of its species were reclassified to this genus from THIOBACILLUS.
  • Halothiobacillus neapolitanus [M0444613]
    The type species of HALOTHIOBACILLUS, formerly called Thiobacillus neapolitanus.
  • Helicobacter [M0025831]
    A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans. It has been associated with PEPTIC ULCER.
  • Helicobacter felis [M0446645]
    A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes in the STOMACH of laboratory MICE; CATS; and DOGS. It is associated with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia and mild GASTRITIS in CATS.
  • Helicobacter heilmannii [M0027476]
    A species of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria found in the gastric mucosa that is associated with chronic antral gastritis. This bacterium was first discovered in samples removed at endoscopy from patients investigated for HELICOBACTER PYLORI colonization.
  • Helicobacter hepaticus [M0446646]
    A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes the CECUM and COLON of several strains of MICE, and is associated with HEPATITIS and carcinogenesis.
  • Helicobacter mustelae [M0448527]
    A species of HELICOBACTER commonly associated with STOMACH DISEASES in FERRETS.
  • Helicobacter pylori [M0025164]
    A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
  • Helicobacter suis [M0027015]
    A form of Helicobacter found in pig.
  • Herbaspirillum [M0442027]
    A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family OXALOBACTERACEAE, comprised of vibrioid or sometimes helical cells. They are chemoorganotrophic nitrogen fixers and are found free-living in the soil or in association with the roots of members of the GRAMINEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Herellea [M0000228]
  • Herpetosiphon [M0439587]
    A genus of nonphotosynthetic, aerobic, chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the family Herpetosiphonaceae, found in fresh water and soil.
  • Histophilus [M0444452]
    A proposed genus with one species: Histophilus ovis.
  • Holosporaceae [M0440793]
    A family of bacteria comprised of endosymbionts of PROTOZOA.
  • Hydrogenophaga [M0441807]
  • Hydrogenophilaceae [M0442897]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Hydrogenophilales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA.
  • Hyphomicrobiaceae [M0439639]
    A family in the order Rhizobiales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA comprised of many genera of budding or appendaged bacteria.
  • Hyphomicrobium [M0328460]
    A genus of rod-shaped, oval, or bean-shaped bacteria found in soil and fresh water. Polar prosthecae are present and cells reproduce by budding at the tips of the prosthecae. Cells of this genus are aerobic and grow best with one-carbon compounds. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Hyphomicrobium methylovorum [M0328804]
  • Idiomarina [M0494110]
  • Kingella [M0027013]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. Some species are pathogenic for man.
  • Kingella kingae [M0027014]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria which is distinguished from other members of the genus KINGELLA by its beta hemolysis. It occurs normally in human mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, but can cause septic arthritis and endocarditis. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Klebsiella [M0012058]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
  • Klebsiella oxytoca [M0425629]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae [M0012060]
    Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
  • Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis [M0012061]
    A gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium found consistently and exclusively in patients with RHINOSCLEROMA and their contacts. Formerly an individual species, it is now considered a subspecies of K. pneumoniae.
  • Kluyvera [M0444326]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. It is found in FOOD; SOIL; and SEWAGE; and is an opportunistic pathogen of humans.
  • L Forms [M0012096]
    Bacterial variants, unable to form a complete cell wall, which are formed in cultures by various bacteria; granules (L bodies) appear, unite, and grow into amorphous bodies which multiply and give rise to bacterial cells morphologically indistinguishable from the parent strain.
  • Lactobacillaceae [M0012160]
    A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
  • Lactobacillus [M0012161]
    A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus [M0012162]
    A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
  • Lactobacillus amylovorus [M0012163]
  • Lactobacillus brevis [M0483647]
    A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.
  • Lactobacillus casei [M0012164]
    A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.
  • Lactobacillus delbrueckii [M0462087]
    A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. capable of producing LACTIC ACID. It is important in the manufacture of fermented dairy products.
  • Lactobacillus fermentum [M0483651]
    A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.
  • Lactobacillus helveticus [M0483652]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria isolated from MILK and cheese-starter cultures.
  • Lactobacillus leichmannii [M0483653]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria isolated from MILK, cheese, and compressed yeast.
  • Lactobacillus plantarum [M0460813]
    A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.
  • Lactobacillus reuteri [M0483654]
    A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus [M0483655]
    A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria used in PROBIOTICS.
  • Lactococcus [M0025900]
    A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.
  • Lactococcus lactis [M0020572]
    A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
  • Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis [M0461524]
  • Lawsonia Bacteria [M0328464]
    A genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria causing a proliferative enteritis in animals, especially pigs, deer, horses, and rabbits.
  • Lawsonia intracellularis [M0328865]
  • Leclercia [M0494113]
  • Legionella [M0012291]
    Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water, mud, or thermally polluted lakes or streams. It is pathogenic for man and it has no known soil or animal sources.
  • Legionella longbeachae [M0444421]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria in the genus LEGIONELLA, first isolated in Long Beach, California. Infection is associated with the use of potting SOIL.
  • Legionella pneumophila [M0025782]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
  • Legionellaceae [M0025781]
    A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that do not form endospores or microcysts.
  • Leptospira [M0012362]
    A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.
  • Leptospira interrogans [M0012365]
    A genus of question mark-shaped bacteria spirochetes which is found in fresh water that is contaminated by animal urine. It causes LEPTOSPIROSIS.
  • Leptospira interrogans serovar australis [M0426671]
    A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, characteristically associated with a severe zoonotic disease in humans.
  • Leptospira interrogans serovar autumnalis [M0426752]
    A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose primary host is the MOUSE.
  • Leptospira Interrogans serovar canicola [M0426969]
    A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose natural host is DOGS where disease is characterized by GASTROENTERITIS, and INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS.
  • Leptospira interrogans serovar hebdomadis [M0426970]
    A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose frequent host is CATTLE.
  • Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae [M0427011]
    A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose primary host is RATS.
  • Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona [M0427029]
    A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose primary hosts include CATTLE and SWINE.
  • Leptospiraceae [M0025783]
    A family of bacteria consisting of flexible helical cells exhibiting a right-handed conformation. It consists of a single genus, LEPTOSPIRA.
  • Leptothrix [M0009584]
    A genus of gram-negative, sheathed, rod-shaped bacteria in the family COMAMONADACEAE.
  • Leptotrichia [M0447418]
    A genus of anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria in the family Fusobacteriaceae. Some species cause BACTEREMIA and some intra-amniotic infections.
  • Leuconostoc [M0012377]
    A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
  • Listeria [M0012613]
    A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.
  • Listeria monocytogenes [M0012615]
    A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
  • Listonella [M0444478]
    A genus of gram-negative bacteria with curved rods, in the family VIBRIONACEAE. The organisms are chemoorganotrophic and are found in marine environments.
  • Lysobacter [M0444527]
    A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, gliding bacteria in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. Strongly proteolytic, it is involved in lysing a variety of microorganisms.
  • Magnetospirillum [M0440674]
    A genus of microaerophilic, gram-negative bacteria that forms crystals of the mineral magnetite.
  • Mannheimia [M0396703]
    Genus of bacteria in the family PASTEURELLACEAE, comprising multiple species that do not ferment trehalose. Species include MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA; M. glucosida, M. granulomatis, M. ruminalis, and M. varigena.
  • Mannheimia glucosida [M0401363]
    Species which encompass the trehalose-negative organisms previously known as Pasteurella haemolytica serovar 11.
  • Mannheimia granulomatis [M0401364]
  • Mannheimia haemolytica [M0025809]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or physiological STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.
  • Mannheimia ruminalis [M0401365]
  • Mannheimia varigena [M0401366]
  • Marinobacter [M0494111]
    A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family ALTEROMONADACEAE. The inability to utilize carbohydrates is a distinguishing feature from other genera in the family.
  • Marinomonas [M0494442]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria in the family OCEANOSPIRILLACEAE. Members of this genus have the ability to synthesize MELANIN pigments.
  • Megasphaera [M0449493]
    A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ACIDAMINOCOCCACEAE, found in the RUMEN of SHEEP and CATTLE, and also in humans.
  • Mesoplasma [M0448935]
    A genus of non-sterol-requiring insect and plant MOLLICUTES in the family.
  • Methanobrevibacter [M0438537]
    A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, cocci to short rod-shaped ARCHAEA, in the family METHANOBACTERIACEAE, order METHANOBACTERIALES. They are found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or other anoxic environments.
  • Methylobacillus [M0328467]
    A genus of short, aerobic, gram-negative rods which are obligate methylotrophs, growing on one-carbon compounds other than methane. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Methylobacillus flagellatum [M0328824]
  • Methylobacteriaceae [M0440272]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Rhizobiales. Genera include METHYLOBACTERIUM, Protomonas, and Roseomonas.
  • Methylobacterium [M0328471]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic rods occurring singly or occasionally in rosettes. Members of this genus are usually motile and are isolated from soil, dust, fresh water, lake sediments, leaf surfaces, rice, air, and hospital environments. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Methylobacterium extorquens [M0328469]
    A species of METHYLOBACTERIUM which can utilize acetate, ethanol, or methylamine as a sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Methylococcaceae [M0013658]
    A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
  • Methylococcus [M0328474]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, spherical cells usually occurring in pairs. The resting stage is considered a cyst. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Methylococcus capsulatus [M0328472]
    A species of METHYLOCOCCUS which forms capsules and is capable of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Methylocystaceae [M0440275]
    A family of gram-negative methanotrophs in the order Rhizobiales, distantly related to the nitrogen-fixing and phototrophic bacteria.
  • Methylocystis [M0440276]
  • Methylomonas [M0328475]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, straight, curved, or branched rods which are motile by a single polar flagellum. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Methylophilaceae [M0441906]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Methylophilales.
  • Methylophilus [M0328476]
    A genus of straight or slightly curved gram-negative rods occurring singly or in pairs and isolated from sludge, mud, and river and pond water. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Methylophilus methylotrophus [M0328477]
    A species of METHYLOPHILUS which is motile by single flagella. In addition to growth on methanol as a sole carbon source, growth also occurs on glucose. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Methylosinus [M0328478]
    A genus of gram-negative rods which form exospores and are obligate methanotrophs.
  • Methylosinus trichosporium [M0328480]
    A species of METHYLOSINUS which is capable of degrading trichloroethylene and other organic pollutants.
  • Micrococcaceae [M0013773]
    A family of bacteria ranging from free living and saprophytic to parasitic and pathogenic forms.
  • Micrococcus [M0013775]
    A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
  • Micrococcus luteus [M0025814]
    A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.
  • Microcystis [M0455961]
    A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.
  • Microcystis aeruginosa [M0462085]
  • Micromonospora [M0013789]
    A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.
  • Micromonosporaceae [M0013790]
    A family of gram-positive, saprophytic bacteria occurring in soil and aquatic environments.
  • Micropolyspora [M0013791]
  • Mima [M0000229]
  • Mobiluncus [M0027050]
    A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are found in the human vagina, particularly in association with Gardnerella vaginalis in cases of bacterial vaginosis.
  • Mobiluncus curtisii [M0027048]
  • Mobiluncus mulieris [M0027049]
  • Mollicutes [M0013991]
    A class of gram-negative bacteria consisting of cells bounded by a plasma membrane. Its organisms differ from other bacteria in that they are devoid of cell walls. It contains a single order, MYCOPLASMATALES.
  • Moraxella [M0014059]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria occurring as rods (subgenus Moraxella) or cocci (subgenus Branhamella). Its organisms are parasitic on the mucous membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals.
  • Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis [M0002891]
    Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
  • Moraxella (Moraxella) bovis [M0025785]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is most frequently isolated from bovine eyes in cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, INFECTIOUS), but also occurs in unaffected eyes and the nasal cavity of cattle.
  • Moraxellaceae [M0444146]
    A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria in the order Pseudomonadales. Some strains are parasites of the mucosal membranes of animals and humans; others are found in association with food products or in the environment.
  • Moraxellaceae Infections [M0449414]
    Infections with bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE.
  • Morganella [M0328483]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. These organisms are chemoorganotrophic and have both a respiratory and fermentative type of metabolism. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Morganella morganii [M0328484]
    A species of MORGANELLA formerly classified as a Proteus species. It is found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Moritella [M0405070]
    A genus of gram-negative, curved or straight rod-shaped bacteria, in the family ALTEROMONADACEAE. They are chemo-organotrophic, halophilic, and associated with cold marine habitats.
  • Moritella marina [M0405224]
  • Moritella viscosa [M0405223]
  • Mycobacteria, Atypical [M0014293]
    So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.
  • Mycobacteriaceae [M0014281]
    A family of gram-positive bacteria found in soil and dairy products and as parasites on animals and man. Several are important pathogens.
  • Mycobacterium [M0014283]
    A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
  • Mycobacterium avium [M0014284]
    A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
  • Mycobacterium avium Complex [M0023507]
    A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
  • Mycobacterium bovis [M0014285]
    The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
  • Mycobacterium chelonae [M0025753]
    A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria commonly found in soil and occasionally isolated from sputum. It causes postoperative wound infections as well as gluteal abscesses.
  • Mycobacterium duvalii [M0014299]
  • Mycobacterium flavescens [M0014296]
  • Mycobacterium fortuitum [M0029571]
    A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species that is potentially pathogenic, producing lesions of lung, bone, or soft tissue following trauma. It has been found in soil and in injection sites of humans, cattle, and cold-blooded animals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Mycobacterium gilvum [M0014300]
  • Mycobacterium gordonae [M0014295]
  • Mycobacterium haemophilum [M0027619]
    A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes granulomatous or ulcerating skin lesions in immunosuppressed persons. This organism owes its name to its requirement for growth of high levels of iron, conveniently supplied as blood, heme, or ferric ammonium citrate.
  • Mycobacterium kansasii [M0029584]
    A slow-growing, photochromogenic species that is the etiologic agent of a tuberculosis-like disease in humans and is frequently isolated from human pulmonary secretions or tubercles. The incidence of infection is sharply increased among immunocompromised individuals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Mycobacterium leprae [M0014289]
    A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.
  • Mycobacterium lepraemurium [M0014290]
    The etiologic agent of rat leprosy, also known as murine leprosy.
  • Mycobacterium marinum [M0029585]
    A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Mycobacterium obuense [M0014298]
  • Mycobacterium paratuberculosis [M0025754]
    A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria non-pathogenic for humans. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (see PARATUBERCULOSIS).
  • Mycobacterium phlei [M0014291]
    A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.
  • Mycobacterium scrofulaceum [M0023645]
    A non-tuberculous mycobacterium causing cervical lymphadenitis in children. It very rarely causes pulmonary disease, and is believed to be non-pathogenic in animals.
  • Mycobacterium smegmatis [M0029836]
    A rapid-growing, nonphotochromogenic species of MYCOBACTERIUM originally isolated from human smegma and found also in soil and water. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Mycobacterium szulgai [M0014297]
  • Mycobacterium terrae [M0014294]
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis [M0014292]
    A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv [M0460753]
  • Mycobacterium ulcerans [M0029586]
    A slow-growing, nonphotochromogenic species that causes chronic skin lesions in humans (Buruli ulcer). (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Mycobacterium xenopi [M0029587]
    A slow-growing, scotochromogenic species occurring usually harmlessly in human secretions but occasionally associated with chronic pulmonary disease. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Mycoplasma [M0014305]
    A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
  • Mycoplasma agalactiae [M0448962]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria causing contagious agalactia of SHEEP and GOATS.
  • Mycoplasma arthritidis [M0448963]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria causing purulent POLYARTHRITIS in RATS.
  • Mycoplasma bovigenitalium [M0448964]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria pathogenic to CATTLE.
  • Mycoplasma bovis [M0449042]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.
  • Mycoplasma capricolum [M0448917]
    A genus in the family ENTOMOPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales. It is pathogenic to GOATS, causing caprine pleuropneumonia (PLEUROPNEUMONIA, CONTAGIOUS).
  • Mycoplasma conjunctivae [M0449044]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria causing CONJUNCTIVITIS and KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS in SHEEP and GOATS.
  • Mycoplasma dispar [M0449046]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria causing PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA in calves. Mycoplasma dispar also possibly plays a synergistic role with other BACTERIA and VIRUSES to cause other RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in calves.
  • Mycoplasma fermentans [M0025659]
    A species of the genus MYCOPLASMA, originally isolated infrequently from the lower genital tract of humans, and possessing uncertain pathogenicity. The incognitus strain of M. fermentans has been identified in necrotizing lesions of multiple organs from AIDS and non-AIDS patients dying of an acute influenza-like disease.
  • Mycoplasma gallisepticum [M0449047]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria causing chronic respiratory disease in POULTRY.
  • Mycoplasma genitalium [M0449062]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.
  • Mycoplasma hominis [M0029020]
    A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae [M0449065]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIA OF SWINE. The organism damages the CILIA in the airways of the pig, and thus compromises one of the most effective mechanical barriers against invading pathogens. The resulting weakening of the IMMUNE SYSTEM can encourage secondary infections, leading to porcine respiratory disease complex.
  • Mycoplasma hyorhinis [M0449338]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria and a common inhabitant of the NASAL CAVITY of both healthy and diseased PIGS. It is a common secondary invader in MYCOPLASMAL PNEUMONIA OF SWINE.
  • Mycoplasma hyosynoviae [M0449339]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria isolated from the SYNOVIAL FLUID; LYMPH NODES; and MUCOUS MEMBRANE secretions in diseased SWINE. It causes nonsuppurative ARTHRITIS.
  • Mycoplasma incognitus [M0025660]
  • Mycoplasma iowae [M0449343]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria causing lesions to AIR SACS and HOCK joints in TURKEYS.
  • Mycoplasma meleagridis [M0449344]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria producing air sacculitis and skeletal abnormalities in TURKEYS.
  • Mycoplasma mycoides [M0014308]
    The etiological agent of contagious pleuropneumonia (PLEUROPNEUMONIA, CONTAGIOUS) of cattle and goats.
  • Mycoplasma orale [M0449349]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria that is a common inhabitant of the human OROPHARYNX and also cell culture contaminant. It is usually non-pathogenic but it can cause infections in leukemic or immunosuppressed patients.
  • Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae [M0449357]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from the LUNGS; TRACHEA; and NASAL CAVITY of SHEEP. It causes chronic interstitial pneumonia (PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA) in both SHEEP and GOATS.
  • Mycoplasma penetrans [M0027959]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. This organism shows remarkable pathobiologic properties: it adheres to cell surfaces, deeply penetrates into the cell, and strongly adsorbs human red blood cells and human CD4+ lymphocytes and monocytes. M. penetrans was first isolated from the urogenital tract of patients with AIDS and high frequencies of antibodies to it are seen in HIV-infected patients.
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae [M0014309]
    Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
  • Mycoplasma pulmonis [M0449361]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria highly pathogenic to RATS and MICE. It is the primary cause of murine respiratory mycoplasmosis.
  • Mycoplasma putrefaciens [M0448916]
    A species that is associated with caprine MASTITIS and possesses an intense odor.
  • Mycoplasma salivarium [M0449365]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria strongly implicated in oral infection, PERIODONTAL DISEASES, eye and ear disorders, and SEPTIC ARTHRITIS.
  • Mycoplasma synoviae [M0449366]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria pathogenic to CHICKENS; TURKEYS, and guinea fowls. It causes disease in a wide variety of organs and tissues including JOINTS, tendon sheaths and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
  • Mycoplasmataceae [M0014310]
    A family of gram-negative, non-motile bacteria from human and animal sources. One saprophytic species is known.
  • Mycoplasmatales [M0014311]
    An order of highly pleomorphic, gram-negative bacteria including both pathogenic and saprophytic species.
  • Myxococcales [M0014380]
    An order of rod-shaped, gram-negative fruiting gliding bacteria found in SOIL; WATER; and HUMUS.
  • Myxococcus [M0025770]
    A genus of gliding bacteria that are common inhabitants on tree bark and decomposing vegetation. The cells are slender rods with tapering ends.
  • Myxococcus xanthus [M0025771]
    A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.
  • Natto Bacteria [M0449139]
    The source of nattokinase and used for fermenting SOYBEANS to NATTO.
  • Neisseria [M0014553]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.
  • Neisseria cinerea [M0442028]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in the human NASOPHARYNX.
  • Neisseria elongata [M0442029]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA consisting of short chains of rods. It has been isolated from the PHARYNX of healthy individuals and patients with ENDOCARDITIS. There are several recognized subspecies.
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae [M0014554]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
  • Neisseria lactamica [M0442030]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA commonly found in the NASOPHARYNX of infants and children, but rarely pathogenic. It is the only species to produce acid from LACTOSE.
  • Neisseria meningitidis [M0014555]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
  • Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A [M0415971]
    Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.
  • Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B [M0416349]
    Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.
  • Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C [M0416350]
    Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.
  • Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup W-135 [M0416432]
    Strains of Neisseria meningitidis found mostly in Africa.
  • Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup Y [M0416429]
    Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which, in the United States, causes disease in mostly adults and the elderly. Serogroup Y strains are associated with PNEUMONIA.
  • Neisseria mucosa [M0442031]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA, found in the human NASOPHARYNX and in the normal flora of the respiratory tissues in DOLPHINS. It is occasionally pathogenic for humans and pathogenic for MICE. (Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1st edition, p295)
  • Neisseria sicca [M0442032]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA found in the human NASOPHARYNX; SALIVA; and SPUTUM.
  • Neisseriaceae [M0014556]
    A family of gram-negative, parasitic bacteria including several important pathogens of man.
  • Nitrobacter [M0014887]
    A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that oxidizes nitrites to nitrates. Its organisms occur in aerobic environments where organic matter is being mineralized, including soil, fresh water, and sea water.
  • Nitrobacteraceae [M0014888]
    A obsolete family name of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria which derive energy from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite or nitrite to nitrate. Its organisms are commonly found in soil and fresh water.
  • Nitrosomonadaceae [M0442910]
    A family of gram-negative nitrifying bacteria, in the order Nitrosomonadales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA.
  • Nitrosomonas [M0014924]
    A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
  • Nitrosomonas europaea [M0442911]
    The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.
  • Nocardia [M0014933]
    A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for man and animals.
  • Nocardia asteroides [M0014934]
    A species of bacterium of the family NOCARDIACEAE, producing pulmonary infections in man.
  • Nocardiaceae [M0014936]
    A family of gram-positive, aerobic actinomycetes found in soil and animal tissue. Some species are the cause of infection in man and animals.
  • Nodularia [M0455965]
    A form-genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Its members can be planktonic or benthic and the trichomes are composed of disc-shaped vegetative cells.
  • Nostoc [M0455974]
    A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Trichomes composed of spherical or ovoid vegetative cells along with heterocysts and akinetes. The species form symbiotic associations with a wide range of eukaryotes.
  • Nostoc commune [M0475629]
    A form species of spore-producing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales. It is an important source of fixed NITROGEN in nutrient-depleted soils. When wet, it appears as a jelly-like mass.
  • Nostoc ellipsosporum [M0475628]
  • Nostoc muscorum [M0475630]
    A form-species of nitrogen-fixing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales.
  • Nostoc punctiforme [M0475627]
  • Oceanospirillaceae [M0444425]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Oceanospirillales.
  • Ochrobactrum [M0440007]
    A genus of the family BRUCELLACEAE comprising obligately aerobic gram-negative rods with parallel sides and rounded ends.
  • Ochrobactrum anthropi [M0328485]
    A species of gram-negative, obligately aerobic rods. Motility occurs by peritrichous flagella. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Ornithobacterium [M0447532]
    A genus of gram-negative, chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE. It is pathogenic in BIRDS.
  • Oxalobacter [M0442026]
    Genus in the family OXALOBACTERACEAE, comprised of a single species OXALOBACTER FORMIGENES.
  • Oxalobacter formigenes [M0328490]
    The sole species of the genus Oxalobacter consisting of straight or curved gram-negative rods with rounded ends. Cells are nonmotile, nonsporing, and use oxylates as the only source of CARBON and energy, with formate and CARBON DIOXIDE as end products. They are isolated from lake sediments and from the rumen or large bowel of humans and animals. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Oxalobacteraceae [M0442025]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria in the class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA. There are at least eight genera.
  • Pantoea [M0328491]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Pantoea agglomerans [M0328901]
  • Paracoccus [M0015862]
    Gram-negative non-motile bacteria found in soil or brines.
  • Paracoccus denitrificans [M0015863]
    A species of bacteria isolated from soil.
  • Paracoccus pantotrophus [M0440277]
    A species of gram-negative, coccoid, mostly chemolithoautotrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE. Some strains can grow anaerobically.
  • Paracolobactrum [M0007471]
  • Pasteurella [M0016000]
    The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
  • Pasteurella multocida [M0025810]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.
  • Pasteurella pneumotropica [M0444453]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PASTEURELLA, found in the NASOPHARYNX of normal GUINEA PIGS; RATS; HAMSTERS; MICE; DOGS; and CATS. When associated with disease, it is usually a secondary invader. Occasional infections have been reported in humans.
  • Pasteurellaceae [M0024000]
    A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.
  • Pectinatus [M0449495]
    A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ACIDAMINOCOCCACEAE, isolated from spoiled BEER and pitching yeast.
  • Pectobacterium [M0444194]
    A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE consisting of species that profusely produce pectinolytic enzymes in plant pathogenesis.
  • Pectobacterium carotovorum [M0025804]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.
  • Pectobacterium chrysanthemi [M0025805]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.
  • Pediococcus [M0016092]
    A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.
  • Peptococcaceae [M0016243]
    A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.
  • Peptococcus [M0016244]
    A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, and large intestine in humans. Its organisms cause infections of soft tissues and bacteremias.
  • Peptostreptococcus [M0016247]
    A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
  • Photobacterium [M0016743]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.
  • Photorhabdus [M0328494]
    A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.
  • Photorhabdus luminescens [M0328902]
  • Phytoplankton [M0016829]
    Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular ALGAE. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; coccolithophorids; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
  • Phytoplasma [M0448821]
    A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.
  • Piscirickettsia [M0444474]
    A genus of bacteria in the family PISCIRICKETTSIACEAE that is an intracellular rickettsial-like pathogen of FISHES, especially species in the family SALMONIDAE.
  • Piscirickettsiaceae [M0444473]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the order Thiotrichales.
  • Plectonema [M0455975]
    A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Oscillatoriales. They are non-heterocystous but may carry out NITROGEN FIXATION under microaerobic conditions. Some smaller members have undergone transfer to the form-genus Leptolyngbya.
  • Plesiomonas [M0025812]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in fish and other aquatic animals and in a variety of mammals, including man. Its organisms probably do not belong to the normal intestinal flora of man and can cause diarrhea.
  • Plesiomonas shigelloides [M0025813]
  • Pleuropneumonia Like Organisms [M0014306]
  • Polyangiaceae [M0014381]
  • Polyangium [M0014382]
  • Porphyromonas [M0026987]
    A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.
  • Porphyromonas endodontalis [M0447455]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PORPHYROMONAS, family Porphyromonadaceae. It is a key pathogen in endodontic infections.
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis [M0025796]
    A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
  • Prevotella [M0028049]
    A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.
  • Prevotella intermedia [M0028039]
    A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.
  • Prevotella melaninogenica [M0002148]
    A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium has been isolated from the mouth, urine, feces, and infections of the mouth, soft tissue, respiratory tract, urogenital tract, and intestinal tract. It is pathogenic, but usually in association with other kinds of organisms.
  • Prevotella nigrescens [M0447520]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the family Prevotellaceae. It is the species most commonly isolated from endodontic infections (PULPITIS).
  • Prevotella ruminicola [M0447523]
    A saccharolytic species of gram-negative bacteria in the family Prevotellaceae. It ferments a wide range of CARBOHYDRATES in the RUMEN of animals.
  • Probiotics [M0029610]
    Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
  • Prochlorococcus [M0463002]
    A genus of marine planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order PROCHLOROPHYTES. They lack PHYCOBILISOMES and contain divinyl CHLOROPHYLL, a and b.
  • Prochloron [M0029241]
    A genus of PROCHLOROPHYTES containing unicellular, spherical bacteria without a mucilaginous sheath. They are found almost exclusively as extracellular symbionts of colonial ASCIDIANS on subtropical or tropical marine shores.
  • Prochlorophytes [M0462999]
    An order of GRAM-NEGATIVE OXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA containing CHLOROPHYLL, a and b, but lacking PHYCOBILISOMES (light-harvesting antennae). There are three genera: PROCHLORON; PROCHLOROCOCCUS; and PROCHLOROTHRIX. This order was thought to be the missing link between CYANOBACTERIA and plant CHLOROPLASTS, hence the name.
  • Prochlorothrix [M0029242]
    A genus of PROCHLOROPHYTES occurring in unbranched chains of indefinite length and containing both chlorophylls a and b.
  • Propionibacteriaceae [M0017760]
    A family of gram-positive bacteria found in dairy products or in the intestinal tracts of animals.
  • Propionibacterium [M0017761]
    A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.
  • Propionibacterium acnes [M0017762]
    A bacteria isolated from normal skin, intestinal contents, wounds, blood, pus, and soft tissue abscesses. It is a common contaminant of clinical specimens, presumably from the skin of patients or attendants.
  • Propionigenium [M0447438]
    A genus of strictly anaerobic, nonsporeforming gram-negative bacteria in the family Fusobacteriaceae. Species in this genus are popularly used in biochemical research.
  • Proteobacteria [M0328495]
    A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
  • Proteus [M0017899]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
  • Proteus mirabilis [M0017901]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
  • Proteus penneri [M0444339]
    A genus of gram-negative bacteria isolated from individuals in LONG-TERM CARE facilities and HOSPITALS.
  • Proteus vulgaris [M0017902]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
  • Protomonas [M0440274]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic rods occurring singly or occasionally in rosettes. Members of this genus are usually motile and are isolated from soil, dust, fresh water, lake sediments, leaf surfaces, rice, air, and hospital environments. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Providencia [M0017931]
    Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.
  • Pseudoalteromonas [M0396773]
    A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.
  • Pseudomonadaceae [M0017950]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.
  • Pseudomonas [M0017952]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa [M0017953]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
  • Pseudomonas alcaligenes [M0444558]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It cannot utilize FRUCTOSE; GLUCOSE; or MALTOSE for energy.
  • Pseudomonas fluorescens [M0017954]
    A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
  • Pseudomonas fragi [M0444564]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It has a characteristic strawberry color and is widely distributed in SOIL and WATER.
  • Pseudomonas mendocina [M0444559]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.
  • Pseudomonas oleovorans [M0444560]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is isolated from oil-water emulsions used as lubricants and cooling agents in the cutting and grinding of materials.
  • Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes [M0444561]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. All strains can utilize FRUCTOSE for energy. It is occasionally isolated from humans and some strains are pathogenic to WATERMELON.
  • Pseudomonas putida [M0025788]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
  • Pseudomonas stutzeri [M0444617]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.
  • Pseudomonas syringae [M0444618]
    A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
  • Psychrobacter [M0444340]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria in the family MORAXELLACEAE, associated with processed MEAT; FISH PRODUCTS; and POULTRY PRODUCTS.
  • Rahnella [M0328572]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, small, rod-shaped bacteria occurring in fresh water.
  • Rahnella aquatilis [M0328903]
  • Ralstonia [M0442901]
    A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.
  • Ralstonia pickettii [M0442902]
    The type species in the genus RALSTONIA. It is often found in the hospital ward as a contaminant of antiseptic and disinfectant solutions.
  • Ralstonia solanacearum [M0442906]
    A species of Ralstonia previously classed in the genera PSEUDOMONAS and BURKHOLDERIA. It is an important plant pathogen.
  • Ralstoniaceae [M0442899]
    An obsolete family name of gram-negative bacteria in the order Burkholderiales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA.
  • Rhizobiaceae [M0019032]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
  • Rhizobium [M0019033]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that produce nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. Members of this genus are common soil inhabitants.
  • Rhizobium etli [M0440645]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria and nitrogen innoculant of PHASEOLUS VULGARIS.
  • Rhizobium galegae [M0440475]
  • Rhizobium leguminosarum [M0025791]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.
  • Rhizobium lupini [M0440476]
  • Rhizobium phaseoli [M0440639]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria functioning as a nitrogen inoculum for dry beans, especially species in the genus PHASEOLUS.
  • Rhizobium radiobacter [M0025790]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems and roots of plants. It causes the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants.
  • Rhizobium tropici [M0440640]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria and an nitrogen inoculum that displays a high intrinsic tolerance to acidity.
  • Rhodobacter [M0025824]
    A genus of gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
  • Rhodobacter capsulatus [M0024995]
    Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
  • Rhodobacter sphaeroides [M0019046]
    Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
  • Rhodobacteraceae [M0439605]
    A family in the order Rhodobacterales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA.
  • Rhodococcus [M0019044]
    A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
  • Rhodococcus equi [M0025756]
    A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.
  • Rhodocyclaceae [M0442895]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Rhodocyclales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA. It includes many genera previously assigned to the family PSEUDOMONADACEAE.
  • Rhodocyclus [M0442896]
    A genus in the family RHODOCYCLACEAE.
  • Rhodomicrobium [M0328576]
    A genus, in the family HYPHOMICROBIACEAE, comprised of ovoid-shaped bacteria with polar growth and a characteristic vegetative growth cycle. Cells grow preferably photoheterotrophically under anaerobic conditions in the light, but will also grow under microaerobic or aerobic conditions in the dark. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Rhodomicrobium vannielii [M0439653]
    Type and only species in the genus RHODOMICROBIUM.
  • Rhodopseudomonas [M0019045]
    A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
  • Rhodospirillaceae [M0019048]
    A family of phototrophic bacteria, in the order Rhodospirillales, isolated from stagnant water and mud.
  • Rhodospirillales [M0019049]
    An order of photosynthetic bacteria representing a physiological community of predominantly aquatic bacteria.
  • Rhodospirillum [M0019050]
    A genus of gram-negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes. Its organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.
  • Rhodospirillum centenum [M0440648]
    A thermotolerant, cyst-forming, anoxygenic photosynthetic species, in the genus RHODOSPIRILLUM.
  • Rhodospirillum rubrum [M0019051]
    Vibrio- to spiral-shaped phototrophic bacteria found in stagnant water and mud exposed to light.
  • Rhodothermus [M0447531]
    A genus of obligately aerobic, thermophilic, gram-negative bacteria in the family Crenotrichaceae. They were isolated from submarine alkaline HOT SPRINGS in Iceland.
  • Rhodovulum [M0439606]
    A genus of facultatively or obligately anaerobic marine phototrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE.
  • Rickettsiella [M0444406]
  • Roseobacter [M0439607]
    A genus of obligately aerobic marine phototrophic and chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE.
  • Roseomonas [M0440273]
  • Ruminococcus [M0449534]
    A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.
  • Saccharopolyspora [M0025757]
    A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.
  • Saccharopolyspora erythraea [M0025758]
  • Salmonella [M0019388]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
  • Salmonella arizonae [M0019389]
    Gram-negative rods widely distributed in LIZARDS and SNAKES, and implicated in enteric, bone (BONE DISEASES), and joint infections (JOINT DISEASES) in humans.
  • Salmonella enterica [M0029343]
    A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
  • Salmonella enteritidis [M0019390]
    A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.
  • Salmonella paratyphi A [M0019395]
    A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA that causes mild PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.
  • Salmonella paratyphi B [M0019397]
    A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.
  • Salmonella paratyphi C [M0019392]
    A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in Asia, Africa, and southern Europe.
  • Salmonella typhi [M0019398]
    A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
  • Salmonella typhimurium [M0019399]
    A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
  • Salmonella typhimurium LT2 [M0460752]
  • Sarcina [M0019424]
    A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.
  • Selenomonas [M0029993]
    Curved bacteria, usually crescent-shaped rods, with ends often tapered, occurring singly, in pairs, or short chains. They are non-encapsulated, non-sporing, motile, and ferment glucose. Selenomonas are found mainly in the human buccal cavity, the rumen of herbivores, and the cecum of pigs and several rodents. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Selenomonas ruminantium [M0029994]
  • Serpulina [M0026414]
    A genus of spiral bacteria of the family SPIROCHAETACEAE. This genus contains two species, SERPULINA HYODYSENTERIAE and Serpulina innocens, which were formerly classified as Treponema hyodysenteriae and Treponema innocens, respectively. When researchers determined that T. hyodysenteriae and T. innocens did not belong to the genus Treponema, the new genus was named Serpula. Within a short time, however, it was discovered that Serpula was already the name of a fungal genus and thus, Serpula was changed to Serpulina.
  • Serpulina hyodysenteriae [M0026415]
    A species of anaerobic, spiral bacteria that was formerly classified as Treponema hyodysenteriae (and for a short while, Serpula hyodysenteriae). This organism is the agent of swine dysentery.
  • Serratia [M0019688]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.
  • Serratia liquefaciens [M0444332]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SERRATIA found in plants and the DIGESTIVE TRACT of rodents. It is the most prevalent Serratia species in the natural environment.
  • Serratia marcescens [M0019689]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
  • Shewanella [M0328578]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
  • Shewanella putrefaciens [M0328580]
    A species of SHEWANELLA noted for its ability to reduce iron and manganese anaerobically.
  • Shigella [M0019770]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
  • Shigella boydii [M0019771]
    One of the SHIGELLA species that produces bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
  • Shigella dysenteriae [M0019772]
    A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
  • Shigella flexneri [M0019773]
    A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
  • Shigella sonnei [M0019774]
    A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.
  • Sinorhizobium [M0328583]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Sinorhizobium fredii [M0440647]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is a fast-growing and soybean-nodulating innoculant.
  • Sinorhizobium meliloti [M0025792]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.
  • Sodalis [M0494114]
  • Sphaerotilus [M0009585]
    A genus of gram-negative, sheathed, rod-shaped bacteria in the family COMAMONADACEAE. They are closely related to LEPTOTHRIX.
  • Sphingobacterium [M0447537]
    A genus of gram-negative, chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the family Sphingobacteriaceae. They lack FLAGELLA but some species exhibit gliding motility.
  • Sphingomonadaceae [M0440882]
    A family of gram-negative, asporogenous rods or ovoid cells, aerobic or facultative anaerobic chemoorganotrophs. They are commonly isolated from SOIL, activated sludge, or marine environments.
  • Sphingomonas [M0328587]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
  • Spirillaceae [M0442528]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Nitrosomonadales. It formerly included the genera CAMPYLOBACTER and SPIRILLUM, then was abandoned, and is now reinstated as a family with a single genus SPIRILLUM.
  • Spirillum [M0020343]
    A genus of gram-negative, curved and spiral-shaped bacteria found in stagnant, freshwater environments. These organisms are motile by bipolar tufts of flagella having a long wavelength and about one helical turn. Some species of Spirillum cause a form of RAT-BITE FEVER.
  • Spirochaeta [M0020346]
    A genus of flexible, spiral rods found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud, sewage, and polluted water. None of the species properly referred to in this genus are pathogenic.
  • Spirochaetaceae [M0020347]
    A family of spiral bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.
  • Spirochaetales [M0020348]
    An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
  • Spiroplasma [M0020355]
    A genus of gram-negative, helical bacteria, in the family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales, causing disease in PLANTS. It has been isolated from TICKS; INSECTS; and PLANTS.
  • Spiroplasma citri [M0448960]
    The type species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SPIROPLASMA, family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, causing citrus stubborn disease.
  • Spiroplasmataceae [M0025823]
    A family of gram-negative, helical bacteria in the order Entomoplasmatales, that require STEROLS for growth.
  • Spirulina [M0105155]
    A genus of filamentous CYANOBACTERIA found in most lakes and ponds. It has been used as a nutritional supplement particularly due to its high protein content.
  • Staphylococcaceae [M0420309]
    Family of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria, in the order Bacillales. Genera include Gemella, Macrococcus, Salinicoccus, and STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
  • Staphylococcus [M0020430]
    A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
  • Staphylococcus aureus [M0020431]
    Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis [M0020432]
    A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
  • Staphylococcus haemolyticus [M0425670]
    A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS found on the skin of humans (and non-human primates), often causing hospital-acquired infections (CROSS INFECTION).
  • Staphylococcus hominis [M0425750]
    A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS similar to STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS, but containing different esterases. The subspecies Staphylococcus hominis novobiosepticus is highly virulent and novobiocin resistant.
  • Stenotrophomonas [M0328589]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacteria formerly classified as part of the genus XANTHOMONAS.
  • Stenotrophomonas maltophilia [M0328592]
    A species of STENOTROPHOMONAS, formerly called Xanthomonas maltophilia, which reduces nitrate. It is a cause of hospital-acquired ocular and lung infections, especially in those patients with cystic fibrosis and those who are immunosuppressed.
  • Stigmatella [M0328594]
    A genus of the MYXOCOCCALES having vegetative cells which are straight rods with tapered ends and myxospores which are short and somewhat crooked. Fruiting bodies consist of spherical, ovoid, or club-shaped sporangioles on stalks. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Stigmatella aurantiaca [M0328593]
    A species of STIGMATELLA usually isolated from rotting wood. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Streptobacillus [M0020564]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that require SERUM; ASCITIC FLUID; or BLOOD for growth. Its organisms inhabit the THROAT; and NASOPHARYNX of wild and laboratory rats and cause one form of RAT-BITE FEVER in man.
  • Streptococcaceae [M0020567]
    Gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.
  • Streptococcus [M0020569]
    A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
  • Streptococcus agalactiae [M0020570]
    A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
  • Streptococcus anginosus [M0405417]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is the most frequently seen isolate of that group, has a proclivity for abscess formation, and is most often isolated from the blood, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract.
  • Streptococcus bovis [M0025817]
    A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
  • Streptococcus constellatus [M0405416]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharnyx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation in the upper body and respiratory tract.
  • Streptococcus equi [M0027745]
    A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from abscesses in submaxillary glands and mucopurulent discharges of the upper respiratory tract of horses. This organism belongs to Group C streptococci with regards to antigen response and is known to cause strangles. The subspecies S. zooepidemicus is also considered a pathogen of horses.
  • Streptococcus intermedius [M0405418]
    A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharynx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation, most characteristically in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and LIVER.
  • Streptococcus milleri [M0405415]
  • Streptococcus milleri Group [M0405414]
    A subset of VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI, but the species in this group differ in their hemolytic pattern and diseases caused. These species are often beta-hemolytic and produce pyogenic infections.
  • Streptococcus mitis [M0405410]
    A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.
  • Streptococcus mutans [M0020573]
    A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
  • Streptococcus oralis [M0029018]
    A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae [M0020574]
    A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
  • Streptococcus pyogenes [M0020575]
    A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
  • Streptococcus sanguis [M0020577]
    A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
  • Streptococcus sobrinus [M0025818]
    A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.
  • Streptococcus suis [M0025849]
    A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.
  • Streptococcus thermophilus [M0460997]
    A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
  • Streptococcus viridans [M0405413]
  • Streptococcus zooepidemicus [M0027744]
  • Streptomyces [M0020590]
    A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
  • Streptomyces antibioticus [M0020591]
    An actinomycete from which the antibiotic OLEANDOMYCIN is obtained.
  • Streptomyces aureofaciens [M0020592]
    An actinomycete from which the antibiotic CHLORTETRACYCLINE is obtained.
  • Streptomyces coelicolor [M0461308]
    A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.
  • Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) [M0461309]
  • Streptomyces erythraea [M0025759]
  • Streptomyces griseus [M0020593]
    An actinomycete from which the antibiotics STREPTOMYCIN, grisein, and CANDICIDIN are obtained.
  • Streptomyces lividans [M0460803]
    An actinomycete used for production of commercial ANTIBIOTICS and as a host for gene cloning.
  • Streptomycetaceae [M0020594]
    A family of soil bacteria. It also includes some parasitic forms.
  • Succinivibrionaceae [M0444297]
    A family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the RUMEN of SHEEP and CATTLE and from human FECES. They are chemoorganotrophic and strictly anaerobic.
  • Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria [M0025832]
    A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
  • Synechococcus [M0455977]
    A form-genus of spherical to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. They contain THYLAKOIDS and are found in a wide range of habitats.
  • Synechocystis [M0455976]
    A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.
  • Taylorella [M0441473]
    A genus of chemoorganotrophic, gram negative rods, in the family ALCALIGENACEAE. They are pathogenic parasites of HORSES.
  • Taylorella equigenitalis [M0328595]
    A species of bacteria which is comprised of gram-negative rods which often approach a spherical shape. They are nonmotile and microaerophilic. They are considered parasites of horses and are pathogenic for mares. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Thauera [M0328596]
    A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.
  • Thauera aromatica [M0328864]
  • Thermoactinomyces [M0013792]
  • Thermoanaerobacter [M0456019]
    A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteriaceae. Cultures consist of rods interspersed with coccoid cells.
  • Thermoanaerobacterium [M0456014]
    A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteriaceae. They are thermophilic and saccharolytic.
  • Thermotoga maritima [M0029864]
    A rod-shaped bacterium surrounded by a sheath-like structure which protrudes balloon-like beyond the ends of the cell. It is thermophilic, with growth occurring at temperatures as high as 90 degrees C. It is isolated from geothermally heated marine sediments or hot springs. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Thermotoga neapolitana [M0456013]
    A species of extremophilic bacteria in the family Thermotogaceae. Generally anaerobic but in the presence of OXYGEN, it can produce hydrogen gas as a byproduct of metabolism.
  • Thermus [M0021310]
    Gram-negative aerobic rods found in warm water (40-79 degrees C) such as hot springs, hot water tanks, and thermally polluted rivers.
  • Thermus thermophilus [M0025793]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.
  • Thiobacillus [M0021346]
    A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
  • Thiobacillus denitrificans [M0441908]
  • Thiobacillus thioparus [M0441907]
  • Thiobacteriaceae [M0009589]
  • Thiocapsa [M0328597]
    A genus of anoxygenic, photosynthetic, nonmotile, spherical to slightly ovoid bacterial cells occurring singly, or in aggregates of two or four, and usually surrounded with slime. It is found in stagnant water, mud of ponds, estuaries, and microbial mats of salt marshes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Thiocapsa roseopersicina [M0328598]
    A species of THIOCAPSA which is facultatively aerobic and chemotrophic and which can utilize thiosulfate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Thiomicrospira [M0444475]
  • Thiothrix [M0444477]
    A genus of colorless, filamentous, rod-shaped bacteria in the family THIOTRICHACEAE, containing sulfur globules. Thiothrix species are found as components of BIOFILMS in irrigation systems and wastewater treatment plants, and in marine environments as endosymbionts.
  • Thiotrichaceae [M0439755]
    A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.
  • Thuricide [M0002111]
  • Treponema [M0021874]
    A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man.
  • Treponema denticola [M0461311]
    A species of bacteria in the family SPIROCHAETACEAE, frequently isolated from periodontal pockets (PERIODONTAL POCKET).
  • Treponema innocens [M0026413]
  • Treponema pallidum [M0021876]
    The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
  • Ureaplasma [M0022316]
    A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile bacteria which are common parasitic inhabitants of the urogenital tracts of humans, cattle, dogs, and monkeys.
  • Ureaplasma parvum [M0416509]
    A species of UREAPLASMA containing four serovars formerly classed as UREAPLASMA UREALYTICUM. Those serovars are 1, 3, 6, and 14.
  • Ureaplasma urealyticum [M0025822]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria found in the human genitourinary tract (UROGENITAL SYSTEM), oropharynx, and anal canal. Serovars 1, 3, 6, and 14 have been reclassed into a separate species UREAPLASMA parvum.
  • Veillonella [M0022579]
    A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
  • Veillonellaceae [M0022580]
    Obsolete family incorporated into ACIDAMINOCOCCACEAE.
  • Vibrio [M0022652]
    A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
  • Vibrio alginolyticus [M0444480]
    A species of gram-negative, halophilic bacteria, in the genus VIBRIO. It is considered part of normal marine flora and commonly associated with ear infections and superficial wounds exposed to contaminated water sources.
  • Vibrio cholerae [M0022653]
    The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
  • Vibrio cholerae non-O1 [M0444501]
    A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.
  • Vibrio cholerae O1 [M0425829]
    Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).
  • Vibrio cholerae O139 [M0425830]
    Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.
  • Vibrio fischeri [M0462941]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which exhibits LUMINESCENCE. V. fischeri is found in a symbiotic relationship with the SQUID Euprymna scolopes.
  • Vibrio mimicus [M0444514]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, isolated from SHELLFISH, as well as from human diarrheal stools and ear infections.
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus [M0022655]
    A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.
  • Vibrio salmonicida [M0444515]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, the causative agent of cold water vibriosis, a HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA of ATLANTIC SALMON.
  • Vibrio vulnificus [M0425869]
    A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.
  • Vibrionaceae [M0022656]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria whose members predominate in the bacterial flora of PLANKTON; FISHES; and SEAWATER. Some members are important pathogens for humans and animals.
  • Viridans Streptococci [M0405412]
    A large heterogeneous group of mostly alpha-hemolytic streptococci. They colonize the respiratory tract at birth and generally have a low degree of pathogenicity. This group of species includes STREPTOCOCCUS MITIS; STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS; STREPTOCOCCUS ORALIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SOBRINUS; and the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. The latter are often beta-hemolytic and commonly produce invasive pyogenic infections including brain and abdominal abscesses.
  • Vitreoscilla [M0328601]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic or microaerophilic, colorless filaments. It is nonfruiting, motile by gliding, and found in freshwater sediments and cow dung. One species (V. stercoraria) is considered morphologically to be a streptobacillus. That species is strictly aerobic and produces a homodimeric bacterial hemoglobin, especially under oxygen-limited growth conditions. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Vitreoscilla stercoraria [M0328904]
  • Wigglesworthia [M0444341]
    A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. They exist only as primary endosymbionts of five species of TSETSE FLIES, found in specialized organelles called mycetomes. The bacteria supply crucial B vitamins (VITAMIN B COMPLEX) which the flies require for fertility.
  • Wigglesworthia glossinidia [M0444342]
  • Wolinella [M0025798]
    A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.
  • Wolinella succinogenes [M0025799]
  • Xanthobacter [M0328603]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in wet soil containing decaying organic material and in water. Cells tend to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of an alcohol as the sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Xanthobacter autotrophicus [M0328821]
  • Xanthobacter flavus [M0328822]
  • Xanthomonadaceae [M0444526]
    A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the order Xanthomonadales, pathogenic to plants.
  • Xanthomonas [M0023052]
    A genus in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE whose cells produce a yellow pigment (Gr. xanthos - yellow). It is pathogenic to plants.
  • Xanthomonas albilineans [M0444552]
    Species that causes leaf scald, an important disease of SUGARCANE.
  • Xanthomonas axonopodis [M0494336]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus XANOTHOMONAS, which causes citrus cankers and black rot in plants.
  • Xanthomonas campestris [M0025789]
    A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is pathogenic for plants.
  • Xanthomonas vesicatoria [M0444551]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the genus XANTHOMONAS, causing disease in TOMATO and pepper crops.
  • Xenorhabdus [M0328604]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
  • Xenorhabdus nematophila [M0328884]
  • Xylella [M0444528]
    A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. It is found in the xylem of plant tissue.
  • Yersinia [M0023094]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod- to coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that occurs in a broad spectrum of habitats.
  • Yersinia enterocolitica [M0023095]
    A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.
  • Yersinia pestis [M0023097]
    The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
  • Yersinia pseudotuberculosis [M0023098]
    A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.
  • Yersinia rucker [M0444403]
    A species of gram-negative bacteria responsible for red mouth disease in rainbow trout (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS). The bacteria is a natural component of fresh water ecosystems in the United States and Canada.
  • Zoogloea [M0023154]
    A genus of RHODOCYCLACEAE occurring as rod-shaped cells embedded in a gelatinous matrix. It includes Z. filipendula.
  • Zymomonas [M0026350]
    A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is not known to be pathogenic for man, animals, or plants. Its organisms are spoilers for beers and ciders and in sweet English ciders they are the causative agents of a secondary fermentation known as "cider sickness." The species Z. mobilis is used for experiments in molecular genetic studies.
  • Zymomonas mobilis [M0026349]