MeSH
HOME · CREATIVE · WEB · TECH · BLOG

Biologically Active Substance

MeSH ID: T123

Related Concepts:

  • 1-Carboxyglutamic Acid [M0023166]
    Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.
  • 11-cis-Retinal [M0018958]
  • 12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid [M0028832]
    A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
  • 12-R-HETE [M0028833]
  • 12-S-HETE [M0028834]
  • 14-3-3 Protein, beta Isoform [M0439853]
  • 14-3-3 Protein, epsilon Isoform [M0363270]
  • 14-3-3 Protein, eta Isoform [M0439854]
  • 14-3-3 Protein, gamma Isoform [M0091234]
  • 14-3-3 Protein, tau Isoform [M0091236]
  • 14-3-3 Protein, zeta Isoform [M0091237]
  • 14-3-3 Proteins [M0091246]
    A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL-CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
  • 15S RNA [M0019173]
  • 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone [M0010775]
    A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
  • 17-Hydroxypregnenolone, (3alpha)-Isomer [M0317862]
  • 17-Hydroxypregnenolone, (3beta,13alpha,17alpha)-Isomer [M0317865]
  • 2'-Deoxythymidine [M0021447]
  • 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate [M0029370]
    A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)
  • 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate, (D)-Isomer [M0329117]
  • 2,3-Diphosphoglyceric Acid [M0029371]
  • 2-Aminoadipic Acid [M0023188]
    A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).
  • 3' Flanking Region [M0370603]
    The region of DNA which borders the 3' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.
  • 3' Untranslated Regions [M0030068]
    The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
  • 3'-orf Protein [M0024066]
  • 3,20-Allopregnanedione, (5beta,13alpha,17alpha)-Isomer [M0308310]
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid [M0023228]
    A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid, Monosodium Salt [M0331208]
  • 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid [M0023218]
    An oxidation product of tryptophan metabolism. It may be a free radical scavenger and a carcinogen.
  • 3-Hydroxybutyrate [M0029885]
  • 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethanol [M0023222]
    Metabolite of serotonin and norepinephrine.
  • 4-1BB Ligand [M0291679]
    A membrane bound member of the TNF superfamily that is expressed on activated B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; and DENDRITIC CELLS. The ligand is specific for the 4-1BB RECEPTOR and may play a role in inducing the proliferation of activated peripheral blood T-LYMPHOCYTES.
  • 4-Butyrolactone [M0023238]
    One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
  • 4-Hydroxyproline [M0010779]
  • 5 alpha-Cholestan-3 alpha-ol [M0006396]
  • 5 beta-Cholestan-3 beta-ol [M0006397]
  • 5' Flanking Region [M0370598]
    The region of DNA which borders the 5' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.
  • 5' TOP mRNA [M0416550]
  • 5' Untranslated Regions [M0029861]
    The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
  • 5-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone [M0044565]
    A biologically active 5-alpha-reduced metabolite of plasma PROGESTERONE. It is the immediate precursor of 5-alpha-pregnan-3-alpha-ol-20-one (ALLOPREGNANOLONE), a neuroactive steroid that binds with GABA(A) RECEPTOR.
  • 5-Aminolaevulinate [M0000952]
  • 5-beta-Dihydroprogesterone [M0044561]
  • 5-Hydroxytryptophan [M0010787]
    The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.
  • 5-Methylcytosine [M0046609]
    A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.
  • 5-Methylcytosine Monohydrochloride [M0308961]
  • 70Z-Cbl Protein [M0477402]
  • 7S Collagen [M0004772]
    A stable peptide fragment originating from the N-terminal domain of collagen type IV.
  • A gamma-Globin [M0009279]
  • AAUAAA RNA Sequence [M0418372]
    A hexanucleotide sequence found 10-30 nucleotides upstream of the site of polyandenylation of MRNA.
  • Abrin [M0000055]
    A toxic lectin from the seeds of jequirity, Abrus precatorius L. Very active poison. Five different proteins have so far been isolated: Abrus agglutinin, the component responsible for: hemagglutinating activity, & abrins a-d, the toxic principals each consisting of two peptide chains are held together by disulfide bonds.
  • Abrin A [M0000056]
  • Abrin C [M0000057]
  • Abscisic Acid [M0000061]
    Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
  • Abscisic Acid, (+,-)-Isomer [M0330738]
  • Abscisic Acid, (E,E)-(+-)-Isomer [M0330679]
  • Abuf¸ne [M0431875]
  • Acetoin [M0000137]
    A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
  • Acetone Bodies [M0011992]
  • Acetyl Coenzyme A [M0000158]
    Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
  • Acetylated, Dephosphorylated beta-Casein [M0003585]
  • Acetylgalactosamine [M0000188]
    The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
  • Acetylglucosamine [M0000189]
    The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
  • Acid Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors [M0024278]
  • Acidic Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor [M0022082]
  • Aconitic Acid [M0000235]
  • ACTHalpha(18-39), Serine(31)- [M0066245]
  • Actihaemyl [M0000273]
    An extract from calf blood containing inorganic salts, amino acids, polypeptides and purines, but no proteins nor antigenic substances or blood group characteristics. Its exact composition is unknown. It has been proposed as a radiation-protective agent.
  • Actin Capping Proteins [M0091213]
    Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.
  • Actin Depolymerizing Factors [M0128858]
    A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.
  • Actin-Binding Proteins [M0013780]
  • Actin-Related Protein 2 [M0292308]
    A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.
  • Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex [M0480284]
    A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.
  • Actin-Related Protein 3 [M0292311]
    A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.
  • Actinin [M0000275]
    A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
  • Actins [M0000296]
    Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
  • Activating Transcription Factor 1 [M0214756]
    An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
  • Activating Transcription Factor 2 [M0213650]
    An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
  • Activating Transcription Factor 3 [M0229742]
    An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
  • Activating Transcription Factor 4 [M0194959]
    An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I TRANS-ACTIVATOR PROTEIN.
  • Activating Transcription Factor 6 [M0280604]
    One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
  • Activating Transcription Factors [M0481519]
    Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with EARLY PROMOTERS from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
  • Actomyosin [M0000319]
    A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia 1A Protein [M0215811]
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia 1B Protein [M0215812]
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia 1C Protein [M0384755]
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia 1D Protein [M0215813]
  • Acute-Phase Glycoproteins [M0000323]
  • Acute-Phase Proteins [M0000324]
    Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
  • Acyl Carrier Protein [M0000330]
    Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
  • Adaptor Protein Complex 1 [M0163799]
    A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
  • Adaptor Protein Complex 2 [M0333169]
    An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
  • Adaptor Protein Complex 3 [M0163801]
    An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
  • Adaptor Protein Complex 4 [M0146883]
    An adaptor protein complex involved in transport of molecules between the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK and the endosomal-lysosomal system.
  • Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits [M0163813]
    A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
  • Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits [M0175277]
    A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
  • Adaptor Protein Complex delta Subunits [M0281499]
    A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.
  • Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits [M0183696]
    A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
  • Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits [M0404403]
    A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
  • Adaptor Protein Complex sigma Subunits [M0404545]
    A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
  • Adaptor Protein Complex Subunits [M0404544]
    The subunits that make up the large, medium and small chains of adaptor proteins.
  • Adaptor Protein Complexes, Vesicular Transport [M0404725]
    Multisubunit protein complexes of adaptor proteins.
  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing [M0462870]
    A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
  • Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport [M0146907]
    A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
  • Adenine [M0000347]
    A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
  • Adenine Nucleotide Translocase [M0408259]
  • Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 1 [M0000349]
    A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in heart muscle (MYOCARDIUM) and skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL).
  • Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2 [M0000350]
    A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.
  • Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 3 [M0000351]
    A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in the LIVER.
  • Adenocard [M0372279]
  • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein [M0215186]
    A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
  • Adenosine [M0000377]
    A nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
  • Adenosine 5'-Phosphate [M0392623]
  • Adenosine Diphosphate [M0000380]
    Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
  • Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose [M0000382]
    Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.
  • Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose [M0000383]
    An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
  • Adenosine Monophosphate [M0000389]
    Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
  • Adenosine Phosphosulfate [M0000390]
    5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.
  • Adenosine Triphosphate [M0000395]
    An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
  • Adenosine Triphosphate, Calcium Salt [M0000402]
  • Adenosine Triphosphate, Chromium Ammonium Salt [M0000400]
  • Adenosine Triphosphate, Chromium Salt [M0000401]
  • Adenosine Triphosphate, Magnesium Chloride [M0000396]
  • Adenosine Triphosphate, Magnesium Salt [M0000398]
  • Adenosine Triphosphate, Manganese Salt [M0167313]
  • Adenovirus Core Protein VII [M0022696]
  • Adenylate Cyclase Toxin [M0016415]
    One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLATE CYCLASE and hemolysin components.
  • Adrenochrome [M0000498]
    Pigment obtained by the oxidation of epinephrine.
  • Adrenodoxin [M0000500]
    An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.
  • Aflatoxin M [M0025325]
  • Aflatoxin M1, cis(+-)-Isomer [M0331348]
  • AGAMOUS Protein, Arabidopsis [M0221043]
    A plant homeotic protein involved in the development of stamens and carpels of Arabidopsis thaliana. It is a DNA-binding protein that contains the MADS-box domain. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.
  • Agamous-Like Proteins [M0384313]
  • Agglutinins, Plant [M0412052]
  • Aggrecans [M0176993]
    Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
  • Agmatine [M0000576]
    Decarboxylated arginine, isolated from several plant and animal sources, e.g., pollen, ergot, herring sperm, octopus muscle.
  • Agrin [M0027395]
    A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.
  • Alanine [M0000619]
    A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
  • Albumins [M0000629]
    Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
  • Aldose Reductase Ia [M0000682]
  • Aliphatic Acids [M0008264]
  • Alkaline Hematin D-575 [M0010074]
  • Allantoin [M0000725]
    A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.
  • Allelochemicals [M0397514]
    Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from organisms of a different species . Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact. Allelochemicals are subdivided into several groups depending on the response of the receiver and its adaptive effect to the emitter. They can be allomones, kairomones, or synomones.
  • Alloisoleucine [M0011765]
  • Allomones [M0401204]
    Allelochemicals in that the elicited response of the receiver is adaptively favorable to the emitter but not to the receiver. They are sometimes called repellents (INSECT REPELLENTS) or deterrents.
  • Allouridine [M0022343]
  • Alloxan [M0000748]
  • Aloe Emodin [M0007303]
  • alpha 1-Acid Glycoprotein (Acute Phase) [M0015444]
  • alpha 1-Acute Phase Globulin [M0000767]
  • alpha 1-Acute Phase Protein [M0000766]
  • alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin [M0000778]
    Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin [M0000780]
    Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES. Commonly referred to as alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (A1PI), it exists in over 30 different biochemical variant forms known collectively as the Pi (protease inhibitor) system. Hereditary A1PI deficiency is associated with PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
  • alpha 1-Macroglobulin [M0000768]
  • alpha 2-Acute Phase Globulins [M0000769]
  • alpha 2-Glucoproteins [M0000770]
  • alpha Catenin [M0188648]
    A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
  • alpha Karyopherins [M0240469]
    Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.
  • Alpha(1) Antiplasmin [M0001392]
  • alpha(S1)-Casein [M0003596]
  • alpha(S1)-Casein A [M0003597]
  • alpha(S1)-Casein B [M0003598]
  • alpha(S1)-Casein C [M0003599]
  • alpha(S2)-Casein [M0003586]
  • alpha-1 Globin [M0009280]
  • alpha-1 Lipoprotein [M0012582]
  • alpha-2 Chimerin [M0331682]
  • alpha-Actin [M0000297]
  • alpha-Actinin [M0000278]
  • Alpha-Amanitin [M0000844]
  • Alpha-Amanitine [M0000845]
  • alpha-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide [M0014513]
    A potent circulating form of ANP that is a 28-amino acid peptide. It derives from the (99-126) amino acids of prohormone gamma-ANP, also known as ANP (1-126).
  • alpha-Caseins [M0003587]
  • alpha-Catulin [M0479530]
  • alpha-Caveolin [M0209020]
  • Alpha-Chymotrypsinogen [M0004467]
  • alpha-Collagen [M0004774]
  • alpha-Conotoxins [M0333357]
  • alpha-Crystallin A Chain [M0005387]
    One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).
  • alpha-Crystallin B Chain [M0005401]
    One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.
  • alpha-Crystallins [M0005389]
    A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.
  • alpha-Cysteine Protease Inhibitors [M0024279]
  • alpha-Dystroglycan [M0454540]
  • alpha-Elastin [M0007151]
  • alpha-Endorphin [M0028178]
    An endogenous opioid peptide derived from BETA-LIPOTROPIN of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) system. It is the 16-amino acid sequence of the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN and differs from GAMMA-ENDORPHIN by one amino acid (beta-endorphin 1-17).
  • alpha-Endothelial Growth Factor [M0024783]
  • alpha-Fetoproteins [M0000763]
    The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during development of the embryo and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life. They reappear in the adult serum during certain pathologic states, primarily hepatocellular carcinoma. They may also be elevated in the amniotic fluid and maternal serum during pregnancy in ANENCEPHALY.
  • alpha-Gliadin [M0009262]
  • alpha-Globin [M0009281]
  • Alpha-Globulins [M0000765]
    Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
  • alpha-Haemocyanin [M0010099]
  • alpha-Heparin [M0010189]
  • alpha-Isoactin [M0000298]
  • alpha-Kallikrein [M0011894]
  • alpha-Keratin [M0494274]
  • alpha-Lactalbumin [M0012138]
  • alpha-Lactalbumin A [M0012139]
  • alpha-Lactalbumin B [M0012140]
  • alpha-Lactalbumin C [M0012141]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid [M0027126]
    A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, (E,E,E)-Isomer [M0329247]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, (E,E,Z)-Isomer [M0329245]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, (E,Z,E)-Isomer [M0329244]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, (E,Z,Z)-Isomer [M0329242]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, (Z,E,E)-Isomer [M0329243]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, (Z,E,Z)-Isomer [M0329241]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, (Z,Z,E)-Isomer [M0329240]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, Ammonium Salt [M0329253]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, Calcium Salt [M0329246]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, Lithium Salt [M0329193]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, Magnesium Salt [M0329249]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, Potassium Salt [M0329248]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, Sodium Salt [M0329251]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, Tin(2+) Salt [M0329252]
  • alpha-Linolenic Acid, Zinc Salt [M0329250]
  • alpha-Macrofetoprotein [M0000773]
  • alpha-Macroglobulins [M0000771]
    Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.
  • alpha-Sarcoglycan [M0223527]
  • alpha-Scorpion Toxin [M0019557]
  • alpha-SNAP [M0202544]
  • Alpha-Solanine [M0020135]
  • alpha-Spectrin [M0020226]
  • Alpha-Stathmin [M0166753]
  • alpha-Synuclein [M0159750]
    A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.
  • alpha-Tubulin [M0022139]
  • alpha-Vinculin [M0025313]
  • alpha2-Very-Low-Density Lipoproteins [M0012593]
  • Alternative Splice Sites [M0495714]
  • Alu Elements [M0029813]
    The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.
  • Alu-Like Repetitive Sequence [M0029814]
  • Amelogenin [M0046530]
    A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.
  • Amino Acid Permeases [M0099794]
    Amino acid transporters found in yeasts, plants and lower organisms. However, the distinction between the terms permease and transporter has not been consistently maintained in the literature.
  • Amino Acid Transport System A [M0379253]
    A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
  • Amino Acid Transport System ASC [M0379390]
    A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
  • Amino Acid Transport System L [M0151518]
    A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
  • Amino Acid Transport System X-AG [M0379930]
    A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
  • Amino Acid Transport System y+ [M0379670]
    A sodium-independent, basic amino acid transport system with a high-affinity for LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE.
  • Amino Acid Transport System y+L [M0379762]
    A leucine-sensitive amino acid transport system with high affinity for basic amino acids( AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
  • Amino Acid Transport Systems [M0151519]
    Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
  • Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic [M0379251]
    Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
  • Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic [M0379252]
    Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
  • Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral [M0379250]
    Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
  • Amino Acids [M0000922]
    Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
  • Amino Acids, Branched-Chain [M0000923]
    Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
  • Amino Acids, Essential [M0000927]
    Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
  • Amino Acids, Neutral [M0354106]
    Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
  • Amino Acids, Sulfur [M0000929]
  • Aminobutyric Acids [M0000940]
    Aliphatic four carbon acids substituted in any position(s) with amino group(s). They are found in most living things. The best known is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
  • Aminoethylphosphonic Acid [M0000943]
    An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.
  • Aminolevulinic Acid [M0000951]
    A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.
  • Amitriptyline Hydrochloride [M0330766]
  • Ammonia [M0000981]
    Ammonia. A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions.
  • Ammonium Acid Urate [M0022337]
  • Amo Vitrax [M0357385]
  • Amphibian Venoms [M0001017]
    Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
  • Ampholytes [M0003008]
  • Amvisc [M0010665]
  • Amyloid [M0001047]
    A type of extracellularly deposited substance composed of an amyloid protein and additional components including HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; LAMININ; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; SERUM AMYLOID P-COMPONENT; and APOLIPOPROTEINS E which together form characteristic amyloid fibrils. The core of amyloid fibrils is formed by the stacking of overlapping beta-pleated sheet domains of the amyloid protein. There are many different amyloid proteins that have been found forming the core of the fibrils in vivo. However, amyloid can be formed from any protein that exposes beta-pleated strand conformations during unfolding or refolding. A common characteristic of amyloid is the ability to bind such dyes as CONGO RED and thioflavine.
  • Amyloid A Protein [M0001051]
    The non-circulating form of serum amyloid A protein. It is found deposited in a variety of tissues during AMYLOIDOSIS.
  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor [M0025265]
    A precursor to the AMYLOID-BETA PROTEIN (beta/A4). Alterations in the expression of the amyloid beta-protein precursor (ABPP) gene, located on chromosome 21, plays a role in the development of the neuropathology common to both ALZHEIMER DISEASE and DOWN SYNDROME. ABPP is associated with the extensive extracellular matrix secreted by neuronal cells. Upon cleavage, this precursor produces three proteins of varying amino acid lengths: 695, 751, and 770. The beta/A4 (695 amino acids) or beta-amyloid protein is the principal component of the extracellular amyloid in senile plaques found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE; DOWN SYNDROME and, to a limited extent, in normal aging.
  • Amyloid Fibrils [M0455694]
  • Amyloid Proteins [M0455693]
    Proteins that form the core of amyloid fibrils. For example, the core of amyloid A is formed from amyloid A protein, also known as serum amyloid A protein or SAA protein.
  • Amylomaize Starch [M0020433]
  • Amylopectin [M0001054]
    A highly branched glucan in starch.
  • Amylum [M0020436]
  • Anaphylatoxin [M0001075]
  • Anaphylatoxins [M0001074]
    Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.
  • Anchored Genomic Islands [M0444989]
  • Androgen-Binding Protein [M0001104]
    Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
  • Androgen-Dependent Epididymal Secretory Proteins [M0387590]
    Epididymal secretory proteins that are stimulated by androgen.
  • Androstenediol [M0023251]
    An intermediate in TESTOSTERONE biosynthesis, found in the TESTIS or the ADRENAL GLANDS. Androstenediol, derived from DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE by the reduction of the 17-keto group (17-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES), is converted to TESTOSTERONE by the oxidation of the 3-beta hydroxyl group to a 3-keto group (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES).
  • Angiogenesis Factor [M0001185]
    Substance causing proliferation of new blood vessels. It is found in tissues with high metabolic requirements, such as the retina, and in certain cancers. The factor is also released by hypoxic macrophages at the edges or outer surfaces of wounds and initiates revascularization in wound healing.
  • Angiogenesis Factor Inhibitors [M0095952]
  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors [M0328153]
    Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
  • Angiogenic Peptides [M0441467]
  • Angiogenic Proteins [M0441466]
    Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.
  • Angiopoietin-1 [M0270236]
    The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
  • Angiopoietin-2 [M0277968]
    An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.
  • Angiopoietins [M0441729]
    A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.
  • Angiostatic Peptides [M0442527]
  • Angiostatic Proteins [M0442526]
    Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
  • Angiotensin II [M0001202]
    The active form of angiotensin. An octapeptide found in blood, it is synthesized from ANGIOTENSIN I and quickly destroyed. Angiotensin II causes profound vasoconstriction with a resulting increase in blood pressure. It differs among species by the amino acid in position 5. The human form has ISOLEUCINE in this position. The clinically and experimentally used bovine form has VALINE in position 5. Medically useful antagonism is obtained with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
  • Angiotensin II, Ile(5)- [M0055996]
  • Angiotensin II, Val(5)- [M0001205]
  • Angiotensin III [M0001206]
    A heptapeptide formed by the enzymatic hydrolysis of ANGIOTENSIN II. It has greater activity than angiotensin II for stimulating aldosterone synthesis and in the release of prostaglandins but only 20% of the pressor activity.
  • Angiotensinogen [M0001208]
    An alpha-globulin of which a fragment of 14 amino acids is converted by renin to angiotensin I, the inactive precursor of angiotensin II. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
  • Angiotensins [M0001210]
    Oligopeptides ranging in size from angiotensin precursors with 14 amino acids to the active vasoconstrictor angiotensin II with 8 amino acids, or their analogs or derivatives. The amino acid content varies with the species and changes in that content produce antagonistic or inactive compounds.
  • Animal Lectins [M0412209]
  • Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte [M0002166]
    A ubiquitous membrane transport protein found in the plasma membrane of diverse cell types and tissues, and in nuclear, mitochondrial, and Golgi membranes. It is the major integral transmembrane protein of the erythrocyte plasma membrane, comprising 25% of the total membrane protein. It exists as a dimer and performs the important function of allowing the efficient transport of bicarbonate across erythrocyte cell membranes in exchange for chloride ion.
  • Anion Exchange Proteins [M0027076]
  • Anion Pumps [M0025339]
  • Anion Transport Proteins [M0076807]
    Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
  • Anion Transport Proteins (Hepatocyte Plasma Membrane) [M0076797]
  • Ankyrins [M0026529]
    A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
  • Annexin A1 [M0026275]
    Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.
  • Annexin A11 [M0026272]
  • Annexin A2 [M0026276]
    A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.
  • Annexin A2, P90 Complex [M0459687]
    A 90-KD complex containing two subunits of Annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11.
  • Annexin A4 [M0026293]
    Protein of the annexin family originally isolated from the electric organ of the electric ray Torpedo marmorata. It has been found in a wide range of mammalian tissue where it is localized to the apical membrane of polarized EPITHELIAL CELLS.
  • Annexin A5 [M0026274]
    A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
  • Annexin A6 [M0026297]
    Protein of the annexin family with a probable role in exocytotic and endocytotic membrane events.
  • Annexin A7 [M0026283]
    An annexin family member that plays a role in MEMBRANE FUSION and signaling via VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT CALCIUM CHANNELS.
  • Annexin A8 [M0026273]
  • Annexin B10 [M0026271]
  • Annexin B9 [M0026270]
  • Annexins [M0026268]
    Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
  • Anserine [M0001286]
  • Ant Venoms [M0001287]
    Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.
  • Antenna Polypeptide, Bacterial [M0200877]
  • Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein [M0178796]
    Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.
  • Antibodies, Catalytic [M0026051]
    Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
  • Anticodon [M0001381]
    The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.
  • Antifreeze Glycoproteins [M0068036]
  • Antifreeze Proteins [M0068035]
    Proteins that bind to ice and modify the growth of ice crystals. They perform a cryoprotective role in a variety of organisms.
  • Antifreeze Proteins, Type I [M0352463]
    A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that are 3-5 kDa in size and contain a single alanine-rich amphipathic alpha-helix.
  • Antifreeze Proteins, Type II [M0352464]
    A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that have a cystine-rich globular structure of approximately 14 kD.
  • Antifreeze Proteins, Type III [M0352481]
    A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that are globular, 6.5 kDa in size and contain compact beta-sheet structures.
  • Antifreeze Proteins, Type IV [M0068034]
    A subclass of ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS that contain four amphipathic alpha-helices folded into an antiparallel helix bundle.
  • Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain [M0379771]
    A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
  • Antigens, Fos-Related [M0025544]
  • Antilysin [M0011907]
  • Antinociceptive Agents [M0497986]
    Compounds that show activity in animal models of human PAIN such as tail flick and hot plate assays.
  • Antiplasmin [M0001495]
    A member of the serpin superfamily found in human plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.
  • Antiporters [M0027075]
    Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
  • Antisense Elements (Genetics) [M0025053]
    Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.
  • Antithrombin III [M0001509]
    A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes; it was formerly called Antithrombin II (AT II) which has now been shown to be identical to AT III; ANTITHROMBIN III DEFICIENCY, hereditary or acquired, results in thromboembolism. It is a member of the serpin superfamily. Some authors use the term antithrombin to refer to antithrombin III.
  • Antithrombin III, Human Plasma [M0330782]
  • Antithrombin III-Alpha [M0434010]
  • Antithrombins [M0001510]
    An endogenous family of proteins belonging to the serpin superfamily that neutralizes the action of thrombin. Six naturally occurring antithrombins have been identified and are designated by Roman numerals I to VI. Of these, Antithrombin I (see FIBRIN) and ANTITHROMBIN III appear to be of major importance.
  • Apamin [M0001564]
    A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
  • Apitoxin [M0002273]
  • Apocytochrome b [M0071379]
  • Apocytochrome b5 [M0447731]
  • Apocytochrome b6 [M0193535]
  • Apocytochrome C [M0116739]
  • Apocytochrome f [M0147616]
  • Apoferritins [M0001592]
    The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.
  • Apolipoprotein A-I [M0025348]
    The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
  • Apolipoprotein A-I Isoprotein-2 [M0087282]
  • Apolipoprotein A-I Isoprotein-4 [M0087283]
  • Apolipoprotein A-I Isoproteins [M0087284]
    Variants of apolipoprotein A-I. They include secreted propeptide form (isoprotein 2), the converted plasma form (isoprotein-4), and those with various substitutions or deletions.
  • Apolipoprotein A-II [M0025349]
    The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
  • Apolipoprotein A-II Isoproteins [M0492280]
  • Apolipoprotein B-100 [M0114886]
    A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
  • Apolipoprotein B-48 [M0114883]
    A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
  • Apolipoprotein C-I [M0073728]
    A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
  • Apolipoprotein C-I Precursor [M0123384]
  • Apolipoprotein C-II [M0066119]
    A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
  • Apolipoprotein C-III [M0073736]
    A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).
  • Apolipoprotein E Isoproteins [M0114996]
  • Apolipoprotein E2 [M0119983]
    One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
  • Apolipoprotein E3 [M0091671]
    A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.
  • Apolipoprotein E4 [M0108562]
    A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
  • Apolipoproteins [M0001593]
    Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
  • Apolipoproteins A [M0001594]
    Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
  • Apolipoproteins B [M0001596]
    Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
  • Apolipoproteins C [M0001599]
    A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
  • Apolipoproteins D [M0082573]
    A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.
  • Apolipoproteins E [M0001601]
    A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
  • Apoproteins [M0001605]
    The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
  • Apoproteins B [M0001598]
  • Apoproteins C [M0001600]
  • Apoproteins E [M0001602]
  • Apoptosis Inducing Factor [M0301106]
    A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
  • Apoptosis Inducing Proteins [M0480020]
  • Apoptosis Inhibiting Proteins [M0480019]
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins [M0478975]
    A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
  • Apoptosis, Extrinsic Pathway [M0493496]
    Apoptosis that is triggered via CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS and DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS.
  • Apoptosis, Intrinsic Pathway [M0493497]
    Apoptosis that is triggered via cell stress and mitochondrial damage.
  • Apoptosomes [M0493498]
    Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
  • Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1 [M0279898]
    A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
  • Aprotinin [M0011905]
    A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
  • Aquaglyceroporins [M0480377]
    A subgroup of aquaporins that transport WATER; GLYCEROL; and other small solutes across CELL MEMBRANES.
  • Aquaporin 1 [M0195494]
    Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.
  • Aquaporin 2 [M0213077]
    Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.
  • Aquaporin 3 [M0233100]
    Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.
  • Aquaporin 4 [M0241190]
    Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.
  • Aquaporin 5 [M0259619]
    Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.
  • Aquaporin 6 [M0213073]
    Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.
  • Aquaporins [M0029981]
    A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
  • Arabinofuranosyluracil [M0001641]
    A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.
  • Arabinose [M0001644]
  • AraC Transcription Factor [M0087638]
    A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the uptake and catabolism of L-ARABINOSE.
  • Arachnid Venoms [M0020304]
  • Archaeal Rhodopsins [M0375053]
  • Arginine [M0001683]
    An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
  • Argininosuccinic Acid [M0001689]
    This amino acid is formed during the urea cycle from citrulline, aspartate and ATP. This reaction is catalyzed by argininosuccinic acid synthetase.
  • Armadillo Domain Proteins [M0165209]
    A family of proteins that contain several 42-amino acid repeat domains and are homologous to the Drosophila armadillo protein. They bind to other proteins through their armadillo domains and play a variety of roles in the CELL including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, regulation of DESMOSOME assembly, and CELL ADHESION.
  • Arrestins [M0028856]
    Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.
  • Arthropod Venoms [M0001758]
    Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator [M0188295]
    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.
  • Asialoglycoproteins [M0001810]
    Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
  • Asparagine [M0001818]
    A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
  • Aspartate [M0001841]
  • Aspartate Magnesium Hydrochloride [M0001835]
  • Aspartic Acid [M0001836]
    One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
  • Aspartic Acid, Ammonium Salt [M0330809]
  • Aspartic Acid, Calcium Salt [M0330805]
  • Aspartic Acid, Dipotassium Salt [M0330803]
  • Aspartic Acid, Disodium Salt [M0330812]
  • Aspartic Acid, Hydrobromide [M0330807]
  • Aspartic Acid, Hydrochloride [M0330802]
  • Aspartic Acid, Magnesium (1:1) Salt, Hydrochloride, Trihydrate [M0330814]
  • Aspartic Acid, Magnesium (2:1) Salt [M0330804]
  • Aspartic Acid, Magnesium-Potassium (2:1:2) Salt [M0330796]
  • Aspartic Acid, Monopotassium Salt [M0330798]
  • Aspartic Acid, Monosodium Salt [M0330810]
  • Aspartic Acid, Potassium Salt [M0330800]
  • Aspartic Acid, Sodium Salt [M0330801]
  • Aspergillin [M0009276]
  • AT III [M0434011]
  • AT Rich Sequence [M0328004]
    A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of ADENINE and THYMINE bases.
  • Atenativ [M0434012]
  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters [M0027776]
    A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
  • Atrial Natriuretic Factor [M0014517]
    A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
  • Atrial Natriuretic Factor Precursors [M0447922]
    Polypeptides of about 150 amino acids that serve as precursors to prohormone of ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR, a 126-amino acid polypeptide or ANP (1-126).
  • Atriphos [M0372280]
  • Attachment Sites, Microbiological [M0001937]
    Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
  • Aurovertins [M0001976]
    Very toxic and complex pyrone derivatives from the fungus Calcarisporium arbuscula. They bind to and inhibit mitochondrial ATPase, thereby uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. They are used as biochemical tools.
  • Autacoids [M0019975]
    A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.
  • Autolysin [M0014391]
  • Auxilins [M0146891]
    A family of proteins that play a role as cofactors in the process of CLATHRIN recycling in cells.
  • Auxins [M0002020]
    Organic compounds found in plant sprouts. They promote tissue growth through cell elongation rather than multiplication.
  • Avicon [M0369414]
  • Avidin [M0002040]
    A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.
  • Avitene [M0369415]
  • Azurin [M0002095]
    A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 16,000, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308nm.
  • B-Cell Leukemia 2 Family Proteins [M0480025]
  • Bacterial Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins [M0449188]
  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins [M0002127]
    Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
  • Bacterial Proteins [M0002130]
    Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
  • Bacterial Rhodopsins [M0375173]
    Although similar in name and structure to BACTERIORHODOPSINS from HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM, this is a distinct class of proteins found in certain species of PROTEOBACTERIA.
  • Bacterial Toxins [M0002131]
    Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
  • Bacteriochlorophyll A [M0002135]
    A specific bacteriochlorophyll that is similar in structure to CHLOROPHYLL A.
  • Bacteriochlorophylls [M0002133]
    Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
  • Bacteriocin Plasmids [M0004743]
    Plasmids encoding bacterial exotoxins (BACTERIOCINS).
  • Bacteriocins [M0002136]
    Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
  • BAE-PAI [M0024268]
  • Banded Hedgehog Protein [M0496703]
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors [M0481794]
    A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors [M0481850]
    A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
  • Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors [M0478896]
    A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
  • Basodexan [M0373263]
  • bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein [M0245556]
    A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein [M0220651]
    A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
  • bcl-Associated Death Protein [M0242303]
    A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.
  • bcl-X Protein [M0220648]
    A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
  • bcl-Xalpha Protein [M0478996]
  • bcl-Xbeta Protein [M0480110]
  • bcl-XL Protein [M0220645]
    Bcl-XL is an anti-apoptotic protein that is the long isoform of Bcl-X protein. Bcl-XL localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane and is overexpressed in most human NEOPLASMS. It has also been implicated in ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE.
  • bcl-XS Protein [M0220646]
    A pro-apoptotic protein that is the short isoform of Bcl-X protein. Bcl-XS lacks the BH1 and BH2 domains of BCL-XL PROTEIN and it inhibits the ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS of the bcl-2 protein family.
  • bcl2-Associated X Protein Isoform alpha [M0479012]
  • bcl2-Associated X Protein Isoform beta [M0480106]
  • bcl2-Associated X Protein Isoform delta [M0479011]
  • bcl2-Associated X Protein Isoform omega [M0410933]
  • bcl2-Associated X Protein Isoform sigma [M0479009]
  • Bee Venoms [M0002274]
    Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
  • Belladonna Alkaloids [M0002300]
    Alkaloids obtained from various plants, especially the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), variety acuminata; atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are classical, specific antimuscarinic agents with many pharmacologic actions; used mainly as antispasmodics.
  • beta 2-Glycoprotein I [M0071001]
    A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
  • beta 2-Transferrin [M0021803]
  • beta Catenin [M0195076]
    A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
  • beta Karyopherins [M0249033]
    Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
  • Beta(1)CA Globulin [M0002407]
  • beta-1 Globin [M0009283]
  • beta-Actin [M0000299]
  • beta-Actinin [M0000276]
  • beta-Alanine [M0023212]
    An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
  • beta-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide [M0014515]
    An antiparallel dimer of alpha-ANP with the chains linked by 7-23' and 7'-23 disulfide bonds.
  • beta-Caseins [M0003588]
  • beta-Caveolin [M0209021]
  • beta-Crystallin A Chain [M0415412]
    The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.
  • beta-Crystallin B Chain [M0415413]
    The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.
  • beta-Crystallins [M0005390]
    A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.
  • beta-D-Gal(1-3)D-GalNAc Specific Lectins [M0067934]
  • beta-Dystroglycan [M0454542]
  • beta-Endothelial Growth Factor [M0024784]
  • beta-Globin [M0009284]
  • Beta-Globulins [M0002406]
    Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.
  • beta-Kallikrein [M0011895]
  • beta-Kallikrein B [M0011896]
  • beta-Keratins [M0011944]
    Keratins that form into a beta-pleated sheet structure. They are principle constituents of the corneous material of the carapace and plastron of turtles, the epidermis of snakes and the feathers of birds.
  • beta-Lactoglobulin [M0012166]
  • beta-Lactoglobulin A [M0012167]
  • beta-Lactoglobulin B [M0012168]
  • beta-Lactoglobulin C [M0012169]
  • beta-Lactoglobulin E [M0012170]
  • beta-Lactoglobulin F [M0012171]
  • beta-Lactoglobulin G [M0012172]
  • beta-Lactoglobulin I [M0012173]
  • beta-Sarcoglycan [M0454543]
  • beta-Scorpion Toxin [M0019558]
  • beta-SNAP [M0202545]
  • beta-Spectrin [M0020227]
  • Beta-Stathmin [M0166754]
  • beta-Synuclein [M0159751]
    A synuclein that is closely related to ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN. It may play a neuroprotective role against some of the toxic effects of aggregated ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN.
  • beta-Thromboglobulin [M0002428]
    A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.
  • beta-Transducin [M0023547]
  • beta-Transducin Repeat-Containing Proteins [M0219301]
    A family of F-box domain proteins that contain sequences that are homologous to the beta subunit of transducin (BETA-TRANSDUCIN). They play an important role in the protein degradation pathway by becoming components of SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, which selectively act on a subset of proteins including beta-catenin and IkappaBbeta.
  • beta-Tubulin [M0022140]
  • beta-Very-Low-Density Lipoproteins [M0493077]
  • beta-Vinculin [M0025314]
  • BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein [M0267914]
    A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.
  • Big Endothelin 3 [M0219571]
    An alternatively processed form of endothelin-3 that is larger in size.
  • Bile Acids [M0002474]
  • Bile Acids and Salts [M0002475]
    Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
  • Bile Pigments [M0002484]
    Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.
  • Bile Salts [M0002476]
  • Bilin [M0002485]
  • Bilirubin [M0002494]
    A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
  • Bilirubin, (15E)-Isomer [M0330853]
  • Bilirubin, (4E)-Isomer [M0330854]
  • Bilirubin, (4E,15E)-Isomer [M0330855]
  • Bilirubin, Calcium Salt [M0002495]
  • Bilirubin, Disodium Salt [M0330857]
  • Bilirubin, Monosodium Salt [M0330856]
  • Biliverdin IX [M0002498]
  • Biliverdin IX alpha [M0002499]
  • Biliverdine [M0002500]
    1,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-4,5-dicarboxyethyl-2,8-divinylbilenone. Biosynthesized from hemoglobin as a precursor of bilirubin. Occurs in the bile of amphibia and of birds, but not in normal human bile or serum.
  • Binding Protein [M0003561]
  • Biological Factors [M0002530]
    Endogenously-synthesized compounds that may influence biological phenomena or represent quantifiable biomarkers. Biological factors are a variety of extracellular substances that are not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS
  • Biological Products [M0002533]
    Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or agents of organic origin, usually obtained by biological methods or assay, that depend for their action on the processes affecting immunity. They are used especially in diagnosis and treatment of disease (as vaccines or pollen extracts). Biological products are differentiated from BIOLOGICAL FACTORS in that the latter are compounds with biological or physiological activity made by living organisms. (From Webster's 3d ed)
  • Biological Pumps [M0379231]
  • Biopolymers [M0002553]
    Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
  • Biopterin [M0002561]
    A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
  • Blood Coagulation Factor Inhibitors [M0029342]
    Substances, usually endogenous, that act as inhibitors of blood coagulation. They may affect one or multiple enzymes throughout the process. As a group, they also inhibit enzymes involved in processes other than blood coagulation, such as those from the complement system, fibrinolytic enzyme system, blood cells, and bacteria.
  • Blood Coagulation Factors [M0002684]
    Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.
  • Blood Proteins [M0002710]
    Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins [M0028976]
    Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
  • Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Toxin [M0412693]
  • Boron [M0002831]
    A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight 10.81. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.
  • Boundary Elements [M0414406]
  • Bovine Activator Protein [M0003212]
  • Bovine Leukemia Virus Glycoprotein gp51 [M0022707]
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor [M0028612]
    A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
  • Brassidic Acids [M0007671]
  • BRCA1 Protein [M0028758]
    The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)
  • BRCA2 Protein [M0242709]
    A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)
  • Bromodeoxycytidine [M0002950]
    5-Bromo-2'-deoxycytidine. Can be incorporated into DNA in the presence of DNA polymerase, replacing dCTP.
  • Buffers [M0003009]
    A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
  • Bufotenin [M0003017]
    A hallucinogenic serotonin analog found in frog or toad skins, mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals, especially in the brains, plasma, and urine of schizophrenics. Bufotenin has been used as a tool in CNS studies and misused as a psychedelic.
  • Bursine [M0004288]
  • Butyrate Response Factor 1 [M0184853]
    A ZINC FINGER MOTIF containing immediate early protein that is closely related to TRISTETRAPROLIN. It interacts with and helps destabilize VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR mRNA.
  • C-Peptide [M0003121]
    The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
  • C-Phycocyanin [M0016772]
  • C.I. 40850 [M0351962]
  • Cadherins [M0024234]
    Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
  • Caerulein [M0003135]
    A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.
  • Caffeic Acids [M0003137]
    A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.
  • Calcineurin A [M0029259]
  • Calcineurin B [M0029258]
  • Calcium [M0003153]
    A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
  • Calcium Channels [M0023383]
    Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
  • Calcium Channels, L-Type [M0328046]
    Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
  • Calcium Channels, N-Type [M0328047]
    CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
  • Calcium Channels, P-Type [M0328057]
    CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
  • Calcium Channels, Q-Type [M0328058]
    CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
  • Calcium Channels, R-Type [M0328063]
    CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.
  • Calcium Channels, T-Type [M0328068]
    A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.
  • Calcium Citrate [M0028810]
    A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
  • Calcium-Binding Protein, Vitamin D-Dependent [M0003191]
    A protein that plays a fundamental role in the Vitamin D mediated transport of calcium in reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. It is found in the intestine, kidneys, egg shell gland, brain, and possibly other organs. Its molecular weight is species dependent.
  • Caldesmon [M0003215]
  • Caldesmon (77) [M0003216]
  • Calelectrins [M0026266]
  • Calf Thymus Chromatin Protein HMG [M0010346]
  • Calmodulin [M0003213]
    A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
  • Calmodulin-Binding Proteins [M0003217]
    Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
  • Calnexin [M0193588]
    A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • Calpactins [M0026267]
  • Calpain I [M0003227]
  • Calpain II [M0003228]
  • Calreticulin [M0172278]
    A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM it binds to specific N-linked oligosaccharides found on newly-synthesized proteins and functions as a MOLECULAR CHAPERONE that may play a role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate intracellular calcium HOMEOSTASIS.
  • Calsequestrin [M0003229]
    Acidic protein found in SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM that binds calcium to the extent of 700-900 nmoles/mg. It plays the role of sequestering calcium transported to the interior of the intracellular vesicle.
  • Calspectin [M0003218]
  • CaM-BP(80) [M0003219]
  • Canavanine [M0003249]
  • Cannabidiol [M0003266]
    Compound isolated from Cannabis sativa extract.
  • Canthaxanthin [M0025364]
    A trans-carotenoid pigment widely distributed in nature. The compound is used as an oral suntanning agent and as a food and drug coloring agent. Oral ingestion of the compound causes canthaxanthin retinopathy.
  • Cap-Binding Protein Complex [M0419250]
    A heterodimeric protein complex of RNA cap-binding proteins which binds with high affinity to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE.
  • Capsid Proteins [M0408969]
    Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
  • CapZ Actin Capping Protein [M0188281]
    An actin capping protein that binds to the barbed-ends of ACTIN filaments. It is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha and a beta subunit. It regulates actin assembly by stabilizing actin oligomers for elongation. In SKELETAL MUSCLE, CapZ is localized to the Z-disk.
  • CapZ Actin Capping Protein, alpha Subunit [M0188278]
  • CapZ Actin Capping Protein, beta Subunit [M0188279]
  • Caradrin [M0351154]
  • Carbamyl Phosphate [M0003330]
    Phosphate salt of carbamic acid.
  • Carbon Dioxide [M0003369]
    A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
  • Carboxyhemoglobin [M0003402]
  • Carboxyhemoglobin A [M0003403]
  • Carboxyhemoglobin C [M0003404]
  • CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins [M0493302]
    A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
  • Cardizem [M0353526]
  • Carmol [M0373262]
  • Carophyll Red [M0351961]
  • Carotenes [M0370112]
  • Carotenoids [M0003538]
    The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
  • Carrageenan [M0003555]
    A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.
  • Carrier Proteins [M0003559]
    Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
  • Casein A [M0003589]
  • Caseins [M0003590]
    A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
  • CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein [M0278135]
    An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.
  • Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins [M0475596]
    A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.
  • Catenins [M0479529]
    A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in CELL ADHESION at ADHERENS JUNCTIONS by linking CADHERINS to the ACTIN FILAMENTS of the CYTOSKELETON.
  • Catgut [M0003653]
    Sterile collagen strands obtained from healthy mammals. They are used as absorbable surgical ligatures and are frequently impregnated with chromium or silver for increased strength. They tend to cause tissue reaction.
  • Cation Exchange Proteins [M0381291]
  • Cation Pump [M0025340]
  • Cation Transport Proteins [M0380835]
    Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
  • Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2 [M0199992]
    A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.
  • Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2A [M0379737]
  • Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2B [M0379738]
  • Caveolin 1 [M0209023]
    A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
  • Caveolin 2 [M0271571]
    Caveolin 2 is a binding partner of CAVEOLIN 1. It undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation by C-SRC PROTEIN PP60 and plays a regulatory role in CAVEOLAE formation.
  • Caveolin 3 [M0257250]
    A caveolin that is expressed exclusively in MUSCLE CELLS and is sufficient to form CAVEOLAE in SARCOLEMMA. Mutations in caveolin 3 are associated with multiple muscle diseases including DISTAL MYOPATHY and LIMB-GIRDLE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
  • Caveolins [M0358285]
    The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.
  • CCAAT-Binding Factor [M0156235]
    A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
  • CCAAT-Binding Factor, B-Subunit [M0156237]
  • CCAAT-Binding Factor, C-Subunit [M0156238]
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha [M0164348]
    A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta [M0164346]
    A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-delta [M0191519]
    A member of the C-EBP protein family of transcription factors. It plays a key role in G0 PHASE mammary EPITHELIAL CELL growth arrest, and it is involved in transcriptional regulation of INTERLEUKIN 1; INTERLEUKIN 6; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins [M0164365]
    A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
  • CD30 Ligand [M0218957]
    A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
  • CDC2 Protein Kinase [M0024739]
    Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules [M0024220]
    Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
  • Cell Cycle Proteins [M0028143]
    Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and phosphoprotein phosphatases (PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASE) as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
  • Cell Membrane Proteins [M0013342]
  • Cell Surface Proteins [M0013343]
  • Cellobiose [M0003775]
    A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
  • Cellular Apoptosis Susceptibility Protein [M0253556]
    A nucleocytoplasmic transport protein that binds to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN inside the CELL NUCLEUS and participates in their export into CYTOPLASM. It is also associated with the regulation of APOPTOSIS and microtubule assembly.
  • Cellular Retinol Binding Protein [M0018963]
  • Cellulose [M0003790]
    A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
  • Ceramides [M0003838]
    Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
  • Cerastes Venoms [M0022692]
  • Cerebroside Sulfate Activator Protein [M0063217]
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins [M0003908]
    Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)
  • Ceroid [M0003920]
    A naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to lipofuscin. It accumulates in various tissues in certain experimental and pathological conditions.
  • Cerulenin [M0003925]
    Antifungal antibiotic isolated from several species, including Acremonium (Cephalosporium), Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function and is used as a biochemical tool.
  • Cevadine [M0022611]
  • Chaperonin 10 [M0028190]
    Members of the chaperonin heat-shock protein family. Chaperonin 10 purified from bacteria, plastids, or mitochondria occurs as an oligomer of seven identical subunits arranged in a single ring.
  • Chaperonin 60 [M0028189]
    Members of the chaperonin heat-shock protein family. Chaperonin 60 purified from bacteria, plastids, or mitochondria is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each.
  • Chaperonins [M0028187]
    A class of sequence-related MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in bacteria, mitochondria, and plastids. Chaperonins are abundant constitutive proteins that increase in amount after stresses such as heat shock, bacterial infection of macrophages, and an increase in the cellular content of unfolded proteins. Bacterial chaperonins are major immunogens in human bacterial infections because of their accumulation during the stress of infection. Two members of this class of chaperones are CHAPERONIN 10 and CHAPERONIN 60.
  • Charybdotoxin [M0028373]
    A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
  • Chemotactic Factors [M0004023]
    Chemical substances that attract or repel cells or organisms. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract leukocytes, macrophages, or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
  • Chenix [M0004033]
  • Chenodeoxycholate [M0004031]
  • Chenodeoxycholic Acid [M0004029]
    A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
  • Chenofalk [M0478115]
  • Chimerin 1 [M0328168]
    A GTPase activating protein that is specific for RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is expressed primarily in the brain and may be involved in signal transduction. The alternatively spliced form of CHIMERIN 1 (alpha-2 Chimerin) contains an additional src homology domain and is expressed in both the brain and testes.
  • Chimerin Proteins [M0328173]
    A family of GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS that are specific for RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
  • Chironex Venoms [M0004706]
  • Chitin [M0004099]
    A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
  • Chloride Channels [M0027322]
    Cell membrane glycoproteins selective for chloride ions.
  • Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters [M0124849]
    Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of chloride ions for bicarbonate ions across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.
  • Chlorogenic Acid [M0004165]
    A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).
  • Chlorophyll [M0004175]
    Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
  • Chlorophyll 740 [M0004176]
  • Chlorophyll a-Proteins [M0024716]
  • Chlorophyll ab-Proteins [M0024717]
  • Chlorophyll ac-Proteins [M0024718]
  • Chlorophyll Binding Proteins [M0024719]
  • Chlorophyllides [M0004177]
    Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.
  • Chloroplast Elongation Factor Tu [M0016219]
    RN should be EC 3.6.1.-
  • Chloroplast Initiation Factors [M0419869]
    Peptide initiation factors found in CHLOROPLASTS. Although specific factors may closely resemble those found in prokaryotes, they are eukaryotic factors and classed here under eukaryotic initiation factors.
  • Cholate [M0029992]
  • Cholates [M0029991]
    Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.
  • Choleic Acid [M0005996]
  • Cholestanol [M0006394]
    A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.
  • Cholestanol, (3alpha, 5beta)-Isomer [M0330547]
  • Cholestanols [M0004255]
    Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
  • Cholesterol [M0004268]
    The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
  • Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins [M0067633]
    Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
  • Cholesterol Esters [M0004274]
    Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
  • Cholesterol, HDL [M0012587]
    Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
  • Cholesterol, HDL2 [M0012585]
  • Cholesterol, HDL3 [M0012586]
  • Cholesterol, LDL [M0012591]
    Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
  • Cholesterol, VLDL [M0023433]
    Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
  • Cholesteryl Linoleate, LDL [M0012592]
  • Cholic Acid [M0029428]
    A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.
  • Cholic Acids [M0004282]
    The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
  • Choline [M0004283]
    A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
  • Cholit-Ursan [M0476465]
  • Cholofalk [M0476464]
  • Chondroitin [M0004310]
    A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
  • Chondroitin 4-Sulfate [M0330651]
  • Chondroitin 4-Sulfate, Aluminum Salt [M0330656]
  • Chondroitin 4-Sulfate, Potassium Salt [M0330655]
  • Chondroitin 6-Sulfate [M0330652]
  • Chondroitin 6-Sulfate, Potassium Salt [M0330657]
  • Chondroitin 6-Sulfate, Sodium Salt [M0330650]
  • Chondroitin Sulfate 4-Sulfate, Sodium Salt [M0330653]
  • Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan [M0017895]
  • Chondroitin Sulfate, Calcium Salt [M0330658]
  • Chondroitin Sulfate, Iron (+3) Salt [M0330660]
  • Chondroitin Sulfate, Iron Salt [M0330654]
  • Chondroitin Sulfate, Potassium Salt [M0330648]
  • Chondroitin Sulfate, Sodium Salt [M0330659]
  • Chondroitin Sulfate, Zinc Salt [M0330649]
  • Chondroitin Sulfates [M0004318]
    Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
  • Chondroitin Sulphate E Proteoglycan [M0017892]
  • Chorismic Acid [M0004344]
    A cyclohexadiene carboxylic acid derived from SHIKIMIC ACID and a precursor for the biosynthesis of UBIQUINONE and the AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS.
  • Chromatin-Associated RNA [M0019192]
  • Chromium [M0004385]
    A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
  • Chromobindins [M0140208]
  • Chromogranin A [M0492852]
    A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
  • Chromogranin B [M0136113]
    A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone [M0004403]
    Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
  • Chylomicron Remnants [M0365537]
    Metabolic products of chylomicron particles in which TRIGLYCERIDES have been selectively removed by the LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. These remnants carry dietary lipids in the blood and are cholesterol-rich. Their interactions with MACROPHAGES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; and SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS in the artery wall can lead to ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
  • Chylomicrons [M0004455]
    A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
  • Chymopapain A [M0004459]
  • Chymopapain B [M0004460]
  • Chymosin A [M0018779]
  • Chymosin C [M0018780]
  • Chymotrypsinogen [M0004468]
  • Chymotrypsinogen A [M0004469]
  • Chymotrypsinogen beta [M0004470]
  • Ciguatoxins [M0004474]
    Polycyclic ethers produced by Gambierdiscus (DINOFLAGELLATES) from gambiertoxins, which are ingested by fish which in turn may be ingested by humans who are susceptible to the CIGUATERA POISONING.
  • Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor [M0328175]
    A neurotrophic factor that promotes the survival of various neuronal cell types and may play an important role in the injury response in the nervous system.
  • CIP-KIP Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors [M0477621]
  • cis-4-Hydroxyproline [M0010777]
  • Citric Acid [M0028793]
    A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
  • Citrinin [M0004517]
    Antibiotic and mycotoxin from Aspergillus niveus and Penicillium citrinum.
  • Citrulline [M0004523]
  • Class 1 Semaphorins [M0209551]
    Transmembrane proteins involved in axonal guidance of peripheral neurons in the developing CNS of invertebrates. Semaphorin-1 refers to the class of SEMAPHORINS with an extracellular sema domain and a short cytoplasmic domain. Sema-1 was first identified in grasshopper as fasciclin IV, and has since been described in Drosophila and C. elegans. Two distinct members of this class of semaphorins exist: SEMA-1a (the original sema-1) and SEMA-1b, a homologous protein isolated from Drosophila which may be more important for neuronal differentiation than migration.
  • Class 2 Semaphorins [M0421692]
  • Class 3 Semaphorins [M0421693]
  • Class 4 Semaphorins [M0421694]
  • Class 5 Semaphorins [M0421695]
  • Class 6 Semaphorins [M0421729]
  • Class 7 Semaphorins [M0421730]
  • Class V Semaphorins [M0421731]
  • Clathrin [M0004541]
    The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
  • Clathrin Adaptors [M0404724]
  • Clathrin Assembly Protein Complex alpha Subunit [M0404743]
  • Clathrin Assembly Protein Complex beta Subunits [M0404744]
  • Clathrin Assembly Protein Complex delta Subunits [M0404763]
  • Clathrin Assembly Protein Complex gamma Subunits [M0404764]
  • Clathrin Assembly Protein Complex mu Subunits [M0404765]
  • Clathrin Assembly Protein Complex sigma Subunits [M0404773]
  • Clathrin Assembly Protein Complexes [M0404565]
  • Clathrin Assembly Protein Subunits [M0404775]
  • Clathrin Heavy Chains [M0266224]
    The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
  • Clathrin Light Chains [M0404383]
    The light chain subunits of clathrin.
  • Cleavage And Polyadenylation Specificity Factor [M0418575]
    An RNA-binding protein that recognizes the AAUAAA RNA SEQUENCE at the 3' end of MRNA. It contains four subunits of 30, 73, 100 and 160 kDa molecular size and combines with CLEAVAGE STIMULATION FACTOR to form a stable complex with mRNA that directs the 3' cleavage and polyadenylation reaction.
  • Cleavage And Polyadenylation Specificity Factor, 100-kDa Subunit [M0418590]
  • Cleavage And Polyadenylation Specificity Factor, 160-kDa Subunit [M0418591]
  • Cleavage And Polyadenylation Specificity Factor, 30-kDa Subunit [M0195396]
  • Cleavage And Polyadenylation Specificity Factor, 73-kDa Subunit [M0418589]
  • Cleavage Stimulation Factor [M0195405]
    A RNA-binding protein that stimulates the cleavage of the 3' end of MRNA near the POLYADENYLATION site. It is a heterotrimer of 55-, 64- and 77-kDa subunits and combines with CLEAVAGE STIMULATION FACTOR to form a stable complex with mRNA that directs the 3' cleavage and polyadenylation reaction.
  • Clerodane Diterpenes [M0414723]
  • Cloacin [M0004575]
    A bacteriocin produced by a plasmid that can occur in several bacterial strains. It is a basic protein of molecular weight 56,000 and exists in a complex with its immunity protein which protects the host bacterium from its effects.
  • Cloacin Complex [M0004576]
  • Cloacin-Immunity Protein Complex [M0004577]
  • Clupeine [M0004651]
  • Clusterin [M0082230]
    A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.
  • Cnidarian Venoms [M0004707]
    Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.
  • CNP-53 [M0029832]
  • CoASH [M0004711]
  • Coat Protein Complex I [M0328620]
    A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
  • Coatomer alpha Subunit [M0331702]
  • Coatomer beta Subunit [M0331704]
  • Coatomer delta Subunit [M0331705]
  • Coatomer epsilon Subunit [M0331706]
  • Coatomer gamma Subunit [M0331708]
  • Coatomer Protein [M0328488]
    A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
  • Coatomer zeta Subunit [M0331707]
  • Cobalamins [M0022795]
  • Cobalophilin [M0021776]
  • Cobalt [M0004662]
    A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
  • Cobalt Deuteroporphyrin [M0006096]
  • Cobra Venoms [M0004668]
    Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
  • Codon [M0004703]
    A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
  • Codon, Initiator [M0027614]
    A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
  • Codon, Nonsense [M0027616]
    A codon that has been converted to the same sequence as a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by a nonsense mutation. It is different from a stop codon in that it occurs abnormally and causes premature termination of protein translation resulting in the production of truncated proteins which may be non-functional.
  • Codon, Terminator [M0027615]
    Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.
  • Codon, Unassigned [M0360670]
    A codon that is not assigned to an amino acid and is not a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR). Although they may lead to premature termination of translation, unassigned codons do not bind translation release factors (PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS), as do stop codons.
  • Coenzyme A [M0004712]
  • Coenzyme M [M0023195]
  • Coenzymes [M0004714]
    Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
  • Cofilin 1 [M0480172]
    Cofilin 1 is a member of the cofilin family of proteins that is expressed in non-muscle CELLS. It has ACTIN depolymerization activity that is dependent on HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.
  • Cofilin 2 [M0394534]
    A member of the cofilin family of proteins that is expressed in MUSCLE CELLS. It has ACTIN depolymerization activity that is dependent on HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.
  • Coformycin [M0004720]
    A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.
  • Colicin A [M0004744]
  • Colicin B [M0004745]
  • Colicin E1 [M0004746]
  • Colicin E2 [M0004747]
  • Colicin E3 [M0004748]
  • Colicin E8 [M0004759]
  • Colicin HSC10 [M0004749]
  • Colicin Ia [M0004750]
  • Colicin Ib [M0004751]
  • Colicin K [M0004752]
  • Colicin K-K235 [M0004753]
  • Colicin M [M0004754]
  • Colicin N [M0004755]
  • Colicin Plasmids [M0445086]
    Plasmids encoding COLICINS.
  • Colicin V [M0004756]
  • Colicins [M0004757]
    Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
  • Colicins E [M0004758]
  • Colicins E9 [M0004760]
  • Collagen [M0004775]
    A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
  • Collagen Type I [M0004788]
    The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
  • Collagen Type I, alpha1 Subunit [M0369293]
  • Collagen Type I, alpha2 Subunit [M0004773]
  • Collagen Type II [M0004777]
    A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
  • Collagen Type II, alpha1 Subunit [M0369296]
  • Collagen Type III [M0004778]
    A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.
  • Collagen Type III, alpha1 Chain [M0369299]
  • Collagen Type IV [M0004779]
    A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.
  • Collagen Type IV, alpha1 Subunit [M0369423]
  • Collagen Type IV, alpha2 Subunit [M0369424]
  • Collagen Type IX [M0004780]
    A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.
  • Collagen Type IX, alpha1 Subunit [M0369330]
  • Collagen Type IX, alpha2 Subunit [M0369331]
  • Collagen Type IX, alpha3 Subunit [M0369332]
  • Collagen Type V [M0004781]
    A fibrillar collagen found widely distributed as a minor component in tissues that contain COLLAGEN TYPE I and COLLAGEN TYPE III. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of alpha1(V), alpha2(V) and alpha3(V) subunits. Several forms of collagen type V exist depending upon the composition of the subunits that form the trimer.
  • Collagen Type V, alpha1 Subunit [M0369301]
  • Collagen Type V, alpha2 Subunit [M0370197]
  • Collagen Type V, alpha3 Subunit [M0370198]
  • Collagen Type VI [M0004782]
    A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.
  • Collagen Type VI, alpha1 Subunit [M0369433]
  • Collagen Type VI, alpha2 Subunit [M0369434]
  • Collagen Type VI, alpha3 Subunit [M0369435]
  • Collagen Type VII [M0004783]
    A non-fibrillar collagen involved in anchoring the epidermal BASEMENT MEMBRANE to underlying tissue. It is a homotrimer comprised of C-terminal and N-terminal globular domains connected by a central triple-helical region.
  • Collagen Type VII, alpha1 Subunit [M0369443]
  • Collagen Type VIII [M0004784]
    A non-fibrillar collagen originally found in DESCEMET MEMBRANE. It is expressed in endothelial cell layers and in tissues undergoing active remodeling. It is heterotrimer comprised of alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) chains.
  • Collagen Type X [M0004785]
    A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.
  • Collagen Type X, alpha1 Subunit [M0369412]
  • Collagen Type XI [M0004789]
    A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.
  • Collagen Type XI, alpha1 Subunit [M0369487]
  • Collagen Type XI, alpha2 Subunit [M0369488]
  • Collagen Type XI, alpha3 Subunit [M0369489]
  • Collagen Type XII [M0004790]
    A fibril-associated collagen found in many tissues bearing high tensile stress, such as TENDONS and LIGAMENTS. It is comprised of a trimer of three identical alpha1(XII) chains.
  • Collagen Type XII, alpha1 Subunit [M0369372]
  • Collagen Type XIII [M0004791]
    A non-fibrillar collagen found as a ubiquitously expressed membrane- associated protein. Type XIII collagen contains both collagenous and non-collagenous domains along with a transmembrane domain within its N-terminal region.
  • Collagen Type XIII, alpha1 Subunit [M0369516]
  • Collagen Type XVIII [M0442508]
    A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.
  • Collagen Type XVIII, alpha1 Subunit [M0227652]
  • Collagen Type-VIII, alpha1 Subunit [M0369413]
  • Collagenase Inhibitor [M0029269]
  • Collastat [M0369416]
  • Collectins [M0086742]
    A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.
  • Colony-Stimulating Factors [M0004822]
    Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
  • Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein [M0476632]
    An endogenous serine protease inhibitor (SERPINS). It is a 105-kDA plasma glycoprotein, encoded by C1NH gene and produced primarily by the liver and monocytes. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from hereditary ANGIONEUROTIC EDEMA.
  • Complement C1r Protease Inhibitor Proteins [M0476631]
  • Complement C1s Esterase Inhibitor Proteins [M0476630]
  • Complement Cytolysis Inhibiting Agents [M0476624]
  • Complement Cytolysis Inhibitor Proteins [M0479105]
  • Conalbumin [M0004981]
    A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.
  • Concanavalin A [M0004982]
    A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
  • Connexin 43 [M0027217]
    A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
  • Connexins [M0026696]
    A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
  • Conotoxins [M0328109]
    Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
  • Contractile Proteins [M0005127]
    Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
  • Contrykal [M0011909]
  • Conus Venoms [M0013997]
  • Copper [M0005152]
    A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
  • Copper Cystinate [M0005554]
  • Coproporphyrinogens [M0005158]
    Porphyrinogens which are intermediates in the heme biosynthesis. They have four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Coproporphyrinogens I and III are formed in the presence of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase from the corresponding uroporphyrinogen. They can yield coproporphyrins by autooxidation or protoporphyrin by oxidative decarboxylation.
  • Coproporphyrins [M0005159]
    Porphyrins with four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Elevated levels of Coproporphyrin III in the urine and feces are major findings in patients with HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
  • Coprosterol [M0006399]
  • Copulins [M0019714]
  • Cord Factors [M0005165]
    Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
  • Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit [M0276678]
    A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
  • Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit [M0215816]
    A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. Runx1 is frequently mutated in human LEUKEMIAS.
  • Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit [M0399600]
    A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain.
  • Core Binding Factor alpha Subunits [M0151835]
    A family of transcription factors that bind to the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. Family members contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. They can act as both activators and repressors of expression of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
  • Core Binding Factor beta Subunit [M0477050]
    A non-DNA binding transcription factor that is a subunit of core binding factor. It forms heterodimeric complexes with CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS, and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
  • Core Binding Factors [M0211900]
    Heterodimeric transcription factors containing a DNA-binding alpha subunits, (CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS), along with a non-DNA-binding beta subunits, CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT. Core Binding Factor regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
  • Core Protein lambda 2 [M0022697]
  • Core Protein V [M0022698]
  • Corn Oil [M0005174]
    Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
  • Cornstarch [M0020434]
  • Corona Virus Membrane Protein E1 [M0022708]
  • Coronavirus gpE1 [M0022709]
  • Coronavirus Peplomer Protein E1 [M0022710]
  • Coronavirus Peplomer Protein E2 JHM [M0022711]
  • Cortactin [M0214241]
    A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).
  • Corticosteroid-Anionbinder IIIA [M0021785]
  • Corticotropin-Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide [M0066247]
    A peptide derived from the cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, found primarily in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY but also in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of basal HYPOTHALAMUS. Its sequence is identical to the C-terminal 22-amino acids of ACTH or ACTH 18-39.
  • Cosmids [M0005231]
    Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
  • Cottonseed Oil [M0005252]
    Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.
  • Coumaric Acids [M0005257]
    Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
  • CpG Clusters [M0331726]
  • CpG Islands [M0028259]
    Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.
  • CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein [M0492988]
    A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.
  • Creatine [M0005292]
    An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
  • Creatinine [M0005300]
  • Creatinine Sulfate Salt [M0005301]
  • CREM Protein, alpha Isoform [M0325109]
  • CREM Protein, epsilon Isoform [M0185186]
  • CREM Protein, gamma Isoform [M0325108]
  • CREM Protein, tau Isoform [M0475655]
  • Crk-Associated Substrate Protein [M0477396]
    Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
  • Crotactin [M0005354]
  • Crotalid Venoms [M0005352]
    Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
  • Crotalin [M0005355]
  • Crotaline Snake Venom [M0005356]
  • Crotalotoxin [M0005357]
  • Crotamin [M0005358]
  • Crotonates [M0005360]
    Salts and esters of crotonic acid.
  • Cryptic Splice Sites [M0495715]
  • Crystallins [M0005393]
    A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.
  • Cullin Proteins [M0446344]
    A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
  • Cycasin [M0005444]
    Carcinogenic and neurotoxic glycoside occurring in a number of plant species, including Cycas revoluta.
  • Cyclic ADP-Ribose [M0162860]
    A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.
  • Cyclic AMP [M0000378]
    An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
  • Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein [M0003612]
    A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator [M0185189]
    Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein [M0026362]
    A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein A [M0481524]
    A basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is highly homologous to ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 2. It binds the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element in partnership with either PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN or activating transcription factor 2.
  • Cyclic AMP-Phosphodiesterase Activator [M0003214]
  • Cyclic CMP [M0005568]
    A cyclic nucleotide formed from CYTIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE by the action of cytidylate cyclase. It is a potential cyclic nucleotide intracellular mediator of signal transductions.
  • Cyclic GMP [M0009685]
    Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • Cyclic IMP [M0011367]
    Inosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). An inosine nucleotide which acts as a mild inhibitor of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP and as an inhibitor of cat heart cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
  • Cyclin A [M0029600]
    A 33-kDa protein identical to adenovirus E1A-associated protein p60. Cyclin A regulates p33cdk2 and p34cdc2, and is necessary for progression through the S phase of the cell cycle.
  • Cyclin B [M0029601]
    A 58-kDa protein that is regulated post-transcriptionally and post-translationally in the cell cycle.
  • Cyclin D1 [M0029612]
    Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
  • Cyclin E [M0029602]
    A 50-kDa protein that complexes with cdk2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15 [M0236014]
    An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing four ANKYRIN-LIKE REPEATS. INK4B is often inactivated by deletions, mutations, or hypermethylation in HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS.
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 [M0029615]
    A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18 [M0240536]
    An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing five ANKYRIN-LIKE REPEATS. Aberrant expression of this protein has been associated with deregulated EPITHELIAL CELL growth, organ enlargement, and a variety of NEOPLASMS.
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p19 [M0477673]
    An INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor containing five ANKYRIN REPEATS. Aberrant expression of this protein has been associated with TESTICULAR CANCER.
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 [M0224308]
    A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 [M0203045]
    A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57 [M0245969]
    A potent inhibitor of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES in G1 PHASE and S PHASE. In humans, aberrant expression of p57 is associated with various NEOPLASMS as well as with BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME.
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins [M0477620]
    A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases [M0028197]
    Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
  • Cyclins [M0024762]
    Regulatory proteins that function in the cell cycle to activate maturation promoting factor. They complex with p34cdc2 (PROTEIN P34CDC2), the catalytic subunit of MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR, and modulate its protein kinase activity. Cyclins themselves have no enzymatic activity.
  • Cyclodextrins [M0005463]
    A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
  • Cycloheptaamylose [M0005464]
  • Cystathionine [M0005532]
  • Cysteic Acid [M0005538]
    Beta-Sulfoalanine. An amino acid with a C-terminal sulfonic acid group which has been isolated from human hair oxidized with permanganate. It occurs normally in the outer part of the sheep's fleece, where the wool is exposed to light and weather.
  • Cysteine [M0005539]
    A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
  • Cysteine Hydrochloride [M0333361]
  • Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors [M0024280]
    Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
  • Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors, Endogenous [M0024281]
  • Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors, Exogenous [M0024282]
  • Cysteinyldopa [M0005549]
    Found in large amounts in the plasma and urine of patients with malignant melanoma. It is therefore used in the diagnosis of melanoma and for the detection of postoperative metastases. Cysteinyldopa is believed to be formed by the rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of 5-S-glutathionedopa found in melanin-producing cells.
  • Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator [M0028383]
    A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
  • Cystine [M0005555]
    A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
  • Cytidine [M0005567]
    A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
  • Cytidine Diphosphate [M0005570]
    Cytidine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonyms: CRPP; cytidine pyrophosphate.
  • Cytidine Diphosphate Choline [M0005571]
    Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.
  • Cytidine Monophosphate N-Acetylneuraminic Acid [M0005576]
    A nucleoside monophosphate sugar which donates N-acetylneuraminic acid to the terminal sugar of a ganglioside or glycoprotein.
  • Cytidine Triphosphate [M0005577]
    Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
  • Cytochalasin B [M0005580]
    A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
  • Cytochalasin D [M0023976]
    A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
  • Cytochalasins [M0005581]
    11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.
  • Cytochrome a Group [M0447608]
    Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) in which the heme prosthetic group is heme a, i.e., the iron chelate of cytoporphyrin IX. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
  • Cytochrome aa3 [M0447606]
    A dimer of CYTOCHROME A and CYTOCHROME A3.
  • Cytochrome bf [M0447816]
  • Cytochrome c Group [M0005583]
    A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
  • Cytochromes [M0005598]
    Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
  • Cytochromes a1 [M0077986]
    A subclass of heme a containing cytochromes have a reduced alpha-band absorption of 587-592 nm. They are primarily found in microorganisms.
  • Cytochromes a3 [M0447607]
    A subclass of heme a containing cytochromes with an alpha-band absorption of 605 nm. They are found in a variety of microorganisms and in eukaryotes as a high-spin cytochrome component of MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
  • Cytochromes c' [M0005584]
    A widely occurring subclass of c type cytochromes which function as electron carriers in the electron transport chain in photosynthetic and denitrifying BACTERIA.
  • Cytochromes c1 [M0005586]
    The 30-kDa membrane-bound c-type cytochrome protein of mitochondria that functions as an electron donor to CYTOCHROME C GROUP in the mitochondrial and bacterial RESPIRATORY CHAIN. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p545)
  • Cytochromes c6 [M0068930]
    Cytochromes of the c type that are involved in the transfer of electrons from CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX and PHOTOSYSTEM I.
  • Cytokinins [M0005601]
    Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
  • Cytolipins [M0009292]
  • Cytosine [M0005618]
    A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins [M0005620]
    Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
  • Cytotaxinogens [M0004024]
  • Cytotoxins [M0005633]
    Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
  • D-Aspartate [M0378610]
  • D-Aspartic Acid [M0378511]
    The D-isomer of ASPARTIC ACID.
  • D-Glutamine [M0009382]
  • D1 Photosystem II Protein, Plant [M0170014]
  • Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins [M0492979]
    Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.
  • Decanoic Acids [M0005715]
    10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
  • Decoy FAS Receptors [M0492601]
  • Decoy TRAIL Receptors [M0492600]
  • Deferoxamine [M0005750]
    Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
  • DEFICIENS Protein [M0267624]
    DEFICIENS is a homeotic gene involved in the genetic control of Antirrhinum majus flower development. Its protein is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.
  • Deficiens-Agamous-Like Proteins [M0238872]
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate [M0028759]
    The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.
  • Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels [M0236741]
    A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
  • delta, beta-Globin [M0009282]
  • delta-Bilirubin [M0002496]
  • delta-Crystallins [M0005394]
    A subclass of crystallins found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in BIRDS and REPTILES. They are inactive forms of the enzyme argininosuccinate lyase.
  • delta-Globin [M0009285]
  • delta-Sarcoglycan [M0266521]
  • Delursan [M0476463]
  • Dental Enamel Proteins [M0005877]
    The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.
  • Deoxycholate [M0005994]
  • Deoxycholic Acid [M0005992]
    A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.
  • Deoxycytidine [M0005997]
  • Deoxyhemoglobin S [M0010125]
  • Deoxyribonucleoproteins [M0006015]
    Proteins conjugated with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or specific DNA.
  • Deoxyribose [M0006018]
  • Deoxythymidylate [M0021449]
  • Deoxyuridine [M0006020]
    2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.
  • Dermatan Sulfate [M0006045]
    A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
  • Dermodress [M0369417]
  • Dermotoxins [M0006066]
    Specific substances elaborated by plants, microorganisms or animals that cause damage to the skin; they may be proteins or other specific factors or substances; constituents of spider, jellyfish or other venoms cause dermonecrosis and certain bacteria synthesize dermolytic agents.
  • Desert Hedgehog Protein [M0235923]
  • Desmin [M0006077]
    An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
  • Desmocollins [M0112627]
    A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that are divergent from those of classical CADHERINS. Their intracytoplasmic domains bind PLAKOGLOBIN; PLAKOPHILINS; and DESMOPLAKINS.
  • Desmoglein 2 [M0408335]
    A CALCIUM-dependent adhesion molecule of DESMOSOMES that also plays a role in embryonic STEM CELL proliferation.
  • Desmogleins [M0112628]
    A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that resemble those of classical CADHERINS.
  • Desmoplakin 1 [M0112631]
  • Desmoplakin 2 [M0112632]
  • Desmoplakins [M0112637]
    Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
  • Desmosine [M0006081]
    4-(4-Amino-4-carboxybutyl)-1-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-3,5-bis(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)pyridinium. A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.
  • Desmosomal Cadherins [M0479560]
    A single-pass transmembrane glycoproteins that mediate CALCIUM-dependent CELL ADHESION and are core components of DESMOSOMES.
  • Desmosterol [M0006083]
    An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.
  • Destolit [M0476462]
  • Destrin [M0374745]
    A member of the actin depolymerizing factors. Its depolymerizing activity is independent of HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.
  • Deuteroporphyrins [M0006097]
    Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
  • Dextran [M0006131]
  • Dextrans [M0006120]
    A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
  • Diacetyl [M0006164]
    Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.
  • Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters [M0091877]
    A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.
  • Dictyopterin [M0002563]
  • Dietary Soybean Proteins [M0028725]
    Proteins which are present in the edible portion of SOYBEANS.
  • Digitalysat [M0476051]
  • Digitoxin [M0006383]
    A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)
  • Digoxigenin [M0006385]
    3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
  • Dihydroepitestosterone [M0442745]
  • Dihydroergocornine [M0006403]
    A 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ERGOTAMINE that contains isopropyl sidechains at the 2' and 5' positions of the molecule.
  • Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate [M0006420]
    An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.
  • Diiodotyrosine [M0006426]
    A product from the iodination of MONOIODOTYROSINE. In the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, diiodotyrosine residues are coupled with other monoiodotyrosine or diiodotyrosine residues to form T4 or T3 thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE).
  • Dilmintal [M0011910]
  • Dinucleosomes [M0015069]
  • Dinucleotide Repeats [M0028260]
    The most common of the microsatellite tandem repeats (MICROSATELLITE REPEATS) dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes. They consist of two nucleotides repeated in tandem; guanine and thymine, (GT)n, is the most frequently seen.
  • Diosgenin [M0006495]
    (25R)-Spirost-5-en-3-beta-ol. A steroid sapogenin which is isolated from various plants. Can be converted to ecdysone, pregnenolone, and progesterone. Synonym: nitogenin.
  • Diphtheria Toxin [M0006522]
    An ADP-ribosylating EXOTOXIN produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains mono ADPribose transferase which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
  • DISC (Death Inducing Signaling Complex) [M0444186]
  • Disintegrins [M0028974]
    A family of polypeptides purified from snake venoms, which contain the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence. The RGD tripeptide binds to integrin receptors and thus competitively inhibits normal integrin-ligand interactions. Disintegrins thus block adhesive functions and act as platelet aggregation inhibitors.
  • DL-Arginine Acetate, Monohydrate [M0001684]
  • DNA [M0006644]
    A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
  • DNA Adducts [M0028067]
    Covalent adducts between chemical mutagens and DNA. Such couplings activate DNA repair processes and, unless repaired prior to DNA replication, may lead to nucleotide substitutions, deletions, and chromosome rearrangements. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
  • DNA Helix Destabilizing Proteins [M0006677]
  • DNA Insertion Elements [M0006654]
  • DNA Synthesis Inhibitors [M0028848]
  • DNA Transposable Elements [M0006651]
    Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
  • DNA, A-Form [M0006643]
    An isoform of DNA that occurs in an environment rich in SODIUM and POTASSIUM ions. It is a right-handed helix with 11 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.256 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 2.3 nm.
  • DNA, Antisense [M0025051]
    DNA that is complementary to the sense strand. (The sense strand has the same sequence as the mRNA transcript. The antisense strand is the template for mRNA synthesis.) Synthetic antisense DNAs are used to hybridize to complementary sequences in target RNAs or DNAs to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
  • DNA, B-Form [M0392703]
    The most common isoform of DNA found in nature. It is a right-handed helix with 10 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.338 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 1.9 nm.
  • DNA, C-Form [M0006647]
    An isoform of DNA that occurs under experimental conditions. It is a right-handed helix that is less compact than the B-form of DNA.
  • DNA, Circular [M0006682]
    Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
  • DNA, Double-Stranded [M0392704]
  • DNA, Intergenic [M0355765]
    Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
  • DNA, Kinetoplast [M0027301]
    DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.
  • DNA, Mitochondrial [M0006684]
    Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
  • DNA, Recombinant [M0006686]
    Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
  • DNA, Ribosomal [M0006690]
    DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
  • DNA, Ribosomal Spacer [M0355783]
    The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
  • DNA, Satellite [M0006691]
    Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
  • DNA, Z-Form [M0006646]
    A left-handed double helix of DNA. Its name derives from its narrow zigzag structure that is the least twisted and thinnest form of DNA. Z-DNA forming regions within the GENOME may play an important role in GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION.
  • DNA-Binding Proteins [M0006678]
    Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
  • Docosahexaenoate [M0006700]
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid (All-Z Isomer) [M0330388]
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid Dimer (All-Z Isomer) [M0330497]
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid, 3,6,9,12,15,18-Isomer [M0330392]
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid, 4,7,10,13,16,19-(All-Z-Isomer) [M0330389]
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid, 4,7,10,13,16,19-(All-Z-Isomer), Cerium Salt [M0330500]
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid, 4,7,10,13,16,19-(All-Z-Isomer), Cesium Salt [M0330499]
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid, 4,7,10,13,16,19-(All-Z-Isomer), Potassium Salt [M0330496]
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid, 4,7,10,13,16,19-(Z,Z,Z,Z,Z,E-Isomer) [M0330501]
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid, 4,7,10,13,16,19-Isomer [M0330435]
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid, 4,7,10,13,16,19-Isomer, Sodium Salt [M0330390]
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid, Sodium Salt [M0330393]
  • Docosahexaenoic Acids [M0006701]
    C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
  • Dolichol [M0006707]
    Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.
  • Dolichol Monophosphate Mannose [M0006708]
    A lipophilic glycosyl carrier of the monosaccharide mannose in the biosynthesis of oligosaccharide phospholipids and glycoproteins.
  • Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32 [M0120355]
    A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.
  • Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins [M0475608]
    Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
  • Dopamine Uptake Complex [M0189592]
    A dopamine plasma membrane transporter protein complex located on the membrane of dopaminergic neurons. The complex includes homo-oligomers of the DAT Dopamine Transporter.
  • Dotriacontane [M0006165]
  • Double-Stranded RNA-Binding Proteins [M0025318]
  • Double-Stranded Telomere-Binding Proteins [M0194751]
  • Drosophila melanogaster Proteins [M0385195]
  • Drosophila Proteins [M0385194]
    Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
  • DRTF1a Transcription Factor [M0188995]
  • DRTF1b Transcription Factor [M0188996]
  • DRTF1c Transcription Factor [M0188997]
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal [M0006858]
    Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
  • Dulcitol [M0372411]
  • Dynorphins [M0006908]
    A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.
  • Dystroglycans [M0197676]
    Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.
  • Dystrophin [M0024706]
    A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
  • Dystrophin-Associated Glycoprotein 1 [M0454544]
  • Dystrophin-Associated Protein Complex [M0463322]
    A macromolecular complex of proteins that includes DYSTROPHIN and DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. It plays a structural role in the linking the CYTOSKELETON to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
  • Dystrophin-Associated Proteins [M0463328]
    A group of proteins that associate with DYSTROPHIN at the CELL MEMBRANE to form the DYSTROPHIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN COMPLEX.
  • E Coli Transcription Termination Factor [M0019037]
  • E-Box Elements [M0371558]
    DNA locations with the consensus sequence CANNTG. ENHANCER ELEMENTS (GENETICS) may contain multiple copies of this element. E-boxes play a regulatory role in the control of transcription. They bind with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. Binding specificity is determined by the specific bHLH heterodimer or homodimer combination and by the specific nucleotides at the 3rd and 4th position of the E-box sequence.
  • E-Cadherins [M0024235]
  • E2F Transcription Factors [M0189005]
    A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
  • E2F1 Transcription Factor [M0188999]
    An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
  • E2F2 Transcription Factor [M0224487]
    An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F2 activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.
  • E2F3 Transcription Factor [M0477184]
    An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A. E2F3 regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis.
  • E2F3a Transcription Factor [M0477198]
  • E2F3b Transcription Factor [M0477199]
  • E2F4 Transcription Factor [M0239285]
    An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F4 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene PROMOTER REGIONS through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130 and RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P107.
  • E2F5 Transcription Factor [M0477186]
    An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F5 recruits chromatin remodeling factors indirectly to target gene promoters through RETINOBLASTOMA LIKE PROTEIN P130.
  • E2F6 Transcription Factor [M0477187]
    An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F6 recruits chromatin remodeling factors directly to target gene promoters and lacks the transactivation domain responsible for binding to the retinoblastoma family of tumor suppressors.
  • E2F7 Transcription Factor [M0477188]
    An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F7 has two separate DNA-binding domains and binds to DNA independently of a dimerization partner.
  • Early Growth Response Protein 1 [M0481740]
    An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
  • Early Growth Response Protein 2 [M0158412]
    An early growth response transcription factor that controls the formation of the MYELIN SHEATH around peripheral AXONS by SCHWANN CELLS. Mutations in EGR2 transcription factor have been associated with HEREDITARY MOTOR AND SENSORY NEUROPATHIES such as CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE.
  • Early Growth Response Protein 3 [M0190440]
    An early growth response transcription factor that is essential for the development of MUSCLE SPINDLES.
  • Early Growth Response Transcription Factors [M0481739]
    A family of transcription factors that are induced by GROWTH FACTORS and contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain composed of three ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
  • Early Promoters [M0017723]
  • Ectodysplasin A, Isoform 1 [M0492659]
    An ectodysplasin isoform with specificity for the EDAR RECEPTOR.
  • Ectodysplasin A, Isoform 2 [M0492660]
    An ectodysplasin isoform with specificity for the XEDAR RECEPTOR.
  • Ectodysplasins [M0284074]
    Transmembrane proteins belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that play an essential role in the normal development of several ectodermally derived organs. Several isoforms of the ectodysplasins exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the MRNA for the protein. The isoforms ectodysplasin A1 and ectodysplasin A2 are considered biologically active and each bind distinct ECTODYSPLASIN RECEPTORS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of ectodysplasin result in ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA 1, ANHIDROTIC.
  • Ectohormones [M0016589]
  • Edar-Associated Death Domain Protein [M0492748]
    A tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor that acts as a specific signaling adaptor protein for the EDAR RECEPTOR and plays an important role in ectodermal development. It binds to edar receptor via its C-terminal death domain region and to other specific TNF receptor-associated factors via its N-terminal domain. Loss of function of edar-associated death domain protein is associated with AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE ANHIDROTIC ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA.
  • eEF-Tu [M0016220]
  • Egg Proteins [M0007121]
    Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
  • Egg Shell Proteins [M0007122]
  • Egg White Proteins [M0007123]
  • Egyptian Sand Viper Venom [M0022695]
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid [M0023259]
    Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
  • EIF-(iso)4F [M0114951]
    An isoform of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F found in plants.
  • Elafin [M0485533]
    A secretory proteinase inhibitory protein that was initially purified from human SKIN. It is found in a variety mucosal secretions and is present at high levels in SPUTUM. Elafin may play a role in the innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) response of the LUNG.
  • Elapid Venoms [M0007148]
    Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
  • Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins [M0447484]
    A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
  • Electron-Transferring Flavoproteins [M0112516]
    Flavoproteins that serve as specific electron acceptors for a variety of DEHYDROGENASES. They participate in the transfer of electrons to a variety of redox acceptors that occur in the respiratory chain.
  • Eledoisin [M0007224]
    A peptide extracted from the posterior salivary glands of certain small octopi (Eledone spp., Mollusca), or obtained by synthesis. Its actions resemble those of SUBSTANCE P; it is a potent vasodilator and increases capillary permeability. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1364)
  • Ellagic Acid [M0007238]
    A fused four ring compound occurring free or combined in galls. Isolated from the kino of Eucalyptus maculata Hook and E. Hemipholia F. Muell. Activates Factor XII of the blood clotting system which also causes kinin release; used in research and as a dye.
  • Elongation Factor [M0016223]
  • Elongation Factor 1beta [M0088233]
  • Elongation Factor 1delta [M0088226]
  • Emodin [M0007302]
    Purgative anthraquinone found in several plants, especially Rhamnus frangula. It was formerly used as a laxative, but is now used mainly as tool in toxicity studies.
  • Endabuse [M0352862]
  • Endocannabinoids [M0443701]
    Endogenous compounds that bind to CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally different from the CANNABINOIDS which are primarily derived from plants.
  • Endogenous Retroviruses [M0029793]
    Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
  • Endomucins [M0058738]
  • Endothelial Growth Factors [M0024785]
    These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
  • Endothelin-1 [M0028780]
    A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
  • Endothelin-2 [M0028781]
    A 21-amino acid peptide produced predominantly within the kidney and intestine, with smaller amounts produced in the myocardium, placenta, and uterus, but the cells of origin are not clear. Endothelin-2 has no unique physiologic functions, as compared with endothelin-1. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
  • Endothelin-3 [M0028782]
    A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
  • Endothelins [M0024788]
    21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.
  • Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors [M0448292]
    Paracrine substances produced by the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM with VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation (VASODILATION) activities. Several factors have been identified, including NITRIC OXIDE and PROSTACYCLIN.
  • Enhancer Elements (Genetics) [M0007452]
    Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
  • Enisyl [M0012837]
  • Enteroglucagons [M0496329]
  • env Glycoproteins [M0024062]
  • Enzyme Activators [M0328188]
    Compounds or factors that act on a specific enzyme to increase its activity.
  • Enzyme Precursors [M0007521]
    Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
  • Eosinophil Granule Proteins [M0069643]
    Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.
  • Eph Ligand Family 2 Protein, Mammalian [M0244281]
  • Ephrin A Receptors [M0409929]
  • Ephrin-A1 [M0181712]
    An ephrin that was originally identified as the product of an early response gene induced by TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS. It is linked to the CELL MEMBRANE via a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR and binds EPHA2 RECEPTOR with high affinity. During embryogenesis high levels of ephrin-A1 are expressed in LUNG; KIDNEY; SALIVARY GLANDS; and INTESTINE.
  • Ephrin-A2 [M0296966]
    A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR-containing ephrin with a high affinity for the EPHA3 RECEPTOR. Early in embryogenesis it is expressed at high levels in the MESENCEPHALON; SOMITES; branchial arches, and LIMB BUD.
  • Ephrin-A3 [M0242150]
    A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin with a high affinity for the EPHA3 RECEPTOR; EPHA5 RECEPTOR; EPHA6 RECEPTOR; EPHA7 RECEPTOR; and EPHA8 RECEPTOR. It is found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
  • Ephrin-A4 [M0242157]
    A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin found in variety of adult tissue such as KIDNEY; LUNG; COLON and OVARY. During embryonic development, ephrin-A4 is expressed in the HIPPOCAMPUS and CEREBRAL CORTEX. It binds preferentially to ephA receptors (EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS) with the exception of the EPHA1 RECEPTOR.
  • Ephrin-A5 [M0296978]
    A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR containing ephrin found in developing tectum. It has been shown to mediate the bundling of cortical axons and repel the axonal growth of retinal ganglia axons. It is found in a variety of adult tissues of BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEY.
  • Ephrin-B1 [M0235725]
    A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that is specific for EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB2 RECEPTOR and EPHB3 RECEPTOR. It is widely expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues.
  • Ephrin-B2 [M0256945]
    A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that binds with high affinity to EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB3 RECEPTOR; and EPHB4 RECEPTOR. Expression of ephrin-B2 occurs in a variety of adult tissues. During embryogenesis, high levels of ephrin-B2 is seen in the PROSENCEPHALON; RHOMBENCEPHALON; developing SOMITES; LIMB BUD; and bronchial arches.
  • Ephrin-B3 [M0286807]
    A transmembrane domain containing ephrin. Although originally found to be specific for the EPHB3 RECEPTOR it has since been shown to bind a variety of EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. During embryogenesis ephrin-B3 is expressed at high levels in the ventral neural tube. In adult tissues, it is found primarily in the BRAIN and HEART.
  • Ephrins [M0409594]
    Signaling proteins that are ligands for the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. They are membrane-bound proteins that are attached to the CELL MEMBRANE either through a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR or through a transmembrane domain. Many of the ephrins are considered important intercellular signaling molecules that control morphogenic changes during embryogenesis.
  • Epididymal Secretory Proteins [M0148666]
    Proteins secreted by the epididymal epithelium. These proteins are both tissue- and species-specific. They are important molecular agents in the process of sperm maturation.
  • Episomes [M0016987]
  • Epithelial Sodium Channel [M0254795]
    An AMILORIDE-sensitive sodium channel found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON, the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. It plays a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
  • Epithelial Sodium Channel, alpha Subunit [M0484144]
  • Epithelial Sodium Channel, beta Subunit [M0484145]
  • Epithelial Sodium Channel, delta Subunit [M0484148]
  • Epithelial Sodium Channel, gamma Subunit [M0484146]
  • Epoprostenol [M0017816]
    A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
  • epsilon-Casein [M0003591]
  • epsilon-Crystallins [M0005395]
    A group of crystallins that have been found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of DUCKS and CROCODILES. They are inactivated forms of the B chain subunit of lactate dehydrogenase.
  • epsilon-Globin [M0009286]
  • epsilon-Sarcoglycan [M0284713]
  • Equilibrative Nucleoside Transport Proteins [M0283370]
    A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.
  • Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 [M0270202]
    A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is sensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.
  • Equilibrative-Nucleoside Transporter 2 [M0285219]
    A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is insensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.
  • Ergot Alkaloids [M0007656]
    Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.
  • Ergotaminine [M0007663]
  • Ergothioneine [M0007666]
    A naturally occurring metabolite of HISTIDINE that has antioxidant properties.
  • Erucic Acids [M0007672]
    cis-13-Docosenoic Acids. 22-Carbon monounsaturated, monocarboxylic acids.
  • Eryhem [M0010130]
  • Erythritol [M0007685]
    A four-carbon sugar that is found in algae, fungi, and lichens. It is twice as sweet as sucrose and can be used as a coronary vasodilator.
  • Erythrocruorins [M0007692]
    High molecular weight (1,500,000 to 3,000,000) hemoglobins found in the plasma of many polychete and oligochete annelid worms and various mollusks. They bind one mole of oxygen per heme and function as oxygen carriers.
  • Erythrocyte Band 4.5 Protein [M0014035]
  • Erythrocyte Lactate Transporters [M0110478]
  • Erythrocyte protein p55 [M0075050]
  • Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors [M0166803]
    A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
  • Esculin [M0007736]
  • Etamucine [M0357384]
  • Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels [M0230007]
    A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
  • Etioporphyrins [M0007927]
    Porphyrins with four methyl and four ethyl side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
  • ets-Domain Protein Elk-1 [M0164561]
    A member of the ternary complex family of ets-related transcription factors that is regulated by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES including JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3; and P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
  • ets-Domain Protein Elk-4 [M0197465]
    A member of the ternary complex family of ets-related transcription factors that is regulated by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES such as EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED MAP KINASES; and P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
  • Eu-Actinin [M0000277]
  • Euglobulins [M0019696]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-1 [M0024412]
    A eukaryotic initiation factor that binds to 40S ribosomal subunits. Although initially considered a "non-essential" factor for eukaryotic transcription initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor-1 is now thought to play an important role in localizing RIBOSOMES at the initiation codon of MRNA.
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2 [M0024274]
    Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2, alpha Subunit [M0024275]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2, beta Subunit [M0024276]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2, gamma Subunit [M0024277]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B [M0328184]
    A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B, alpha Subunit [M0331721]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B, beta Subunit [M0331722]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B, delta Subunit [M0331723]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B, epsilon Subunit [M0331724]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B, gamma Subunit [M0331725]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3 [M0177967]
    A multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor that contains at least 8 distinct polypeptides. It plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits to the site of transcription initiation by promoting the dissociation of non-translating ribosomal subunits. It also is involved in promoting the binding of a ternary complex of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2; GTP; and INITIATOR TRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit.
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3, Subunit 1 [M0420011]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3, Subunit 2 [M0420012]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3, Subunit 3 [M0407774]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3, Subunit 4 [M0303455]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3, Subunit 5 [M0420013]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3, Subunit 6 [M0242820]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3, Subunit 7 [M0420029]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3, Subunit 8 [M0373801]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A [M0086510]
    A component of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F that as an RNA helicase involved in unwinding the secondary structure of the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGION of MRNA. The unwinding facilitates the binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit.
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A1 [M0086506]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A2 [M0086507]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A3 [M0350427]
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E [M0138060]
    A peptide initiation factor that binds specifically to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE of MRNA in the CYTOPLASM. It is a component of the trimeric complex EIF4F.
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4F [M0114953]
    A trimeric peptide initiation factor complex that associates with the 5' MRNA cap structure of RNA (RNA CAPS) and plays an essential role in MRNA TRANSLATION. It is composed of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4A; EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4E; and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4G.
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4G [M0158342]
    A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-5 [M0110035]
    A eukaryotic initiation factor that interacts with the 40S initiation complex and promotes the hydrolysis of the bound GTP. The hydrolysis of GTP causes the release of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-3 from the 40S subunit and the subsequent joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit to the 40S complex to form the functional 80S initiation complex
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factors [M0419373]
    Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1 [M0074564]
    A glial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found predominately in ASTROCYTES. It is also expressed in HEART and SKELETAL MUSCLE and in the PLACENTA.
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2 [M0244870]
    A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3 [M0122875]
    A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 4 [M0476512]
    A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein that is primarily expressed in cerebellar PURKINJE CELLS on postsynaptic DENDRITIC SPINES.
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 5 [M0476513]
    A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein that is primarily expressed in the RETINA.
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Proteins [M0477141]
  • Exons [M0008026]
    The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or structural RNA.
  • Exportins [M0383378]
    A subclass of karyopherins that function specifically to export molecules into the nucleus.
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins [M0024954]
    Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
  • Extrinsic Plasminogen Activators [M0016993]
  • Eye Lens Protein [M0005400]
  • F Factor [M0008108]
    A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
  • F Protein Newcastle Disease Virus [M0022723]
  • F VIII-vWf [M0022846]
  • F-Actin [M0456011]
  • F1 Polypeptide (Paramyxovirus) [M0022724]
  • F2-Isoprostanes [M0231172]
    Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
  • Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein [M0089784]
    A highly abundant DNA binding protein whose expression is strongly correlated with the growth phase of bacteria. The protein plays a role in regulating DNA topology and activation of RIBOSOMAL RNA transcription. It was originally identified as a factor required for inversion stimulation by the Hin recombinase of SALMONELLA and Gin site-specific recombinase of BACTERIOPHAGE MU.
  • Factor IX [M0008141]
    Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).
  • Factor V [M0008142]
    Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.
  • Factor Va [M0024391]
    Activated form of factor V. It is an essential cofactor for the activation of prothrombin catalyzed by factor Xa.
  • Factor VII [M0008144]
    Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.
  • Factor VIII [M0008146]
    Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.
  • Factor VIII Coagulant Antigen [M0008149]
  • Factor VIII Procoagulant Activity [M0008153]
  • Factor VIII-Heavy Chain [M0008147]
  • Factor VIII-Related Antigen [M0022847]
  • Factor VIIIa [M0024392]
    Activated form of factor VIII. The B-domain of factor VIII is proteolytically cleaved by thrombin to form factor VIIIa. Factor VIIIa exists as a non-covalent dimer in a metal-linked (probably calcium) complex and functions as a cofactor in the enzymatic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Factor VIIIa is similar in structure and generation to factor Va.
  • Factor VIIIC [M0008151]
  • Factor VIIIR-Ag [M0022852]
  • Factor VIIIR-RCo [M0022848]
  • Factor X [M0008154]
    Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.
  • Factor XI [M0008156]
    Stable blood coagulation factor involved in the intrinsic pathway. The activated form XIa activates factor IX to IXa. Deficiency of factor XI is often called hemophilia C.
  • Factor XII [M0008158]
    Stable blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel. Along with prekallikrein, it serves as the contact factor that initiates the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Kallikrein activates factor XII to XIIa. Deficiency of factor XII, also called the Hageman trait, leads to increased incidence of thromboembolic disease.
  • Factor XIII [M0008160]
    A fibrin-stabilizing plasma enzyme (TRANSGLUTAMINASES) that is activated by THROMBIN and CALCIUM to form FACTOR XIIIA. It is important for stabilizing the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) which culminates the coagulation cascade.
  • Factor XIII A-Chain [M0008161]
  • Factor XIIIa [M0017881]
    Activated form of FACTOR XIII, a transglutaminase, which stabilizes the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) culminating the blood coagulation cascade.
  • Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group A Protein [M0483788]
    A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that is the most commonly mutated protein in FANCONI ANEMIA. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by PROTEIN KINASE B and forms a complex with FANCC PROTEIN in the CELL NUCLEUS.
  • Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C Protein [M0217296]
    A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that regulates the activities of CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE and GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE. It is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM, but moves to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to FANCE PROTEIN.
  • Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein [M0383516]
    A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that undergoes mono-ubiquitination by FANCL PROTEIN in response to DNA DAMAGE. Also, in response to IONIZING RADIATION it can undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED PROTEIN. Modified FANCD2 interacts with BRCA2 PROTEIN in a stable complex with CHROMATIN, and it is involved in DNA REPAIR by homologous RECOMBINATION.
  • Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group E Protein [M0483808]
    A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that interacts with FANCC PROTEIN and FANCD2 PROTEIN. It promotes the accumulation of FANCC protein in the CELL NUCLEUS.
  • Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group F Protein [M0483789]
    A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein. It is an essential component of a nuclear core complex that protects the GENOME against CHROMOSOMAL INSTABILITY. It interacts directly with FANCG PROTEIN and helps stabilize a complex with FANCA PROTEIN and FANCC PROTEIN.
  • Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group G Protein [M0280192]
    A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE during MITOSIS. It forms a complex with other FANCONI ANEMIA PROTEINS and helps protect CELLS from DNA DAMAGE by genotoxic agents.
  • Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins [M0217295]
    A diverse group of proteins whose genetic MUTATIONS have been associated with the chromosomal instability syndrome FANCONI ANEMIA. Many of these proteins play important roles in protecting CELLS against OXIDATIVE STRESS.
  • fas Death-Inducing Signaling Complex Components [M0492984]
  • Fas Ligand Protein [M0229054]
    A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
  • Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein [M0245371]
    A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
  • Fatty Acid Transport Proteins [M0283532]
    A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
  • Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins [M0075751]
    Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
  • Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins, Adipocyte-Specific [M0075736]
  • Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins, Brain-Specific [M0075722]
  • Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins, Cytosolic-Specific [M0373127]
  • Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins, Intestinal-Specific [M0075743]
  • Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins, Liver-Specific [M0075745]
  • Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins, Myocardial-Specific [M0075739]
  • Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins, Plasma-Membrane Specific [M0075725]
  • Fatty Acids [M0008265]
    Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
  • Fatty Acids, Essential [M0008268]
    Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 [M0023885]
    A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
  • Fatty Acids, Volatile [M0008273]
    Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
  • Ferredoxin I [M0008345]
  • Ferredoxin II [M0008346]
  • Ferredoxin III [M0008348]
  • Ferredoxins [M0008347]
    Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
  • Ferrichrome [M0008353]
    A cyclic peptide consisting of three residues of delta-N-hydroxy-delta-N-acetylornithine. It acts as an iron transport agent in Ustilago sphaerogena.
  • Ferrihaem [M0010075]
  • Ferriprotoporphyrin [M0010076]
  • Ferriprotoporphyrin IX [M0010077]
  • Ferritins [M0008355]
    Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
  • Ferrous Hemoglobin [M0010131]
  • Fetal Globulins [M0008409]
  • Fetal Hemoglobin [M0008402]
    The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.
  • Fetal Proteins [M0008410]
  • Fetoprotein [M0000764]
  • Fibril-Associated Collagens [M0369273]
    A family of non-fibrillar collagens that interact with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS. They contain short triple helical domains interrupted by short non-helical domains and do not form into collagen fibrils.
  • Fibrillar Collagens [M0369274]
    A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
  • Fibrin [M0008424]
    A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.
  • Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products [M0008426]
    Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.
  • Fibrinogen [M0008430]
    Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
  • Fibrinogens, Abnormal [M0023429]
    Fibrinogens which have a functional defect as the result of one or more amino acid substitutions in the amino acid sequence of normal fibrinogen. Abnormalities of the fibrinogen molecule may impair any of the major steps involved in the conversion of fibrinogen into stabilized fibrin, such as cleavage of the fibrinopeptides by thrombin, polymerization and cross-linking of fibrin. The resulting dysfibrinogenemias can be clinically silent or can be associated with bleeding, thrombosis or defective wound healing.
  • Fibrinopeptide A [M0008435]
    Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the alpha chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin during the blood coagulation process. Each peptide chain contains 18 amino acid residues. In vivo, fibrinopeptide A is used as a marker to determine the rate of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin.
  • Fibrinopeptide B [M0008436]
    Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the beta chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin. Each peptide chain contains 20 amino acid residues. The removal of fibrinopeptides B is not required for coagulation.
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 [M0024768]
    A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 [M0263998]
    A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 [M0024770]
    A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 3 [M0480871]
    A fibroblast growth factor that is expressed primarily during development.
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 4 [M0174910]
    A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUD development.
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 5 [M0185905]
    A fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in regulation of HAIR FOLLICLE phenotype. Spontaneous mutation of the gene for this protein results in a strain of MICE with abnormally long hair, referred to as angora mice.
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 6 [M0480880]
    A fibroblast growth factor that was initially identified based on its sequence similarity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 4. It is found in MYOBLASTS and plays an important role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 7 [M0168688]
    A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 [M0207326]
    A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 8b [M0402647]
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 [M0257580]
    A fibroblast growth factor that was originally identified as a mitogen for GLIAL CELLS. It is expressed primarily in NEURONS.
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors [M0008437]
    A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
  • Fibroblast Intermediate Conductance Potassium Channel [M0355651]
  • Fibroins [M0008444]
    Fibrous proteins secreted by INSECTS and SPIDERS. Generally, the term refers to silkworm fibroin secreted by the silk gland cells of SILKWORMS, Bombyx mori. Spider fibroins are called spidroins or dragline silk fibroins
  • Fibronectins [M0008450]
    Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
  • Ficusin [M0008462]
    A naturally occurring furocoumarin, found in PSORALEA. After photoactivation with UV radiation, it binds DNA via single and double-stranded cross-linking.
  • Filipin I [M0008474]
  • Filipin II [M0008475]
  • Filipin IV [M0008476]
  • Fimbriae Protein Precusors [M0163780]
  • Fimbriae Proteins [M0060788]
    Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
  • Fire Ant Venoms [M0001288]
  • Fish Antifreeze Proteins, Type I [M0355985]
  • Fish Antifreeze Proteins, Type II [M0355986]
  • Fish Antifreeze Proteins, Type III [M0355987]
  • Fish Liver Oils [M0008517]
  • Fish Oils [M0008518]
    Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the livers. Those from the liver are usually high in vitamin A. The oils are used as dietary supplements, in soaps and detergents, as protective coatings, and as a base for other food products such as vegetable shortenings.
  • Fish Proteins [M0385515]
    Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).
  • Fish Venoms [M0008520]
    Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.
  • Flagellin [M0008533]
    A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
  • Flavin Mononucleotide [M0008652]
    A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
  • Flavin Mononucleotide Disodium Salt [M0330282]
  • Flavin Mononucleotide Monosodium Salt [M0330280]
  • Flavin Mononucleotide Monosodium Salt, Dihydrate [M0330283]
  • Flavin Mononucleotide Sodium Salt [M0330281]
  • Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide [M0008169]
    A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
  • Flavitan [M0372893]
  • Flavodoxin [M0008548]
    A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.
  • Flavoproteins [M0008550]
  • FLICE-Inhibitory Protein Long Form [M0278131]
  • FLICE-Inhibitory Protein Short Form [M0278132]
  • Fluorine [M0008618]
    A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.
  • fms Oncogene Product gp120 [M0024880]
  • fms Oncogene Protein gp120 [M0024881]
  • FO-1561 [M0373888]
  • Follistatin [M0157962]
    A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.
  • Follistatin-Like Protein 1 [M0416794]
    A secreted HEPARIN-binding glycoprotein of approximately 35 kD, encoded by the FSTL1 or FRP gene. Expression of follistatin-related protein 1 is associated with growth inhibition and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
  • Follistatin-Like Protein 3 [M0416793]
    A secreted glycoprotein of approximately 28 kD, encoded by the FLRG or FSTL3 gene.
  • Follistatin-Related Proteins [M0239102]
    Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.
  • Food Orange 8 [M0351960]
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors [M0166232]
    A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
  • Formiminoglutamic Acid [M0008762]
    Measurement of this acid in the urine after oral administration of histidine provides the basis for the diagnostic test of folic acid deficiency and of megaloblastic anemia of pregnancy.
  • Forskolin [M0008777]
    Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant Coleus forskohlii. Has antihypertensive, positive ionotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
  • Fos B Protein [M0025543]
  • Fos-Related Antigen-2 [M0218884]
    A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that is closely related to C-FOS PROTEINS. It forms heterodimeric complexes with C-JUN PROTEINS to regulate GENE transcription.
  • Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein [M0188653]
    A RNA-binding protein that is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM. It helps regulate GENETIC TRANSLATION in NEURONS and is absent or under-expressed in FRAGILE X SYNDROME.
  • Free Radicals [M0008827]
    Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
  • Frog Venoms [M0001018]
  • Fructosediphosphates [M0008863]
    Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.
  • Fucose [M0008873]
  • Fungal Peptides [M0008889]
  • Fungal Proteins [M0008890]
    Proteins found in any species of fungus.
  • Furaldehyde [M0008897]
  • Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors [M0454727]
    Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.
  • Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl [M0024527]
    Translation products of a fusion mRNA derived from the breakpoint cluster region (bcr) gene and a cellular abl (c-abl) gene translocated to chromosome 22. The p210(bcr-abl) fusion protein is found in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. The p190(bcr-abl) fusion protein is found in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia. The activation of human c-abl by chromosomal translocation is essentially the same as the activation of murine c-abl by viral translocation in Abelson murine leukemia virus.
  • Fusion VP1 Protein [M0022725]
  • G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channel 1 [M0220391]
  • G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channel 2 [M0214257]
  • G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channel 3 [M0237545]
  • G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channel 4 [M0257192]
  • G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels [M0451133]
    A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
  • G(M1) Ganglioside [M0008923]
    A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
  • G(M1) Ganglioside Activating Factor [M0063211]
  • G(M2) Activator Protein [M0111676]
    An essential cofactor for the degradation of G(M2)GANGLIOSIDE by lysosomal BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE. Genetic mutations resulting in loss of G(M2) activator protein are one of the causes of TAY-SACHS DISEASE, AB VARIANT.
  • G(M2) Ganglioside [M0008925]
    A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.
  • G(M3) Ganglioside [M0008926]
    A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.
  • G-Actin [M0000300]
  • G-Box Binding Factors [M0200114]
    A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.
  • GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor [M0191974]
    A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
  • GA-Binding Protein, Alpha Subunit [M0479984]
  • GA-Binding Protein, Beta Subunit [M0479985]
  • GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins [M0475613]
    A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates that extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
  • GABA Transporter 1 [M0073957]
  • GABA Transporter 2 [M0472742]
  • GABA Transporter 3 [M0472743]
  • GABA Transporter 4 [M0476524]
  • gag Gene Related Protein [M0024054]
  • gag-myc Fused Protein p110 [M0024042]
  • Galactitol [M0006879]
    A naturally occurring product of plants obtained following reduction of GALACTOSE. It appears as a white crystalline powder with a slight sweet taste. It may form in excess in the lens of the eye in GALACTOSEMIAS, a deficiency of GALACTOKINASE.
  • Galactosamine [M0008936]
  • Galactosylceramides [M0008947]
    Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a galactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-galactosidase, is the cause of galactosylceramide lipidosis or globoid cell leukodystrophy.
  • Galanin [M0028382]
    A 29-amino acid peptide that is found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It inhibits glucose-induced insulin release, hippocampal acetylcholine release, hippocampal glutamate (but not GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) release, and it lowers spinal excitability and firing of locus coeruleus neurons. It stimulates food (fat) intake and growth hormone release upon hypothalamic or i.c.v. injection. (Crit Rev Neurobiol 1993;7(3-4):229-74)
  • Galectin 1 [M0228480]
    A galectin found abundantly in smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) and SKELETAL MUSCLE and many other tissues. It occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.
  • Galectin 2 [M0228485]
    A galectin found preferentially expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. The protein occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.
  • Galectin 4 [M0125657]
    A galectin found in the small and large intestine and the stomach. It occurs as a homodimer with two 36-kDa subunits and is localized to sites of cell adhesion where it may play role in assembly of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS.
  • Galectins [M0067948]
    A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.
  • gamma Catenin [M0112636]
    A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.
  • gamma-Actin [M0000301]
  • gamma-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide [M0447905]
    The 126-amino acid C-terminal fragment of the ANP precursor, an approximately 150-amino acid polypeptide in a number of species. It is formed by the removal of the N-terminal signal sequence ANP (1-24). This prohormone contains various active ANF sequences.
  • gamma-Carboxyglutamate [M0023167]
  • gamma-Caseins [M0003592]
  • gamma-Crystallins [M0005396]
    A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.
  • gamma-Endorphin [M0028179]
    An endogenous opioid peptide derived from BETA-LIPOTROPIN of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) system. It is the 17-amino acid sequence of the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN and differs from ALPHA-ENDORPHIN by one amino acid (beta-endorphin 1-16).
  • gamma-Fibrinogen [M0008431]
  • gamma-Globin [M0009287]
  • gamma-Globulins [M0008973]
    Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
  • gamma-Hydroxybutyrate [M0020114]
  • gamma-Linolenic Acid [M0027133]
    An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • gamma-Sarcoglycan [M0230890]
  • gamma-Scorpion Toxin [M0019559]
  • gamma-SNAP [M0202546]
  • gamma-Synuclein [M0159752]
    A homolog of ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN that plays a role in neurofilament network integrity. It is overexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS and may be involved in modulating AXON architecture during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult. Gamma-Synuclein may also activate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS associated with ETS-DOMAIN PROTEIN ELK-1.
  • gamma-Transducin [M0023548]
  • gamma-Tubulin [M0022141]
  • Ganglioside Hydrolysis Activator Proteins [M0063225]
  • Gangliosides [M0008987]
    A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
  • GAP-43 Protein [M0029597]
    A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
  • Gastric Acid [M0009000]
    Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.
  • Gastric Mucin [M0009008]
  • GATA Transcription Factors [M0478900]
    A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
  • GATA1 Transcription Factor [M0166784]
    A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
  • GATA2 Transcription Factor [M0192017]
    An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
  • GATA3 Transcription Factor [M0187089]
    A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
  • GATA4 Transcription Factor [M0214637]
    A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
  • GATA5 Transcription Factor [M0236194]
    A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and is involved in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. In the developing heart, GATA5 becomes restricted to the ENDOCARDIUM and regulates transcription of genes such as cardiac TROPONIN C.
  • GATA6 Transcription Factor [M0236198]
    A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
  • GC Rich Sequence [M0328023]
    A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of GUANINE and CYTOSINE bases.
  • Gelsolin [M0027489]
    A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.
  • Gene Product, A [M0024981]
  • Gene Product, Q [M0024982]
  • Gene Products, env [M0024061]
    Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
  • Gene Products, gag [M0024055]
    Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
  • Gene Products, nef [M0024067]
    Products of the HIV nef gene (formerly 3'-orf gene). The products trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
  • Gene Products, pol [M0024059]
    Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
  • Gene Products, Protein [M0333263]
  • Gene Products, rev [M0024072]
    Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for HIV viral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the HIV gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
  • Gene Products, tat [M0024076]
    Trans-acting transcription factors. Nuclear proteins whose expression is required for HIV viral replication. The tat protein stimulates HIV-LTR-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
  • Gene Products, tax [M0025005]
    Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the LTR.
  • Gene Products, vif [M0024983]
    A 23-kDa regulatory protein important for virion infectivity in HIV. The protein is found in the cytoplasm of HIV-infected cells and is not absolutely required for virion formation.
  • Gene Products, vpu [M0024973]
    Non-glycosylated, membrane-associated, 16 kDa proteins which are expressed in large amounts in cells infected with HIV-1. The proteins are required for efficient virion maturation and release. They are not present in HIV-2 nor in SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS. vpu is short for viral protein U, with U undefined.
  • General Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins [M0407610]
  • Genes, Jumping [M0445118]
  • Genistein [M0029441]
    An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 phase arrest in human and murine cell lines.
  • Genomic Islands [M0444985]
    Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
  • Genomic Islets [M0444987]
  • Germine Acetates [M0009209]
    Germine derivatives acetylated on any one or more of the hydroxy groups. These compounds are present in many polyester alkaloids which occur in Veratrum and Zygadenus species. They are used as antihypertensive agents, and in some cases, exhibit curare-like activity.
  • Germine-3-monoacetate [M0009210]
  • Gibberellins [M0009226]
    A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
  • Glia Maturation Factor [M0328190]
    A factor identified in the brain that influences the growth and differentiation of NEURONS and NEUROGLIA. Glia maturation factor beta is the 17-kDa polypeptide product of the GMFB gene and is the principal component of GLIA MATURATION FACTOR.
  • Glia Maturation Factor beta [M0328663]
  • Gliadin [M0009263]
    Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with celiac disease.
  • Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor [M0233028]
    The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.
  • Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factors [M0479211]
    A family of closely related nerve growth factors that promote NEURON survival. They bind to GDNF RECEPTORS and stimulate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION through PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-RET.
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein [M0009264]
    An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
  • Glial Growth Factor [M0063177]
  • Glioma-Derived Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor [M0175398]
  • Globins [M0009288]
    The protein constituents of hemoglobin. The term is used for proteins attached to iron-porphyrin molecules such as hemoglobin and MYOGLOBIN proteins.
  • Globosides [M0009291]
    Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
  • Globulins [M0009293]
  • Glu-Plasminogen [M0016990]
  • Glucagon Precursors [M0484570]
  • Glucanase 447-G [M0006107]
  • Glucose [M0009339]
    A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
  • Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative [M0014037]
    A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
  • Glucose Transport-Inducing Protein [M0014038]
  • Glucose Transporter Type 1 [M0201643]
    A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
  • Glucose Transporter Type 2 [M0208875]
    A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
  • Glucose Transporter Type 3 [M0191856]
    A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.
  • Glucose Transporter Type 4 [M0199158]
    A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
  • Glucose Transporter Type 5 [M0206865]
    A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.
  • Glucose, (alpha-D)-Isomer [M0330317]
  • Glucose, (beta-D)-Isomer [M0330318]
  • Glucose-6-Phosphate [M0028730]
    An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Glucosephosphates [M0009356]
  • Glucosinolates [M0009359]
    Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
  • Glucosylceramides [M0009361]
    Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a glucose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramides. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-glucosidase, is the cause of Gaucher's disease.
  • Glucuronate [M0095418]
  • Glucuronates [M0009363]
    Salts and esters of GLUCURONIC ACID.
  • Glucuronic Acid [M0095420]
    Derivatives of uronic acid found throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. They detoxify drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES in the liver which are more water-soluble metabolites that can be easily eliminated from the body.
  • Glucuronic Acids [M0328158]
    Derivatives of uronic acid that are distributed widely throughout the plant and animal kingdoms.
  • Glucuronides [M0328768]
    Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
  • Glue Protein, Drosophila [M0009372]
  • Glue Proteins, Drosophila [M0009367]
    Glycosylated proteins which are part of the salivary glue that Drosophila larvae secrete as a means of fixing themselves to an external substrate for the duration of the pre-pupal and pupal period. The proteins which consist of at least eight polypeptides that are expressed during the third larval instar.
  • Glutamate [M0028012]
  • Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins [M0475618]
    A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
  • Glutamate Transporter [M0074576]
  • Glutamate-Aspartate Transporter [M0074577]
  • Glutamic Acid [M0028010]
    A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
  • Glutamic Acid, (D)-Isomer [M0331178]
  • Glutamine [M0009383]
    A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
  • Glutathione [M0009388]
    A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
  • Glutathione Disulfide [M0029384]
    A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.
  • Glutathione Disulfide, Ion(1-) [M0329123]
  • Glutelins [M0009404]
  • Gluten [M0009405]
    A protein substance of wheat which is intermixed with the starchy endosperm of the grain. It causes the carbon dioxide produced during dough fermentation to be retained by the dough in a manner which provides the porous and spongy structure of bread. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate [M0009408]
    An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.
  • Glycerol [M0009417]
    A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
  • Glycerol Teichoic Acids [M0021121]
  • Glycerophosphates [M0009422]
    Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
  • Glycerophospholipids [M0030054]
    Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
  • Glycerylphosphorylcholine [M0009450]
    A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES (lecithins), in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.
  • Glycine [M0009451]
    A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
  • Glycine Cholate [M0009455]
  • Glycine Decarboxylase Complex H-Protein [M0089783]
    A LIPOIC ACID-containing protein that plays the pivotal role in the transfer of methylamine groups and reducing equivalents between the three enzymatic components of the glycine decarboxylase complex.
  • Glycine Deoxycholate [M0009458]
  • Glycine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins [M0475615]
    A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE. Glycine plasma membrane transport proteins are different than
  • Glycine Transporter 1 [M0384074]
  • Glycine Transporter 2 [M0384075]
  • Glycocholic Acid [M0009454]
    The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
  • Glycodeoxycholic Acid [M0009457]
    A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
  • Glycogen [M0009459]
  • Glycolipids [M0009478]
    Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
  • Glycophorin [M0009482]
    The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
  • Glycophorin A [M0009483]
  • Glycophorin A(M) [M0009484]
  • Glycophorin B [M0009485]
  • Glycophorin C [M0009486]
  • Glycophorin E [M0009488]
  • Glycophorin HA [M0009487]
  • Glycoprotein gp68 [M0000779]
  • Glycosaminoglycans [M0009496]
    Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
  • Glycosylation End Products, Advanced [M0026021]
    Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of glucose and proteins in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus.
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchors [M0026199]
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Linkage [M0026200]
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositols [M0026197]
    Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They act to anchor proteins or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
  • Glycylglycine [M0009507]
    The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.
  • Glypican-1 [M0495513]
  • Glypican-2 [M0495514]
  • Glypican-3 [M0258023]
  • Glypican-4 [M0495515]
  • Glypican-5 [M0495516]
  • Glypicans [M0029408]
    A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored, cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans that may play a role in CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION by modulating ligand-receptor interactions.
  • GM1a Monosialoganglioside [M0008924]
  • GMP [M0009691]
  • Gold [M0009521]
    A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
  • Goosecoid Protein [M0195581]
    Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.
  • Gossypol Dipotassium Salt [M0330222]
  • Gossypol Sodium Salt [M0330224]
  • Gossypol, (+)-Isomer [M0330223]
  • Gossypol, (+-)-Isomer [M0330225]
  • Gossypol, (-)-Isomer [M0330226]
  • gp120(v-fms) [M0024882]
  • Granulin Matrix Proteins [M0022734]
  • GRB10 Adaptor Protein [M0246084]
    A binding partner for several RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES, including INSULIN RECEPTOR and INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR. It contains a C-terminal SH2 DOMAIN and mediates various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways.
  • GRB2 Adaptor Protein [M0204531]
    A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
  • GRB2 Adaptor Protein, Grb3-3 Isoform [M0204529]
    Grb3-3 is a natural isoform of GRB2 PROTEIN with a deletion in the SH2 DOMAIN. It acts as a dominant negative protein over GRB2, suppressing proliferative signals. It has also been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
  • GRB7 Adaptor Protein [M0207321]
    A SH2 DOMAIN-containing protein that mediates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways from multiple CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS, including the EPHB1 RECEPTOR. It interacts with FOCAL ADHESION KINASE and is involved in CELL MIGRATION.
  • GroEL Protein [M0028193]
    A chaperonin 60 heat-shock protein isolated from Escherichia coli.
  • GroES Protein [M0028192]
    A chaperonin 10 heat-shock protein isolated from Escherichia coli.
  • Growth Factors [M0496065]
  • Growth Inhibitors [M0009656]
    Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
  • Growth-Associated Proteins, Neuronal [M0014657]
  • GTP Phosphohydrolase Activators [M0328191]
    Agents and factors that activate GTP phosphohydrolase activity.
  • GTP Phosphohydrolase-Linked Elongation Factors [M0328193]
    Factors that utilize energy from the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP for peptide chain elongation. EC 3.6.1.-.
  • GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits [M0355364]
    Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.
  • GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits [M0355365]
    Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.
  • GTP-Binding Protein Regulators [M0328196]
    Proteins that regulate the signaling activity of GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They are divided into three categories depending upon whether they stimulate GTPase activity (GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS), inhibit release of GDP; (GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE DISSOCIATION INHIBITORS); or exchange GTP for GDP; (GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS).
  • GTPase-Activating Proteins [M0328198]
    Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
  • GTPase-Deficient Dynamin [M0356790]
    Dynamins that contain an alanine in position 44 instead of lysine. The amino acid substitution causes the protein to be GTPase-deficient and unable to function normally in the cell. GTPase-deficient dynamins are used experimentally to study dynamin function.
  • Guaiac [M0009667]
    Resin from wood of certain species of GUAIACUM. It is used as clinical reagent for occult blood.
  • Guanidine [M0029365]
    A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
  • Guanidine Hydrochloride [M0329107]
  • Guanidine Monohydrate [M0329110]
  • Guanidine Monohydrobromide [M0329106]
  • Guanidine Monohydroiodine [M0329105]
  • Guanidine Nitrate [M0329108]
  • Guanidine Phosphate [M0329104]
  • Guanidine Sulfate [M0329103]
  • Guanidine Sulfate (1:1) [M0329111]
  • Guanidine Sulfate (2:1) [M0329109]
  • Guanidine Sulfite (1:1) [M0329112]
  • Guanine [M0009679]
  • Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors [M0328200]
    Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
  • Guanine Nucleotide-Releasing Factor 2 [M0328202]
    A 145-kDa guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is specific for rap1 and ras GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It associates with SH3 domains of the crk family of signaling proteins.
  • Guanosine [M0009684]
    A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Guanosine Diphosphate [M0009686]
    A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
  • Guanosine Diphosphate Fucose [M0009687]
    A nucleoside diphosphate sugar formed from GDPmannose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls, and for blood group substances and other glycoproteins.
  • Guanosine Diphosphate Mannose [M0009688]
    A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.
  • Guanosine Pentaphosphate [M0009692]
    Guanosine 5'-triphosphate 2'(3')-diphosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing five phosphate groups. Three phosphate groups are esterified to the sugar moiety in the 5' position and the other two in the 2' or 3' position. This nucleotide serves as a messenger to turn off the synthesis of ribosomal RNA when amino acids are not available for protein synthesis. Synonym: magic spot II.
  • Guanosine Tetraphosphate [M0009693]
    Guanosine 5'-diphosphate 2'(3')-diphosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing four phosphate groups. Two phosphate groups are esterified to the sugar moiety in the 5' position and the other two in the 2' or 3' position. This nucleotide serves as a messenger to turn off the synthesis of ribosomal RNA when amino acids are not available for protein synthesis. Synonym: magic spot I.
  • Guanosine Triphosphate [M0009694]
    Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
  • Guanylate Cyclase-Activating Protein 1 [M0481128]
  • Guanylate Cyclase-Activating Protein 2 [M0481127]
  • Guanylate Cyclase-Activating Protein 3 [M0481126]
  • Guanylate Cyclase-Activating Proteins [M0239796]
    Neuronal calcium sensor proteins that regulate the activation of membrane-bound GUANYLATE CYCLASE. They are primarily expressed in the RETINA where they play an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.
  • Guanylate Kinase 1 [M0075047]
  • Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate [M0009703]
    A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of adenylate cyclase.
  • Gumbaral [M0019324]
  • Gutta-Percha [M0009710]
    Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.
  • Haematoporphyrin IX [M0010059]
  • Hageman-Factor Fragments [M0024401]
  • Haptocorrin [M0021777]
  • Haptoglobins [M0009800]
    Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.
  • Hb A1a-2 [M0010113]
  • Healon [M0357383]
  • Heat-Shock Protein 27 [M0009985]
  • Heat-Shock Protein Chlamydomonas [M0009989]
  • Heat-Shock Protein pp3 [M0479377]
  • Heat-Shock Proteins [M0009986]
    Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
  • Heat-Shock Proteins, Small [M0478453]
    A family of low molecular weight heat-shock proteins that can serve as MOLECULAR CHAPERONES.
  • Heavy Neurofilament Protein [M0025717]
  • Heavy-Chain Mu Switch Region [M0011114]
  • Hedgehog Protein, Vertebrate [M0235927]
  • Hedgehog Proteins [M0496695]
    A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
  • Helminth Proteins [M0024202]
    Proteins found in any species of helminth.
  • Hemagglutinins [M0010027]
    Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
  • Hematin [M0010078]
  • Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors [M0024907]
    These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Stimulators [M0024908]
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell-Activating Factors [M0024909]
  • Hematoporphyrin [M0010060]
  • Hematoporphyrins [M0010061]
    Iron-free derivatives of heme with 4 methyl groups, 2 hydroxyethyl groups and 2 propionic acid groups attached to the pyrrole rings. Some of these PHOTOSENSITIZING AGENTS are used in the PHOTOTHERAPY of malignant NEOPLASMS.
  • Heme [M0010066]
    The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
  • Hemedonin [M0010062]
  • Hemeproteins [M0010068]
    Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
  • Hemerythrin [M0010069]
    A non-heme iron protein consisting of eight apparently identical subunits each containing 2 iron atoms. It binds one molecule of oxygen per pair of iron atoms and functions as a respiratory protein.
  • Hemin [M0010079]
    Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.
  • Hemocyanin [M0010100]
  • Hemodex [M0372350]
  • Hemodialyzates [M0023577]
  • Hemofil [M0372892]
  • Hemoglobin A [M0010111]
    Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.
  • Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated [M0010114]
    Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
  • Hemoglobin A2 [M0010117]
    An adult hemoglobin component normally present in hemolysates from human erythrocytes in concentrations of about 3%. The hemoglobin is composed of two alpha chains and two delta chains. The percentage of HbA2 varies in some hematologic disorders, but is about double in beta-thalassemia.
  • Hemoglobin C [M0010118]
    A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.
  • Hemoglobin E [M0010120]
    An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. It is most frequently observed in southeast Asian populations.
  • Hemoglobin H [M0010121]
    An abnormal hemoglobin composed of four beta chains. It is caused by the reduced synthesis of the alpha chain. This abnormality results in ALPHA-THALASSEMIA.
  • Hemoglobin J [M0010122]
    A group of abnormal hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic characteristics. They have faster electrophoretic mobility and different amino acid substitutions in either the alpha or beta chains than normal adult hemoglobin. Some of the variants produce hematologic abnormalities, others result in no clinical disorders.
  • Hemoglobin M [M0010123]
    A group of abnormal hemoglobins in which amino acid substitutions take place in either the alpha or beta chains but near the heme iron. This results in facilitated oxidation of the hemoglobin to yield excess methemoglobin which leads to cyanosis.
  • Hemoglobin SS [M0010126]
  • Hemoglobin, Glycosylated [M0010112]
  • Hemoglobin, Glycosylated A1a-1 [M0010115]
  • Hemoglobin, Glycosylated A1b [M0010116]
  • Hemoglobin, Sickle [M0010127]
    An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
  • Hemoglobins [M0010133]
    The oxygen-carrying pigments of erythrocytes. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The structure of the globin moiety differs between species.
  • Hemoglobins, Abnormal [M0010134]
    Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.
  • Hemolysin Factors [M0010140]
    Plasmids controlling the synthesis of hemolysin by bacteria.
  • Hemolysin Proteins [M0010141]
    Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
  • Hemolytic Agents [M0497284]
    Substances that are toxic to blood in general, including the clotting mechanism; hematotoxins may refer to the hematopoietic system.
  • Hemopexin [M0010148]
  • Hemosiderin [M0010178]
  • Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans [M0029407]
    Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
  • Heparin [M0010187]
    A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
  • Heparin Cofactor II [M0024263]
    A sulfated plasma protein with the MW of approximately 66kDa that resembles ANTITHROMBIN III. The protein is an inhibitor of thrombin in plasma and is activated by dermatan sulfate or heparin. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
  • Heparitin Sulfate [M0010194]
    A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
  • Hepatitis Virus (MHV) Glycoprotein E2 [M0022712]
  • Hepatocyte Growth Factor [M0026141]
    Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 [M0170063]
    A transcription factor that regulates the expression of a large set of hepatic proteins including SERUM ALBUMIN; beta-fibrinogen; and ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN. It is composed of hetero- or homo-dimers of HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA and HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-BETA.
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha [M0466508]
    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta [M0187934]
    A hepatocyte nuclear factor that is closely related to HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA but is only weakly expressed in the LIVER. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta are associated with renal CYSTS and MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS type 5.
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha [M0182071]
    A forkhead transcription factor that is an essential activator of GLUCAGON gene expression.
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta [M0185682]
    A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with PERSISTENT HYPERINSULINEMIA HYPOGLYCEMIA OF INFANCY.
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-gamma [M0185686]
    A winged-helix transcription factor that regulates GENE expression in metabolic tissues. It plays a role in HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE and controls expression of GLUT2 PROTEIN.
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 6 [M0265795]
    A onecut transcription factor that regulates expression of GENES involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the PANCREAS and LIVER.
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 6-Alpha [M0481008]
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 6-Beta [M0481011]
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factors [M0480908]
    Hepatocyte nuclear factors are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that are preferentially expressed in HEPATOCYTES. They play important roles in liver-specific transcription and are critical for CELL DIFFERENTIATION and METABOLISM.
  • Heregulin [M0332444]
  • Herpecin-L [M0431994]
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Protein Vmw65 [M0026419]
    Trans-acting protein that combines with host factors to induce immediate early gene transcription in herpes simplex virus.
  • Hesperidin [M0010288]
    A flavanone glycoside found in CITRUS fruit peels.
  • Heterochromatin [M0010289]
    The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D [M0405771]
    A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that has specificity for AU-rich elements found in the 3'-region of mRNA and may play a role in RNA stability. Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING).
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B [M0405710]
    A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group C [M0405713]
    A group of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 41-43 kDa in size found in the cell nucleus. Members of this class have been implicated in a variety of processes including splicing, polyadenylation, and nuclear retention of RNA.
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group F [M0405798]
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group F-H [M0405796]
    A group of closely-related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins that are involved in pre-mRNA splicing.
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group H [M0405797]
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group M [M0406101]
    A group of closely-related 72-74-kDa heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins that are involved in RNA SPLICING events.
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K [M0087108]
    A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein found in the CELL NUCLEUS and the CYTOPLASM. Heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein K has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression at nearly all levels: GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION; mRNA processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL), mRNA transport, mRNA stability, and translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). The hnRNP protein has a strong affinity for polypyrimidine-rich RNA and for single-stranded polypyrimidine-rich DNA. Multiple hnRNP K protein isoforms exist due to alternative splicing and display different nucleic-acid-binding properties.
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein L [M0333161]
    A heterogenous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein found associated with most nascent transcripts, most notably those of the landmark giant loops of amphibian lampbrush chromosomes.
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein U [M0087114]
    A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein found associated with the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins [M0087120]
    A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
  • Hexosaminidase A Activating Protein [M0063219]
  • Hexose Transport Proteins [M0014039]
  • High Mobility Group Proteins [M0010347]
    A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
  • High-Density Lipoprotein, Pre-beta1 [M0209807]
  • High-Density Lipoproteins, Pre-beta [M0209809]
    A highly dense subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes below 7 nm. They are also known as nascent HDL, composed of a few APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I molecules which are complexed with PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The lipid-poor pre-beta-HDL particles serve as progenitors of HDL3 and then HDL2 after absorption of free cholesterol from cell membranes, cholesterol esterification, and acquisition of apolipoproteins A-II, Cs, and E. Pre-beta-HDL initiate the reverse cholesterol transport process from cells to liver.
  • Hinge Exons [M0008027]
    Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene exons coding for the hinge region of the heavy chains between the first constant region (on the FAB FRAGMENTS) and the second constant region (on the FC FRAGMENTS).
  • Hippocalcin [M0210201]
    A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that was initially found in the NEURONS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. It interacts with NEURONAL APOPTOSIS-INHIBITORY PROTEIN.
  • Hirudin [M0010382]
    A 65-residue polypeptide from LEECHES.
  • Histidine [M0010400]
    An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
  • Histidinol [M0010402]
    The penultimate step in the pathway of histidine biosynthesis. Oxidation of the alcohol group on the side chain gives the acid group forming histidine. Histidinol has also been used as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
  • Histone H1 [M0010422]
  • Histone H1(s) [M0010423]
  • Histone H2a [M0010424]
  • Histone H2b [M0010430]
  • Histone H3 [M0010425]
  • Histone H3.3 [M0010431]
  • Histone H4 [M0010426]
  • Histone H5 [M0010427]
  • Histone H7 [M0010428]
  • Histones [M0010429]
    Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
  • HIV Enhancer [M0024943]
    Cis-acting regulatory sequences in the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) which play a major role in induction or augmentation of HIV gene expression in response to environmental stimuli such as mitogens, phorbol esters, or other viruses. The HIV enhancer is the binding site for many cellular transcription factors including the nuclear factor NF-kappa B.
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp120 [M0024082]
    External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp160 [M0028736]
    An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp41 [M0024085]
    Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
  • HIV rev Gene Product [M0024073]
  • HIV tat Protein [M0024077]
  • HIV Transacting Transcription Protein [M0024078]
  • HIV vif Gene Product [M0024984]
  • HIV vpu Gene Product [M0024974]
  • HIV-1 Envelope Protein gp120 [M0024084]
  • HIV-1 Envelope Protein gp160 [M0028738]
  • HIV-1 vif Gene Products [M0024985]
  • HIV-2 Envelope Protein gp120 [M0024083]
  • HIV-2 Envelope Protein gp160 [M0028737]
  • HIV-3'-orf Protein [M0024068]
  • HIV-F Protein [M0024069]
  • HLA-DR Antigens [M0010477]
    A group of D-related human leukocyte antigens that are polymorphic glycoproteins found on lymphoid cells. They consist of alpha and beta chains and their inheritance differs from that of the DQ and DP antigens; their presence seems to be associated with certain skin diseases like pemphigus vulgaris, dermatitis herpetiformis, and type I diabetes.
  • HMGA Proteins [M0369233]
    Proteins containing AT-HOOK MOTIFS that are rich in arginine and glycine residues. They bind to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA.
  • HMGA1a Protein [M0375723]
    An 11-kDa AT-hook motif-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) protein that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is the full-length product of the alternatively-spliced HMGA1 gene and may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.
  • HMGA1b Protein [M0212171]
    An AT-hook motif-containing protein (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is a truncated form of HMGA1a protein that is produced by alternative-splicing of the HMGA1 gene. It may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.
  • HMGA1c Protein [M0375753]
    An AT-hook-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) nuclear protein that may be involved in retinoid-dependent transcriptional activity.
  • HMGA2 Protein [M0375725]
    An AT-hook-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) nuclear protein that is expressed predominantly in proliferating and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells.
  • HMGB Proteins [M0369232]
    A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.
  • HMGB1 Protein [M0010348]
    A 24-kDa HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.
  • HMGB2 Protein [M0010351]
    A 23-kDa HMG-box protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.
  • HMGB3 Protein [M0370051]
    An HMG-box domain (HMG-BOX DOMAINS) found highly expressed in embryonic tissue and in placenta.
  • HMGN Proteins [M0369230]
    A family of HIGH MOBILITY GROUP PROTEINS that bind to NUCLEOSOMES.
  • HMGN1 Protein [M0010349]
    An evolutionarily-conserved 10-kDa nuclear protein that binds NUCLEOSOMES and may be involved in the process of CHROMATIN unfolding.
  • HMGN2 Protein [M0010350]
    An evolutionarily conserved 9-KDa nuclear protein that binds NUCLEOSOMES and may be involved in the process of CHROMATIN unfolding.
  • HN Glycoprotein, Sendai Virus [M0024091]
  • HN Protein [M0024092]
    Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
  • hnRNP A2-B1 [M0194752]
  • HNRNP C Protein [M0406250]
  • hnRNP Complexes [M0411392]
  • hnRNP D Protein [M0408531]
  • hnRNP K Protein [M0406273]
  • hnRNP Particles [M0411393]
  • hnRNP Proteins [M0411391]
  • hnRNP U Protein [M0408537]
  • Holo-Transcobalamin II [M0021778]
  • Holothurin [M0010494]
    A highly toxic saponin occurring in HOLOTHUROIDEA. This marine toxin is an anionic surfactant, hemolyzing ERYTHROCYTES.
  • Homeodomain Proteins [M0027627]
    Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
  • Homocysteine [M0010514]
    A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
  • Homocystine [M0010515]
  • Homogentisic Acid [M0010517]
  • Homoserine [M0010518]
  • Homovanillic Acid [M0010524]
  • Host Cell Factor C1 [M0241725]
    A cellular transcriptional coactivator that was originally identified by its requirement for the stable assembly IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS of the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS. It is a nuclear protein that is a transcriptional coactivator for a number of transcription factors including VP16 PROTEIN; GA-BINDING PROTEIN; EARLY GROWTH RESPONSE PROTEIN 2; and E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. It also interacts with and stabilizes HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS PROTEIN VMW65 and helps regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES in HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS.
  • Host Factor 1 Protein [M0089787]
    An integration host factor that was originally identified as a bacterial protein required for the integration of bacteriophage Q beta (ALLOLEVIVIRUS). Its cellular function may be to regulate mRNA stability and processing in that it binds tightly to poly(A) RNA and interferes with ribosome binding.
  • HSC70 Heat-Shock Proteins [M0381630]
    A constitutively expressed subfamily of the HSP70 heat-shock proteins. They preferentially bind and release hydrophobic peptides by an ATP-dependent process and are involved in post-translational PROTEIN TRANSLOCATION.
  • HSC73 Protein [M0253046]
  • HSP110 Heat-Shock Proteins [M0248618]
    A group of eukaryotic high-molecular mass heat-shock proteins that represent a subfamily of HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS. Hsp110 proteins prevent protein aggregation and can maintain denatured proteins in folding-competent states.
  • HSP20 Heat-Shock Proteins [M0478448]
    A subfamily of small heat-shock proteins that are closely related to ALPHA B-CRYSTALLIN. Hsp20 heat-shock proteins can undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIC GMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
  • HSP30 Heat-Shock Proteins [M0218707]
    A subfamily of small heat-shock proteins found in a wide variety of organisms.
  • HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins [M0138021]
    A family of heat-shock proteins that contain a 70 amino-acid consensus sequence known as the J domain. The J domain of HSP40 heat shock proteins interacts with HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS. HSP40 heat-shock proteins play a role in regulating the ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASES activity of HSP70 heat-shock proteins.
  • HSP47 Heat-Shock Proteins [M0216106]
    Basic glycoprotein members of the SERPIN SUPERFAMILY that function as COLLAGEN-specific MOLECULAR CHAPERONES in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
  • HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins [M0028194]
    A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
  • HSP72 Heat-Shock Proteins [M0233684]
    Stress-inducible members of the heat-shock proteins 70 family. HSP72 heat shock proteins function with other MOLECULAR CHAPERONES to mediate PROTEIN FOLDING and to stabilize pre-existent proteins against aggregation.
  • HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins [M0028195]
    A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.
  • HTLV-I Post-Transcriptional Regulator Protein [M0025041]
  • HTLV-I Trans-Activator Protein [M0025003]
  • HTLV-II Post-Transcriptional Regulator Protein [M0025044]
  • HTLV-II Trans-Activator Protein [M0025010]
  • Human PHI [M0016231]
  • Humate-P [M0008150]
  • Humic Substances [M0456519]
    Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
  • Hyaluronan [M0357381]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [M0010664]
    A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the umbilical cord, in vitreous humor, in synovial fluid, in pathologic joints, in group A and C hemolytic streptococci, and in Wharton's jelly. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
  • Hydrophid Venoms [M0010731]
    Venoms of sea snakes, Hydrophiinae, found around Pacific islands. The venoms contain fewer enzymes and more neuro- or myotoxins than land snakes. The neurotoxic proteins are similar to elapid small, short, or type I neurotoxins, some of which have been characterized.
  • Hydroxybutyrates [M0010750]
    Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
  • Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids [M0010759]
    Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
  • Hydroxyethylrutoside [M0010765]
    Monohydroxyethyl derivative of rutin. Peripheral circulation stimulant used in treatment of venous disorders.
  • Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid [M0010766]
  • Hydroxylysine [M0010770]
    A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.
  • Hydroxyproline [M0010778]
    A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
  • Hypoglycins [M0010904]
    Methylene cyclopropyl alanine and congeners isolated from the unripe edible fruit of the AKEE plant (BLIGHIA SAPIDA). Hypoglycin B is the gamma-glutamyl congener of hypoglycin A. They are very toxic and teratogenic, causing a syndrome called Jamaican vomiting sickness that includes a fall in blood glucose due to the interference of FATTY ACIDS and LEUCINE metabolism which leads to VOMITING, liver damage, CONVULSIONS and DEATH.
  • Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones [M0016915]
  • Hypoxanthine [M0028700]
    A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 [M0216225]
    A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit [M0404124]
    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
  • Hyvisc [M0357380]
  • Ibogaine [M0010963]
    One of several indole alkaloids extracted from Tabernanthe iboga, Baill. It has a complex pharmacological profile, and interacts with multiple systems of neurotransmission. Ibogaine has psychoactive properties and appears to modulate tolerance to opiates.
  • Ibotenic Acid [M0010964]
    A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
  • ICERIgamma [M0415516]
  • ICERIIgamma [M0415517]
  • Iduronate [M0010997]
  • Iduronic Acid [M0010996]
    Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
  • Ikaros Transcription Factor [M0208676]
    A transcription factor that plays a role as a key regulator of HEMATOPOIESIS. Aberrant Ikaros expression has been associated with LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIAS.
  • Immediate-Early Proteins [M0027006]
    Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
  • Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence-Binding Protein [M0195115]
    A ubiquitously expressed sequence-specific transcriptional repressor that is normally the target of signaling by NOTCH PROTEINS.
  • Immunoglobulin Joining Region Peptide Fragments [M0481959]
  • Immunoglobulin Switch Region [M0011115]
    A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.
  • Importins [M0240471]
    A subclass of karyopherins that function specifically to import molecules into the nucleus.
  • Indian Hedgehog Protein [M0235915]
  • Indican [M0011222]
    A substance occurring in the urine of mammals and also in blood plasma as the normal metabolite of tryptophan. An increased urinary excretion of indican is seen in Hartnup disease from the bacterial degradation of unabsorbed tryptophan.
  • Indican Monopotassium Salt [M0330161]
  • Indican Monosodium Salt [M0330162]
  • Influenza Virus Core Proteins [M0022699]
  • Inhibin-beta Subunits [M0381770]
    They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.
  • Inhibitor of Apoptosis 1 Protein [M0479024]
  • Inhibitor of Apoptosis 2 Protein [M0479026]
  • Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins [M0283555]
    A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1 [M0175487]
    A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.
  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 2 [M0197427]
    A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. It plays a role in regulating IMMUNOGLOBULIN E expression.
  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins [M0481860]
    Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
  • Iniprol [M0011911]
  • INK4 Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors [M0477631]
    A family of cell cycle proteins containing ANKYRIN REPEATS that are specific inhibitors of cyclin D-dependent kinases. INK4 proteins bind to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 6. They dissociate cyclin-CDK complexes and regulate a CELL CYCLE checkpoint in early G1 PHASE.
  • Inosine [M0011366]
    A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Inosine Diphosphate [M0011368]
    An inosine nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
  • Inosine Monophosphate [M0011369]
    Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
  • Inosine Triphosphate [M0011373]
    Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An inosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonym: IRPPP.
  • Inosinic Acid [M0011370]
  • Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate [M0023913]
    Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
  • Insertion Sequence Elements [M0006652]
  • Insulator Elements [M0414405]
    Nucleic acid regulatory sequences that limit or oppose the action of ENHANCER ELEMENTS and define the boundary between differentially regulated gene loci.
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 [M0028341]
    One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 [M0028342]
    One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 [M0028343]
    One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4 [M0028345]
    One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5 [M0028346]
    One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 6 [M0028347]
    One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins [M0028340]
    A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I [M0011434]
    A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor II [M0011435]
    A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
  • Integral Membrane Proteins [M0013340]
  • Integrase Inhibitors [M0028905]
    Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of integrase.
  • Integration Host Factor alpha Subunit [M0129438]
  • Integration Host Factor beta Subunit [M0129439]
  • Integration Host Factors [M0129443]
    Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
  • Integrin alpha Chains [M0417909]
    The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short (>50 AA) with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.
  • Integrin alpha1 [M0230956]
    An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.
  • Integrin alpha3 [M0246637]
    An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.
  • Integrin alpha4 [M0228076]
    An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
  • Integrin alpha6 [M0237213]
    An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
  • Integrin alpha6A [M0237211]
  • Integrin alpha6B [M0237212]
  • Integrin alphaV [M0230139]
    An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.
  • Integrin beta Chains [M0419369]
    Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
  • Integrin beta3 [M0166703]
    An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
  • Integrin beta3A [M0383917]
  • Integrin beta3B [M0420673]
  • Integrin beta3C [M0420674]
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecules [M0024223]
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [M0409590]
    Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
  • Interferon alpha-beta Receptor Chain 2 [M0495180]
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 [M0166190]
    An interferon regulatory factor that binds upstream TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORY ELEMENTS in the GENES for INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA. It functions as a transcriptional activator for the INTERFERON TYPE I genes.
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-2 [M0168818]
    An interferon regulatory factor that represses transcription of TYPE I INTERFERONS and activates transcription of HISTONE H4.
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-3 [M0255479]
    An interferon regulatory factor that is expressed constitutively and undergoes POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION following viral infection. PHOSPHORYLATION of IRF-3 causes the protein to be translocated from the CYTOPLASM to CELL NUCLEUS where it binds DNA, and activates transcription.
  • Interferon Regulatory Factor-7 [M0281722]
    An interferon regulatory factor that is induced by INTERFERONS as well as LMP-1 protein from EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS. IRF-7 undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION prior to nuclear translocation and it activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of multiple interferon GENES.
  • Interferon Regulatory Factors [M0478209]
    A family of transcription factors that share an N-terminal HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF and bind INTERFERON-inducible PROMOTERS to control GENE expression. IRF proteins bind specific DNA sequences such as interferon-stimulated response elements, interferon regulatory elements, and the interferon consensus sequence.
  • Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3 [M0181861]
    A multimeric complex that functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. ISGF3 is assembled in the CYTOPLASM and translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to INTERFERON signaling. It consists of ISGF3-GAMMA and ISGF3-ALPHA, and it regulates expression of many interferon-responsive GENES.
  • Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, alpha Subunit [M0181857]
    A heterodimeric complex of STAT1 PROTEIN and STAT2 PROTEIN that interacts with ISGF3GAMMA and is a subunit of the ISGF3 COMPLEX.
  • Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit [M0181856]
    An interferon regulatory factor that recruits STAT1 PROTEIN and STAT2 PROTEIN heterodimers to interferon-stimulated response elements and functions as an immediate-early protein.
  • Intergenic Region [M0355769]
  • Intergenic Sequence [M0355767]
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 1 [M0494872]
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 3 [M0494874]
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4 [M0494876]
  • Interleukin-12 Subunit p35 [M0419293]
    A subunit of interleukin-12. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P40 via a disulfide bond that results in the active cytokine.
  • Interleukin-12 Subunit p40 [M0419292]
    A cytokine subunit that is a component of both interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. It binds to the INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P35 via a disulfide bond to form interleukin-12 and to INTERLEUKIN-23 SUBUNIT P19 to form interleukin-23.
  • Interleukin-17B [M0417589]
  • Interleukin-17D [M0495854]
  • Interleukin-17E [M0495851]
  • Interleukin-17F [M0495852]
  • Interleukin-23 [M0376076]
    A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
  • Interleukin-23 Subunit p19 [M0453187]
    A subunit of interleukin-23. It combines with INTERLEUKIN-12 SUBUNIT P40, which is shared between the two cytokines, to form in the active interleukin-23 cytokine.
  • Intermediate Filament Proteins [M0011512]
    Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
  • Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels [M0282512]
    A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
  • Interspersed Repetitive Sequences [M0029779]
    Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
  • Intestinal Membrane Calcium-Binding Protein [M0003192]
  • Intracellular Calcium-Sensing Peptides [M0483399]
  • Intracellular Calcium-Sensing Proteins [M0483397]
    Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins that bind to CALCIUM. They undergo allosteric changes when bound to CALCIUM that affects their interaction with other signal-transducing molecules. They differ from CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTORS which sense extracellular calcium levels.
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides [M0461969]
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins [M0460178]
    Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
  • Intracellular Signaling Proteins [M0461970]
  • Intracisternal A-Particle Elements [M0011591]
  • Intrinsic Factor [M0011611]
    A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of Vitamin B 12 (CYANOCOBALAMIN). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
  • Introns [M0011612]
    Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
  • Inulin [M0011618]
    A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
  • Iodine [M0011640]
    A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
  • Ion Channels [M0011674]
    Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for channel gating can be a membrane potential, drug, transmitter, cytoplasmic messenger, or a mechanical deformation. Ion channels which are integral parts of ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors are not included.
  • Ion Pumps [M0025338]
    A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
  • iota-Carrageenan [M0003556]
  • IRF-7A Transcription Factor [M0281718]
  • IRF-7B Transcription Factor [M0281719]
  • IRF-7C Transcription Factor [M0281720]
  • Iron [M0011718]
    A metallic element found in certain minerals, in nearly all soils, and in mineral waters. It has the atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of hemoglobin, cytochrome, and other components of respiratory enzyme systems. Its chief functions are in the transport of oxygen to tissue (hemoglobin) and in cellular oxidation mechanisms. Depletion of iron stores may result in iron-deficiency anemia. Iron is used to build up the blood in anemia. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Iron Regulatory Protein 1 [M0175229]
    A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
  • Iron Regulatory Protein 2 [M0175238]
    A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.
  • Iron-Binding Proteins [M0084824]
    Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.
  • Iron-Regulatory Proteins [M0175241]
    Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
  • Iron-Responsive Element Binding Proteins [M0175240]
  • Iron-Sulfur Proteins [M0011725]
    A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
  • Iso-tRNA(Gly) [M0019205]
  • Iso-tRNA(Pro) [M0019217]
  • Isoactin [M0000302]
  • Isoaspartate [M0378611]
  • Isoaspartic Acid [M0370917]
    An ASPARTIC ACID residue in polypeptide chains that is linked at the beta-carboxyl group instead of at the normal, alpha-carboxyl group, polypeptide linkage. It is a result of the spontaneous decomposition of aspartic acid or ASPARAGINE residues.
  • Isochores [M0399885]
    Large regions of the GENOME that contain local similarities in BASE COMPOSITION.
  • Isodesmosine [M0011755]
    2-(4-Amino-4-carboxybutyl)-1-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-3,5-bis(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)pyridinium. A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.
  • Isogel [M0018064]
  • Isolectins [M0074850]
    Lectin isoforms.
  • Isoleucine [M0011766]
    An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
  • Isomaltose [M0011768]
    A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
  • Isometallothionein [M0013506]
  • Isopentenyladenosine [M0011777]
    N(6)-[delta(3)-isopentenyl]adenosine. Isopentenyl derivative of adenosine which is a member of the cytokinin family of plant growth regulators.
  • Isopilocarpine [M0016857]
  • Isoprostanes [M0382190]
    A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.
  • Isoptocarpine [M0016858]
  • Isotransferrin [M0021805]
  • Isovinculin [M0025315]
  • Ispaghula [M0018071]
  • Ispaghule Gum [M0018069]
  • J1-200-220 [M0373923]
  • Janus Kinases [M0495016]
    A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.
  • Jellyfish Venoms [M0004708]
  • Jockey Elements [M0029805]
  • jun B Proteins [M0025513]
  • jun D Proteins [M0025514]
  • K-Casein [M0003593]
  • K-Strophanthidin [M0020621]
  • Kairomones [M0401205]
    Allelochemicals in that the elicited response of the receiver is adaptively favorable to the receiver but not to the emitter. They are sometimes called attractants.
  • Kallidin [M0011893]
    A decapeptide bradykinin homolog cleaved from kininogen by kallikreins. It is a smooth-muscle stimulant and hypotensive agent that acts by vasodilatation.
  • Kallikrein A [M0011898]
  • Kallikrein B' [M0011899]
  • Kallikrein Light Chain [M0011902]
  • kappa-Carrageenan [M0003557]
  • kappa-Caseins [M0003594]
  • kappa-Elastin [M0007153]
  • Karyopherins [M0383377]
    A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
  • KCNQ Potassium Channels [M0481301]
    A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
  • KCNQ1 Potassium Channel [M0267275]
    A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
  • KCNQ2 Potassium Channel [M0285042]
    A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
  • KCNQ3 Potassium Channel [M0285045]
    A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
  • Keoflo [M0373244]
    starch
  • Keratan Sulfate [M0011943]
    A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
  • Keratin, Glycosylated [M0143311]
  • Keratin-1 [M0494571]
    A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
  • Keratin-10 [M0204024]
    A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
  • Keratin-12 [M0449766]
    A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-3 in the CORNEA and is regarded as a marker for corneal-type epithelial differentiation. Mutations in the gene for keratin-12 have been associated with MEESMANN CORNEAL EPITHELIAL DYSTROPHY.
  • Keratin-13 [M0011946]
    A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-4 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin 13 cause HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.
  • Keratin-14 [M0284752]
    A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
  • Keratin-15 [M0494730]
    A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.
  • Keratin-16 [M0011960]
    A type I keratin expressed in a variety of EPITHELIUM, including the ESOPHAGUS, the TONGUE, the HAIR FOLLICLE and NAILS. Keratin-16 is normally found associated with KERATIN-6. Mutations in the gene for keratin-6 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1.
  • Keratin-17 [M0011961]
    A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-6 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in gene for keratin-17 has been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2.
  • Keratin-18 [M0011947]
    A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
  • Keratin-19 [M0011948]
    A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
  • Keratin-2 [M0494572]
    A type II keratin found expressed in the upper spinous layer of epidermal KERATINOCYTES. Mutations in genes that encode keratin-2A have been associated with ICHTHYOSIS BULLOSA OF SIEMENS.
  • Keratin-20 [M0220699]
    A type I keratin expressed predominately in gastrointestinal epithelia, MERKEL CELLS, and the TASTE BUDS of the oral mucosa.
  • Keratin-2A [M0494620]
  • Keratin-2B [M0494621]
  • Keratin-3 [M0494573]
    A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-12 in the CORNEA and is regarded as a marker for corneal-type epithelial differentiation. Mutations in the gene for keratin-3 have been associated with MEESMANN CORNEAL EPITHELIAL DYSTROPHY.
  • Keratin-4 [M0011949]
    A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-13 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin-4 are a cause of HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.
  • Keratin-5 [M0494547]
    A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
  • Keratin-6 [M0494509]
    A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-16 or KERATIN-17 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in gene for keratin-6A and keratin-6B have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1 and PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2 respectively.
  • Keratin-6A [M0494510]
  • Keratin-6B [M0494511]
  • Keratin-6E [M0494512]
  • Keratin-6F [M0494513]
  • Keratin-7 [M0287658]
    A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
  • Keratin-8 [M0011950]
    A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
  • Keratin-9 [M0011958]
    A type II keratin found predominantly expressed in the terminally differentiated EPIDERMIS of palms and soles. Mutations in the gene for keratin 9 are associated with KERATODERMA, PALMOPLANTAR, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
  • Keratin-Associated Proteins [M0213667]
  • Keratins [M0011957]
    A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
  • Keratins, Hair-Specific [M0494637]
    Keratins that are specific for hard tissues such as HAIR; NAILS; and the filiform papillae of the TONGUE.
  • Keratins, Inner Root Sheath [M0494722]
  • Keratins, Type I [M0494332]
    A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally smaller and more acidic that TYPE II KERATINS. Type I keratins combine with type II keratins to form keratin filaments.
  • Keratins, Type II [M0494335]
    A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally larger and less acidic that TYPE I KERATINS. Type II keratins combine with type I keratins to form keratin filaments.
  • Ketoglutaric Acid [M0011990]
  • Ketoglutaric Acids [M0011991]
    A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
  • Ketone Bodies [M0011993]
    The substances beta-hydroxybutyric acid, acetoacetic acid, and acetone, which are produced by fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism in the liver in approximately a 78:20:2 ratio. Acetoacetate is produced from acetyl-CoA. Most is enzymatically converted to beta-ketobutyrate, but a small amount is spontaneously decarboxylated to acetone. The ketone bodies can be used as fuels by muscle and brain tissue. In starvation and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, large quantities are produced, causing metabolic acidosis and elevated blood and urine levels of all three ketone bodies. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Kinetoplast DNA Maxicircles [M0027302]
  • Kinetoplast DNA Minicircles [M0027303]
  • Kininogen [M0012052]
  • Kininogen, High-Molecular-Weight [M0029210]
    A plasma protein, molecular weight of 110 kD, that normally exists in plasma in a 1:1 complex with PREKALLIKREIN. HMWK is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. The complex is a cofactor in the activation of coagulation factor XII. The product of this reaction, XIIa, in turn activates prekallikrein to KALLIKREINS. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Kininogen, Low-Molecular-Weight [M0029290]
    A protein, molecular weight 50 kD, located in various normal tissues. Upon cleavage by KALLIKREINS, it forms KALLIDIN. Kallidin, in turn, is converted into BRADYKININ. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Kininogens [M0012050]
    Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.
  • Kinins [M0012054]
    A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)
  • Krebiozen [M0005302]
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors [M0472513]
    A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
  • Kv Channel-Interacting Protein 1 [M0357803]
  • Kv Channel-Interacting Protein 2 [M0357805]
  • Kv Channel-Interacting Protein 3 [M0296271]
  • Kv Channel-Interacting Protein 4 [M0481150]
  • Kv Channel-Interacting Proteins [M0481140]
    A family of neuronal calcium-sensor proteins that interact with and regulate potassium channels, type A.
  • Kv1.1 Potassium Channel [M0242712]
    A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.
  • Kv1.1 Potassium Channel, Alpha Subunit [M0355043]
  • Kv1.1 Potassium Channel, Beta Subunit [M0332840]
  • Kv1.2 Potassium Channel [M0246842]
    A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
  • Kv1.2 Potassium Channel, Alpha Subunit [M0246840]
  • Kv1.2 Potassium Channel, Beta Subunit [M0246841]
  • Kv1.2' Channel [M0397543]
  • Kv1.3 Potassium Channel [M0238810]
    A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
  • Kv1.4 Potassium Channel [M0248530]
    A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.
  • Kv1.5 Potassium Channel [M0244232]
    A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
  • Kv1.6 Potassium Channel [M0236736]
    A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that has been described in NEURONS and ASTROCYTES.
  • Kv2.1 Potassium Channel [M0236737]
  • Kv2.2 Potassium Channel [M0236738]
  • Kv3.1 Potassium Channel [M0259347]
  • Kv3.2 Potassium Channel [M0350061]
  • Kv4.1 Potassium Channel [M0362015]
  • Kv4.2 Potassium Channel [M0176531]
  • Kv4.3 Potassium Channel [M0267058]
  • Kv4.3L Potassium Channel [M0405454]
  • Kynuramine [M0012090]
  • Kynurenine [M0012093]
  • L-isomer of Homoserine [M0330254]
  • L-myc Proteins [M0024865]
  • L-Sorbose [M0020171]
  • L-Type VDCC alpha-2 Subunit [M0337686]
  • L-Type VDCC beta Subunit [M0333269]
  • L-Type VDCC delta Subunit [M0333270]
  • L-Type VDCC gamma Subunit [M0333271]
  • Lac Repressors [M0018808]
  • LaCrosse Virus Envelope Glycoprotein G1 [M0022713]
  • Lactalbumin [M0012142]
  • Lactate Transport Proteins [M0110483]
  • Lactic Acid [M0028796]
    A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Lactoferrin [M0012165]
    An iron-binding protein in plasma and secretions (milk, mucus, bile), secreted by leukocytes. It is an important component of GRANULOCYTES. It is bacteriostatic, working by depriving bacteria of iron essential for growth.
  • Lactoglobulins [M0012174]
    Globulins occurring in milk. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Lactose [M0012177]
    A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
  • Lactose Factors [M0012179]
    Plasmids which determine the ability of a bacterium to ferment lactose.
  • Lagodeoxycholic Acid [M0005995]
  • lambda-Carrageenan [M0003558]
  • Lamin Type A [M0089366]
    A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.
  • Lamin Type B [M0089367]
    A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
  • Laminin [M0012194]
    Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
  • Laminin M [M0012195]
  • Laminin M Chain [M0012196]
  • Lamins [M0089372]
    Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
  • Lanolin [M0012212]
    A yellow fat obtained from sheep's wool. It is used as an emollient, cosmetic, and pharmaceutic aid.
  • Lanosterol [M0012213]
  • Lantibiotics [M0478850]
    Class I bacteriocins. They are produced by bacteria that live on LACTIC ACID and contain the sulfur-containing lanthionine amino acid.
  • Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 [M0151515]
    A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
  • Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel alpha Subunits [M0479027]
    The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.
  • Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel beta Subunits [M0479028]
    The regulatory subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.
  • Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels [M0218785]
    A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
  • Late Promoters [M0017724]
  • Latent TGF-beta Binding Protein 1 [M0496434]
  • Latent TGF-beta Binding Protein 2 [M0496435]
  • Latent TGF-beta Binding Protein 3 [M0496436]
  • Latent TGF-beta Binding Protein 4 [M0496437]
  • Latent TGF-beta Binding Proteins [M0472419]
    A family of secreted multidomain proteins that were originally identified by their association with the latent form of TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS. They interact with a variety of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and may play a role in the regulation of TGB-beta bioavailability.
  • LDL-1 [M0012588]
    Low-density lipoprotein particles with density between 1.019 and 1.045 g/ml.
  • LDL-2 [M0012589]
    Low-density lipoprotein particles with density between 1.045 and 1.063 g/ml.
  • LDL-Receptor Related Protein-Associated Protein [M0094820]
    A membrane protein found in the rough endoplasm reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) that binds to LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEINS. It may function to prevent ligand binding of receptors during protein processing events within endosomal compartments.
  • LDL-Receptor Related Proteins [M0378356]
    A family of proteins that share sequence similarity with the low density lipoprotein receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL).
  • Leader Signal Peptides [M0358903]
  • Lectins [M0412029]
    Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
  • Lectins, C-Type [M0278169]
    A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
  • Leftose [M0014213]
  • Leghemoglobin [M0012289]
    A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
  • Leghemoglobin A [M0012290]
  • Lentinan [M0012355]
    Polysaccharide isolated from the edible mushroom LENTINULA EDODES. The exact composition is unknown.
  • Leucine [M0012372]
    An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
  • Leucine-Responsive Regulatory Protein [M0188803]
    A LEUCINE and DNA-binding protein that is found primarily in BACTERIA and ARCHAEA. It regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION involved in METABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS in response to the increased concentration of LEUCINE.
  • Leukocyte Adhesion Molecules [M0024224]
  • Leukotrienes [M0023536]
    A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
  • Leukotrienes D [M0027180]
  • Leukotrienes E [M0027181]
  • Leukovirus Proteins [M0018983]
  • Leupeptins [M0012428]
    A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.
  • Light-Harvesting Bacteriochlorophyll Protein Complexes [M0024727]
  • Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll Protein [M0024720]
  • Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes [M0447900]
    Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
  • Lignin [M0012517]
    The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • LINE-1 Elements [M0029806]
  • Linoelaidic Acid, (E,Z)-Isomer [M0329089]
  • Linoleate [M0029359]
  • Linoleic Acid [M0029355]
    A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Linoleic Acid, (Z,E)-Isomer [M0329088]
  • Linoleic Acid, (Z,Z)-Isomer [M0329094]
  • Linoleic Acid, (Z,Z)-Isomer, 14C-Labeled [M0329090]
  • Linoleic Acid, Ammonium Salt, (Z,Z)-Isomer [M0329095]
  • Linoleic Acid, Calcium Salt, (Z,Z)-Isomer [M0329087]
  • Linoleic Acid, Potassium Salt, (Z,Z)-Isomer [M0329091]
  • Linoleic Acid, Sodium Salt, (E,E)-Isomer [M0329093]
  • Linoleic Acid, Sodium Salt, (Z,Z)-Isomer [M0329096]
  • Linolelaidic Acid [M0329092]
  • Linolenate [M0027127]
  • Linolenic Acid [M0027128]
  • Linolenic Acids [M0012532]
    Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain three double bonds.
  • Linseed Oil [M0012533]
    The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Lipocaic [M0012601]
  • Lipofuscin [M0012564]
    A naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to ceroid. It accumulates in various normal tissues and apparently increases in quantity with age.
  • Lipomul [M0005175]
  • Lipoprotein (a-) [M0026213]
    Lipoprotein(a) with the antiangiogenic APOLIPOPROTEIN (A) removed.
  • Lipoprotein(a) [M0026212]
    A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
  • Lipoprotein-X [M0012580]
    An abnormal lipoprotein present in large amounts in patients with obstructive liver diseases such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS. LP-X derives from the reflux of BILE lipoproteins into the bloodstream. LP-X is a low-density lipoprotein rich in free CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS but poor in TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; and protein.
  • Lipoproteins, HDL [M0012584]
    A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
  • Lipoproteins, HDL2 [M0083309]
    Low-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 8 to 13 nm.
  • Lipoproteins, HDL3 [M0012583]
    Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.
  • Lipoproteins, IDL [M0012594]
    A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
  • Lipoproteins, LDL [M0012590]
    A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
  • Lipoproteins, VLDL [M0012596]
    A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
  • Lipoproteins, VLDL1 [M0492982]
    Low density large VLDL particles (60-100 nm).
  • Lipoproteins, VLDL2 [M0012595]
    Intermediate density and size VLDL particles (40-60 nm).
  • Lipoproteins, VLDL3 [M0492983]
    High density small VLDL particles (30-40 nm).
  • Lipotropic Agents [M0012602]
    Endogenous factors or drugs that act on fat metabolism by hastening the removal of or decreasing the deposit of fat in the liver. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p951)
  • Lipotropic Drugs [M0012603]
  • Lipotropic Factors [M0012604]
  • Lipoxins [M0444263]
    Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.
  • Liquaemin [M0376235]
  • Lithocholate [M0012624]
  • Lithocholic Acid [M0012623]
    A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
  • Lithostathine [M0109980]
    The proteinaceous component of the pancreatic stone in patients with PANCREATITIS.
  • Liver Cell Adhesion Molecule [M0494935]
  • Liver Extracts [M0012648]
    Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.
  • Liver Glycogen [M0012651]
    Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Liver-Enriched Inhibiting Protein [M0251195]
    A truncated form of CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEIN-BETA that acts as a translational repressor.
  • Locus Control Region [M0029559]
    A regulatory region first identified in the human beta-globin locus but subsequently found in other loci. The region is believed to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION by opening and remodeling CHROMATIN structure. It may also have ENHANCER activity.
  • Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements [M0029807]
    Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.
  • Luminescent Proteins [M0012736]
    Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
  • Luronit [M0357379]
  • Lutein [M0023055]
    A carotenoid alcohol widespread in nature. It is present in egg yolk, algae, and petals of yellow flowers, among other sources.
  • Lutein F [M0023053]
  • Lutein G [M0023054]
  • Lymphocytosis-Promoting Factor-Hemagglutinin [M0016420]
  • Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1 [M0188043]
    A T-cell factor that plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha3 [M0276797]
  • Lymphotoxin-beta [M0240454]
    A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.
  • Lysine [M0012835]
    An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
  • Lysine Acetate [M0330097]
  • Lysine Hydrochloride [M0330098]
  • Lysosomal Integral Membrane Proteins [M0482080]
  • Lysosomal Membrane Glycoproteins [M0482081]
  • Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1 [M0142865]
    An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. In PLATELETS and T-LYMPHOCYTES it may play a role in the cellular degranulation process.
  • Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 2 [M0142866]
    An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Loss of expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 is associated with GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE IIB.
  • Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 3 [M0142867]
  • Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Proteins [M0482079]
  • Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins [M0142877]
    Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
  • M beta-Acrosin [M0000266]
  • Macro-Creatine Kinase [M0483994]
  • Macrophage-Granulocyte Inducer [M0004823]
  • MADS Domain Proteins [M0238874]
    A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.
  • Maf Transcription Factors [M0478897]
    Maf transcription factors are a family of basic-leucine zipper transcription factors that are closely related to V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. The C-MAF PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN was the first mammalian Maf transcription factor identified, and now the family is known to include a variety of other Maf proteins such as MAFB TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; MAFF TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; MAFG TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR; and MAFK TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR.
  • Maf Transcription Factors, Large [M0478899]
    A family of high molecular weight Maf transcription factors that contain distinct activation domains.
  • Maf Transcription Factors, Small [M0478898]
    A family of Maf Transcription Factors that lack activation domains. Small Maf proteins function as transcriptional repressors or form heterodimeric complexes to serve as transcriptional coactivators. Small Maf proteins include MafF, MafG, and MafK.
  • MafB Transcription Factor [M0479951]
    A large maf protein that regulates HINDBRAIN development, contributes to CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MONOCYTES, and interacts with ETS-1 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR.
  • MafF Transcription Factor [M0479953]
    A small maf protein that forms dimers with NRF1 PROTEIN; NRF2 PROTEIN; and P45 NF-E2 PROTEIN. MafF complexes bind Maf recognition elements to regulate tissue-specific GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
  • MafG Transcription Factor [M0479952]
    MafG is a ubiquitously expressed small maf protein that is involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROCYTES. It dimerizes with P45 NF-E2 PROTEIN and activates expression of ALPHA-GLOBIN and BETA-GLOBIN.
  • MafK Transcription Factor [M0220665]
    A small Maf protein involved in differentiation of ERYTHROID CELLS. MafK was originally described as the small subunit of the NF-E2 Transcription Factor, but other small MAF PROTEINS also serve as NF-E2 subunits.
  • Magnesium [M0012884]
    A light, silvery, metallic element. It has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. Its salts are essential in nutrition, being required for the activity of many enzymes, especially those concerned with oxidative phosphorylation. It is a component of both intra- and extracellular fluids and is excreted in the urine and feces. Deficiency causes irritability of the nervous system with tetany, vasodilation, convulsions, tremors, depression, and psychotic behavior. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Magnesium ADP [M0000381]
  • Magnesium CTP [M0005578]
  • Magnesium Pidolate [M0018280]
  • Major Core Protein lambda-1 [M0022700]
  • Major Core Protein sigma-2 [M0022701]
  • Major Core Proteins, Viral [M0022702]
  • Malonyl Coenzyme A [M0012951]
    A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
  • Maltose [M0012956]
    A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
  • Manganese [M0012987]
    A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
  • Mannose [M0013001]
    A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
  • Mannose-Binding Lectin [M0412169]
    A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
  • Mannose-Binding Lectins [M0114068]
    A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
  • MAR/SAR Recognition Signature Sequence [M0448643]
  • Markers, Tumor [M0022148]
  • Matrix Attachment Region Binding Proteins [M0411489]
    Proteins that bind to the MATRIX ATTACHMENT REGIONS of DNA.
  • Matrix Attachment Regions [M0447380]
    Regions of the CHROMATIN or DNA that bind to the NUCLEAR MATRIX. They are found in INTERGENIC DNA, especially flanking the 5' ends of genes or clusters of genes. Many of the regions that have been isolated contain a bipartite sequence motif called the MAR/SAR recognition signature sequence that binds to MATRIX ATTACHMENT REGION BINDING PROTEINS.
  • Maturation-Promoting Factor [M0024733]
    Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.
  • MCM1 Protein [M0195072]
    A sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role as a global regulator of yeast cell cycle control. It contains a MADS-box domain within the N-terminal 56 amino acids. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.
  • MDG1 Retrotransposons [M0027916]
  • Measles Fusion Protein [M0022726]
  • Megacins [M0013290]
    Bacteriocins elaborated by mutant strains of Bacillus megaterium. They are protein or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
  • Melanins [M0013307]
    Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
  • Melitten [M0013325]
    Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera); it contains 62 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes. Synonyms: melittin; melliten.
  • Membrane Glycoproteins [M0013336]
    Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
  • Membrane Proteins [M0013341]
    Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
  • Membrane Transport Proteins [M0379230]
    Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
  • Merosin [M0012197]
  • Mesoporphyrins [M0013482]
    Porphyrins with four methyl, two ethyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
  • Metalloporphyrins [M0013500]
    Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.
  • Metalloproteins [M0013505]
    Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Metallothionein [M0013507]
    A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.
  • Metallothionein A [M0013508]
  • Metallothionein B [M0013509]
  • Metallothionein I [M0013510]
  • Metallothionein II [M0013511]
  • Metallothionein IIA [M0013512]
  • Methemoglobin [M0013563]
  • Methionine [M0013575]
    A sulfur containing essential amino acid that is important in many body functions. It is a chelating agent for heavy metals.
  • Methionine, DL-Isomer [M0330130]
  • Methoxsalen [M0013600]
    A naturally occurring furocoumarin compound found in several species of plants, including Psoralea corylifolia. It is a photoactive substance that forms DNA ADDUCTS in the presence of ultraviolet A irradiation.
  • Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol [M0013606]
    Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.
  • Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol, (+)-Isomer [M0330144]
  • Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol, (+-)-Isomer [M0330143]
  • Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol, (-)-Isomer [M0330145]
  • Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2 [M0208047]
    A DNA-binding protein that interacts with methylated CPG ISLANDS. It plays a role in repressing GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and is frequently mutated in RETT SYNDROME.
  • Methylbufotenin [M0013602]
  • Methylmalonic Acid [M0013646]
    A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.
  • Metmyoglobin [M0013678]
    Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.
  • Mevalonate [M0013715]
  • Mevalonic Acid [M0013714]
  • Mg CTP [M0005579]
  • Mg-UTP [M0022360]
  • Microfilament Proteins [M0013781]
    Filaments which are composed primarily of actin and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
  • Micronutrients [M0028348]
    Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.
  • Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor [M0219714]
    A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG'S SYNDROME.
  • MicroRNAs [M0407989]
    Small regulatory, ANTISENSE RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length that repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of homologous target RNA. The process by which they are generated is related to the process that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans are a class of miRNAs
  • Microsatellite Repeats [M0028258]
    A variety of simple di- (DINUCLEOTIDE REPEATS), tri- (TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEATS), tetra-, and pentanucleotide tandem repeats (usually less than 100 bases long). They are dispersed in the euchromatic arms of most chromosomes. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
  • Microtubule Proteins [M0013829]
    Proteins found in the microtubules.
  • Microtubule-Associated Protein 1 [M0013832]
  • Microtubule-Associated Protein 2 [M0013833]
  • Microtubule-Associated Protein 3 [M0013834]
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins [M0013835]
    High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
  • Microvitellogenin [M0022815]
    A protein found in HEMOLYMPH and OVA of adult female MANDUCA, tobacco hornworm moth.
  • Middle Promoters [M0017725]
  • Milk Proteins [M0013890]
    The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)
  • Mimosine [M0013894]
    3-Hydroxy-4-oxo-1(4H)-pyridinealanine. An antineoplastic alanine-substituted pyridine derivative isolated from Leucena glauca.
  • Mini-Exon [M0008029]
  • Minisatellite Repeats [M0027878]
    Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive (5-50 repeats) short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences found dispersed throughout the genome and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit. Minisatellite repeats are often called variable number of tandem repeats.
  • Minor Sigma Factor [M0019832]
  • Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases [M0000348]
    A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
  • Mitochondrial Assembly Factor hsp60 [M0028188]
  • Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins [M0449187]
  • Mitochondrial Heat Shock Protein 70 [M0264343]
  • Mitochondrial Initiation Factors [M0419809]
    Peptide initiation factors found in MITOCHONDRIA. Although specific factors may closely resemble those found in prokaryotes, they are eukaryotic factors and classed here under eukaryotic initiation factors.
  • Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins [M0403944]
    Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
  • Mitochondrial Monocarboxylate Translocator [M0389404]
  • Mitochondrial Pore Protein [M0479895]
  • Mitochondrial Proteins [M0369371]
    Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
  • Mitochondrial Telomere-Binding Proteins [M0194753]
  • Mitogens, Endogenous [M0009660]
  • Mobile Dispersed Genetic Elements [M0027917]
  • Mobile Genetic Elements [M0445119]
  • Molecular Chaperones [M0028186]
    A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of other polypeptides, and in some cases their assembly into oligomeric structures, but which are not components of those final structures. It is believed that chaperone proteins assist polypeptides to self-assemble by inhibiting alternative assembly pathways that produce nonfunctional structures. Some classes of molecular chaperones are the nucleoplasmins, the CHAPERONINS, the HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS 70, and the HSP90 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS.
  • Molecular Motor Proteins [M0030059]
    Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
  • Mollusk Venoms [M0013998]
    Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
  • Molybdenum [M0014004]
    A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Molybdoferredoxin [M0014005]
    A non-heme iron-sulfur protein isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum and other bacteria. It is a component of NITROGENASE, which is active in nitrogen fixation, and consists of two subunits with molecular weights of 59.5 kDa and 50.7 kDa, respectively.
  • Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters [M0076801]
    A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
  • Monoclate [M0008152]
  • Monoferric Transferrins [M0021806]
  • Monoiodotyrosine [M0011670]
    A product from the iodination of tyrosine. In the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE), tyrosine is first iodized to monoiodotyrosine.
  • Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins [M0404566]
    A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
  • Monophosphatidylglycerols [M0016645]
  • Monosaccharide Transport Proteins [M0014041]
    A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
  • mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors [M0195409]
    Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.
  • mRNA, Non-Polyadenylated [M0019168]
  • mRNA, Polyadenylated [M0019169]
  • MSP1, P. vivax [M0029775]
  • MSX1 Transcription Factor [M0214648]
    A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.
  • mu-Conotoxins [M0333358]
  • Mucins [M0014159]
    High molecular weight mucoproteins that form a protective biofilm on the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS where they provide a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
  • Mucoproteins [M0014177]
    Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
  • Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins [M0238823]
    A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
  • Mumps Virus Fusion Protein [M0022731]
  • Munc18 Proteins [M0195810]
    A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.
  • Munc18-1 Protein [M0358803]
  • Munc18-2 Protein [M0284501]
  • Munc18-3 Protein [M0284500]
  • Muramic Acid [M0014211]
  • Muramic Acids [M0014212]
    Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Mycodermine [M0022253]
  • Mycolic Acid [M0014301]
  • Mycolic Acids [M0014302]
  • Mycotoxins [M0014315]
    Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
  • Myelin Proteins [M0014318]
    Proteins found in the myelin sheath. The major proteins of central nervous system myelin include: MYELIN PROTEOLIPID PROTEIN; MYELIN BASIC PROTEINS; and MYELIN-ASSOCIATED GLYCOPROTEIN. The major proteins of peripheral nervous system myelin include: MYELIN BASIC PROTEINS (myelin P1 protein and MYELIN P2 PROTEIN); MYELIN P0 PROTEIN; and MYELIN-ASSOCIATED GLYCOPROTEIN.
  • Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein [M0209080]
    Myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is a transcription factor that maintains high levels of HOMEOTIC GENE expression during development. The GENE for myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is commonly disrupted in LEUKEMIA and combines with over 40 partner genes to form FUSION ONCOGENE PROTEINS.
  • Myeloma Proteins [M0014330]
    Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
  • Myocardial Depressant Factor [M0014336]
    A low molecular weight peptide of about 800-1000 having a negative inotropic effect. It is released into the circulation during experimental hemorrhagic pancreatitis, severe ischemia, and postoligemic shock.
  • MyoD Protein [M0026632]
    A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
  • Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5 [M0166357]
    A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.
  • Myogenic Regulatory Factors [M0027189]
    A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
  • Myogenin [M0027190]
    A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
  • Myoglobin [M0014352]
    A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
  • Myosin Essential Light Chains [M0028367]
  • Myosin Heavy Chains [M0028369]
    The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS.
  • Myosin Light Chains [M0028368]
    The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
  • Myosin Regulatory Light Chain [M0371890]
  • Myristate [M0029412]
  • Myristic Acid [M0029411]
    A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Myristoyl-ACP [M0000331]
  • N(10)-Formyltetrahydrofolate [M0008776]
  • N-Acetylneuraminic Acid [M0028563]
    An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
  • N-Actin [M0456010]
  • N-Bak Protein [M0478941]
    An isoform of Bak protein containing only the N-terminal BH3 domain. N-Bak promotes neuronal apoptosis.
  • N-Cadherins [M0024236]
  • N-Formylmethionine [M0014395]
    Effective in the initiation of protein synthesis. The initiating methionine residue enters the ribosome as N-formylmethionyl tRNA. This process occurs in Escherichia coli and other bacteria as well as in the mitochondria of eucaryotic cells.
  • N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine [M0014396]
    N-Formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
  • N-Glycosyl Hydrolases [M0403889]
    A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
  • N-myc Proteins [M0024866]
  • N2-Acetyl-S-Nitroso-D,L-Penicillinaminamide [M0119950]
  • NAD [M0014403]
    A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
  • NADH [M0014404]
  • Natriuretic Agents [M0447666]
    Endogenous or exogenous chemicals that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body. They consist of peptides and non-peptide compounds.
  • Natriuretic Peptide, Brain [M0029829]
    A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
  • Natriuretic Peptide, C-Type [M0029831]
    A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
  • Natural Products [M0481810]
  • nef Protein [M0024070]
  • Neoplasm Proteins [M0014578]
    Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (TUMOR MARKERS, BIOLOGICAL) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
  • Neopterin [M0029376]
    A pteridine derivative present in body fluids; elevated levels result from immune system activation, malignant disease, allograft rejection, and viral infections. (From Stedman, 26th ed) Neopterin also serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of biopterin.
  • Neopterin, (erythro-D)-Isomer [M0329119]
  • Neopterin, (erythro-L)-Isomer [M0329121]
  • Neopterin, (R*, R*)-Isomer [M0329122]
  • Neopterin, (threo-D)-Isomer [M0329118]
  • Neopterin, (threo-L)-Isomer [M0329120]
  • Neoton [M0016658]
  • Nerve Growth Factor [M0328210]
    NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
  • Nerve Growth Factor 2 [M0014656]
  • Nerve Growth Factor alpha Subunit [M0331883]
  • Nerve Growth Factor beta Subunit [M0014654]
  • Nerve Growth Factor gamma Subunit [M0331885]
  • Nerve Growth Factors [M0014655]
    Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins [M0014664]
  • Nested Transcripts [M0411969]
    Alternatively spliced RNA transcripts that are derived from a set of exons that are located in the middle of the primary transcript (RNA PRECURSORS), between unused exons.
  • neu Differentiation Factor [M0137305]
  • Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 [M0122500]
    A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.
  • Neuregulin-1 [M0328212]
    A peptide factor originally identified by its ability to stimulate the phosphorylation the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2). It is a ligand for the erbB-3 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-3) and the erbB-4 receptor. Variant forms of NEUREGULIN-1 occur through alternative splicing of its mRNA.
  • Neurite Outgrowth Factors [M0014652]
  • Neurocalcin [M0201985]
    A neuronal calcium sensor protein that is expressed as several isoforms and can interact with ACTIN; TUBULIN; and CLATHRIN.
  • Neurocalcin alpha [M0453568]
  • Neurocalcin delta [M0391373]
  • Neuroendocrine Secretory Protein 7B2 [M0136553]
    An acidic protein found in the NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM that functions as a molecular chaperone for PROPROTEIN CONVERTASE 2.
  • Neurofibromin 1 [M0179586]
    A protein found most abundantly in the nervous system. Defects or deficiencies in this protein are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome. Mutations in the gene (GENE, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) affect two known functions: regulation of ras-GTPase and tumor suppression.
  • Neurofibromin 2 [M0217356]
    A membrane protein homologous to the ERM (Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin) family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins which regulate physical properties of membranes. Alterations in neurofibromin 2 are the cause of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.
  • Neurofilament Proteins [M0025716]
    Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
  • Neurofilament Triplet Proteins [M0025718]
  • Neurogranin [M0183239]
    A BRAIN-specific substrate for PROTEIN KINASE C that binds CALMODULIN and is involved in regulation of CALCIUM SIGNALING.
  • Neuronal Apoptosis-Inhibitory Protein [M0241452]
    An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that was initially identified during analysis of CHROMOSOME DELETIONS associated with SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY. Naip contains a nucleotide binding oligomerization domain and a carboxy-terminal LEUCINE rich repeat.
  • Neuronal Calcium-Sensor Proteins [M0481045]
    A family of intracellular calcium-sensing proteins found predominately in NEURONS and PHOTORECEPTORS. They contain EF HAND MOTIFS and undergo conformational changes upon calcium-binding. Neuronal calcium-sensor proteins interact with other regulatory proteins to mediate physiological responses to a change in intracellular calcium concentration.
  • Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins [M0475593]
    Membrane transport proteins found predominately in NEURONS and neuroendocrine cells that facilitate neurotransmitter transport. They include two distinct families of proteins that transport NEUROTRANSMITTERS across the PLASMA MEMBRANE and that transport NEUROTRANSMITTERS into SECRETORY VESICLES.
  • Neurotrophin 3 [M0328215]
    A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
  • Neurturin [M0268299]
    A glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ligand that is specific for the GFRA2 RECEPTOR. Neurturin is essential for the development of specific postganglionic parasympathetic NEURONS.
  • Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitors [M0485530]
  • Neutrophil-Derived Relaxant Factor [M0448304]
  • NF-E2 Transcription Factor [M0166789]
    A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.
  • NF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit [M0478886]
    A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 1 [M0224528]
    A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that is involved in regulating inflammatory responses, MORPHOGENESIS, and HEME biosynthesis.
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 [M0237441]
    A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.
  • NF-kappa B p100 Precursor Protein [M0212377]
    NF-kappa B p100 precursor protein helps retain TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR RELB in the CYTOPLASM and its full-length form inhibits NF-kappa B signaling. It is processed by the PROTEASOME to produce NF-kappa B p52 subunit.
  • NF-kappa B p105 Precursor Protein [M0198807]
    NF-kappa B p105 precursor protein is constitutively processed by the PROTEASOME to produce NF-kappa B p50 subunit. It helps regulate map kinase signaling through its association with Map3k8 protein.
  • NF-kappa B p50 Subunit [M0195386]
    A component of NF-kappa B transcription factor. It is proteolytically processed from NF-kappa B p105 precursor protein and is capable of forming dimeric complexes with itself or with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR RELA. It regulates expression of GENES involved in immune and inflammatory responses.
  • NF-kappa B p52 Subunit [M0350347]
    A component of NF-kappa B transcription factor. It is proteolytically processed from NF-kappa B p100 precursor protein and is important for maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and adaptive HUMORAL IMMUNITY.
  • NFAT Transcription Factor 1 [M0212776]
  • NFAT Transcription Factor 2 [M0328766]
  • NFAT Transcription Factor 3 [M0212771]
  • NFAT Transcription Factor 4 [M0212772]
  • NFAT Transcription Factor 5 [M0361472]
    A signal-dependent transcription factor that controls cellular response to osmotic stress. NFAT5 is closely related to NFATC PROTEINS but resides constitutively in the CELL NUCLEUS and operates independently of CALCINEURIN and TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1.
  • NFATC Transcription Factors [M0212783]
    A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
  • NFI Transcription Factors [M0124266]
    Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
  • NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester [M0028779]
    A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
  • Nickel [M0014825]
    A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
  • Nicotinamide Mononucleotide [M0014835]
    3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.
  • NIH-10567 [M0352863]
  • Nitric Oxide [M0014877]
    A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
  • NOD Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins [M0493384]
    Nod signaling adaptor proteins that contain leucine-rich repeat domains.
  • Nod Signaling Adaptor Proteins [M0493381]
    Cytosolic signaling adaptor proteins that were initially discovered by their role in the innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) response of organisms that lack an adaptive immune system. This class of proteins contains three domains, a C-terminal ligand recognition domain, an N-terminal effector-binding domain, and a centrally located nuclear-binding oligomerization domain. Many members of this class contain a C-terminal leucine rich domain which binds to PEPTIDOGLYCAN on the surface of BACTERIA and plays a role in pathogen resistance.
  • Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein [M0493409]
    A NOD-signaling adaptor protein that contains a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which recognizes bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. It plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
  • Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein [M0493385]
    A NOD signaling adaptor protein that contains two C-terminal leucine-rich domains which recognize bacterial PEPTIDOGLYCAN. It signals via an N-terminal capase recruitment domain that interacts with other CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES. The protein plays a role in the host defense response by signaling the activation of CASPASES and the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Mutations of the gene encoding the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 protein have been associated with increased susceptibility to CROHN DISEASE.
  • Non-Fibrillar Collagens [M0369291]
    A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.
  • Non-Histone Chromosomal Phosphoproteins [M0004404]
  • Nonheme Iron Proteins [M0028564]
    Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)
  • Nonspecific Phospholipid Transfer proteins [M0069077]
  • Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins [M0475612]
    Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
  • NSC 68928 [M0373516]
  • Nuclear Cap Binding Protein Subunit 1, 80-kDa [M0093744]
    A 80kD protein that is a compent of the nuclear cap binding protein complex it forms a heterodimer with nuclear cap binding protein subunit 2, 20 kD
  • Nuclear Cap Binding Protein Subunit 2, 20-kDa [M0093743]
    A 20kD protein that is a component of the nuclear cap binding protein complex it forms a heterodimer with nuclear cap binding protein subunit 2, 80 kD
  • Nuclear Cap-Binding Protein Complex [M0419050]
    A heterodimeric protein complex of RNA cap-binding proteins, which binds with high affinity to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE in the CELL NUCLEUS. The complex contains two subunits, one of 80-kDa molecular weight and another of 20-kDa molecular weight.
  • Nuclear Factor 45 Protein [M0212780]
    A protein subunit that takes part in forming nuclear factor 90 protein complexes.
  • Nuclear Factor 90 Protein [M0212781]
  • Nuclear Factor 90 Protein Complex [M0482122]
  • Nuclear Factor 90 Proteins [M0477737]
    A family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins that are related to NFATC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In addition to binding to RNA, nuclear factor 90 proteins form heterodimeric complexes that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and may play a role in T-CELL activation.
  • Nuclear Factor I-A [M0481955]
  • Nuclear Factor I-B [M0481956]
  • Nuclear Factor I-C [M0481957]
  • Nuclear Factor I-X [M0481958]
  • Nuclear Matrix Binding Proteins [M0406411]
  • Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins [M0096991]
    A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins [M0383353]
    Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.
  • Nuclear Protein [M0015044]
  • Nuclear Proteins [M0015042]
    Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
  • Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2 [M0264546]
    A transcription factor that partners with ligand bound GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS and ESTROGEN RECEPTORS to stimulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. It plays an important role in FERTILITY as well as in METABOLISM of LIPIDS.
  • Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1 [M0479967]
    A transcription factor that controls the expression of variety of proteins including CYTOCHROME C and 5-AMINOLEVULINATE SYNTHETASE. It plays an important role in maintenance of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN of MITOCHONDRIA.
  • Nuclear Respiratory Factors [M0224530]
    A family of transcription factors that control expression of a variety of nuclear GENES encoding proteins that function in the RESPIRATORY CHAIN of the MITOCHONDRIA.
  • Nuclear Trans-Acting Factor [M0023899]
  • Nucleic Acid Precursors [M0015054]
    Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.
  • Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors [M0028850]
    Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
  • Nucleobase Transport Proteins [M0404022]
    Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.
  • Nucleobase, Nucleoside, Nucleotide, and Nucleic Acid Transport Proteins [M0404021]
    A broad class of proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases, NUCLEOSIDES; NUCLEOTIDES; and NUCLEIC ACIDS; across membranes.
  • Nucleocapsid Proteins [M0029092]
    Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
  • Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins [M0384917]
    Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.
  • Nucleolar Proteins [M0015043]
  • Nucleoproteins [M0015058]
    Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
  • Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars [M0015063]
  • Nucleoside Q [M0015065]
    A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.
  • Nucleoside Transport Proteins [M0404023]
    Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
  • Nucleosomes [M0015068]
    The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.
  • Nucleotide Transport Proteins [M0404024]
    Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
  • Nutrients [M0490255]
  • Ochratoxins [M0015206]
    Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOOD POISONING.
  • Octamer Transcription Factor-1 [M0142678]
    A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
  • Octamer Transcription Factor-2 [M0478029]
    An octamer transcription factor expressed primarily in B-LYMPHOCYTES and the developing CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
  • Octamer Transcription Factor-3 [M0175331]
    An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
  • Octamer Transcription Factor-6 [M0180567]
    An octamer transcription factor that plays an important role in the MYELIN SHEATH development by SCHWANN CELLS.
  • Octamer Transcription Factors [M0478021]
    A family of POU domain factors that bind the octamer motif ATTTGCAT in PROMOTER and ENHANCER regions to regulate GENE EXPRESSION.
  • Octopus Venoms [M0013999]
  • Oleanolic Acid [M0015248]
    Occurs in leaves of Olea europaea, Viscum album L., and other higher plants. It is also the aglycone component of many saponins.
  • Oleate [M0028735]
  • Oleic Acid [M0028734]
    An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Olfactory Marker Protein [M0107384]
    A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense [M0029969]
    Short fragments of DNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense [M0025055]
    Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
  • Oligoribonucleotides, Antisense [M0029970]
    Short fragments of RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
  • omega-Agatoxin IVA [M0328342]
    A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.
  • omega-Conotoxin GVIA [M0328343]
    A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
  • omega-Conotoxins [M0328344]
    A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
  • omega-Crystallins [M0005402]
    A type of crystallin that has been found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of certain species of MOLLUSCA such as SQUID and OCTOPUS. It is an inactivated form of aldehyde dehydrogenase.
  • omega-N-Methylarginine [M0028771]
    A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
  • Oncogene Protein gp140(v-fms) [M0024883]
    Transforming glycoprotein coded by the fms oncogene from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SM-FeSV). The oncogene protein v-fms lacks sequences, which, in the highly homologous proto-oncogene protein c-fms (CSF-1 receptor), normally serve to regulate its tyrosine kinase activity. The missing sequences in v-fms mimic the effect of ligand and lead to constitutive cell growth. The protein gp120(v-fms) is post-translationally modified to generate gp140(v-fms).
  • Oncogene Protein p190(bcr-abl) [M0024528]
  • Oncogene Protein p210(bcr-abl) [M0024529]
  • Oncogene Protein p55(v-myc) [M0024873]
    Transforming protein coded by myc oncogenes. The v-myc protein has been found in several replication-defective avian retrovirus isolates which induce a broad spectrum of malignancies.
  • Oncogene Protein v-cbl [M0163413]
    An oncoprotein from the Cas NS-1 murine retrovirus that induces pre- B-CELL LYMPHOMA and MYELOID LEUKEMIAS. v-cbl protein is a tyrosine-phosphorylated, truncated form of its cellular homologue, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CBL.
  • Oncogene Protein v-crk [M0171182]
    A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
  • Oncogene Protein v-maf [M0478895]
    An oncogene protein that was originally isolated from a spontaneous musculo-aponeurotic FIBROSARCOMA in CHICKEN and shown to be the transforming gene of the avian retrovirus AS42. It is a basic leucine zipper TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the founding member of the MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
  • Oncogene Proteins [M0023873]
    Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
  • Oncogene Proteins v-fos [M0025545]
    Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.
  • Oncogene Proteins v-mil [M0380023]
  • Oncogene Proteins v-myb [M0328549]
    Transforming proteins coded by myb oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-myb in conjunction with v-ets is seen in the avian E26 leukemia virus.
  • Oncogene Proteins v-sis [M0328552]
    Transforming proteins coded by sis oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-sis is related to its interaction with the PDGF receptor and also its ability to alter other transcription factors.
  • Oncogene Proteins, Viral [M0015296]
    Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
  • Oncostatin M [M0145692]
    A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
  • Onecut Transcription Factors [M0481012]
    A family of transcription factors that contain a single cut domain and a divergent homeodomain. They regulate gene networks by controlling the expression of other transcription factors and they play an important role in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and METABOLISM.
  • Operator (Genetics) [M0015318]
  • Operator Regions (Genetics) [M0015317]
    The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
  • Opiates, Endogenous [M0028200]
  • Opioid Peptides [M0028201]
    The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
  • Opsin [M0026259]
    A visual pigment protein found in the retinal rods. It combines with retinaldehyde to form RHODOPSIN.
  • Organic Anion Transport Polypeptide C [M0369303]
    An organic anion transporter found in human liver. It is capable of transporting a variety organic anions and mediates sodium-independent uptake of bile in the liver.
  • Organic Anion Transport Polypeptides [M0384534]
    A sub-family of sequence-related ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS.
  • Organic Anion Transport Protein 1 [M0363716]
    A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.
  • Organic Anion Transport Proteins [M0384499]
    A sub-family of sequence-related ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS.
  • Organic Anion Transporters [M0076804]
    Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
  • Organic Anion Transporters, ATP-Dependent [M0384551]
    A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is linked directly to the hydrolysis of ATP. The subclass includes those ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that transport organic ions.
  • Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent [M0384546]
    A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
  • Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent [M0384540]
    A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
  • Organic Cation Transport Proteins [M0380850]
    A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
  • Organic Cation Transporter 1 [M0240044]
    An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.
  • Origin Recognition Complex [M0223226]
    The origin recognition complex is a multi-subunit DNA-binding protein that initiates DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes.
  • Origin Recognition Complex Proteins [M0483546]
  • Origin Recognition Complex, Subunit 1 [M0223215]
  • Origin Recognition Complex, Subunit 2 [M0223216]
  • Origin Recognition Complex, Subunit 3 [M0223217]
  • Origin Recognition Complex, Subunit 4 [M0223218]
  • Origin Recognition Complex, Subunit 5 [M0223219]
  • Origin Recognition Complex, Subunit 6 [M0223222]
  • Orinapterin [M0002562]
  • Ornithine [M0015430]
    An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
  • Ornithine, (L)-Isomer [M0330006]
  • Orobronze [M0351959]
  • Orosomucoid [M0015443]
  • Orotic Acid [M0015446]
  • Osteocalcin [M0024030]
    Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
  • Osteonectin [M0024031]
    Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.
  • Osteopontin [M0144031]
    A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
  • Otx Transcription Factors [M0364810]
    A family of VERTEBRATE homeodomain proteins that share homology with orthodenticle protein, Drosophila. They regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and play an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the BRAIN.
  • Otx1 Transcription Factor [M0481976]
  • Otx2 Transcription Factor [M0219147]
  • Outer Membrane Lipoproteins, Bacterial [M0002128]
  • Ovalbumin [M0015587]
    An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
  • Ovomucin [M0015601]
    A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.
  • OX40 Ligand [M0492257]
    A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member that is expressed on activated antigen-presenting cells such as B-LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES. It signals T-LYMPHOCYTES by binding the OX40 RECEPTOR.
  • Oxidative Phosphorylation Coupling Factors [M0015647]
  • Oxycobalthemoglobin [M0015679]
  • Oxyhemoglobins [M0015680]
    A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
  • Oxyntomodulin [M0483763]
    A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of GLICENTIN. It is mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. Oxyntomodulin can reduce digestive secretions, delay gastric emptying, and reduced food intake.
  • P-Cadherins [M0024237]
  • P-Glycoprotein [M0029890]
    A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
  • P-Glycoproteins [M0027659]
    A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
  • P-Selectin [M0028385]
    Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
  • p100-GAP Protein [M0156259]
  • p102 Protein (Golgi) [M0219149]
  • p120 GTPase Activating Protein [M0328218]
    A 120-kDa RAS GTPase-activating protein that binds to tyrosine phosphoproteins through its SH2 domains. The 100-kDa RNA-splicing variant (p100 GAP protein) is expressed in placenta.
  • p120(cbl) [M0477401]
  • P30 Core Proteins [M0022704]
  • p67 Serum Response Factor [M0160470]
  • p75 gag-fos [M0025549]
  • Paired Box Transcription Factors [M0481735]
    A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
  • Palmitoyl Coenzyme A [M0015782]
    A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
  • Pancreatic Extracts [M0015797]
    Extracts prepared from pancreatic tissue that may contain the pancreatic enzymes or other specific uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities. PANCREATIN is a specific extract containing digestive enzymes and used to treat pancreatic insufficiency.
  • Pangen [M0369418]
  • Panhematin [M0010080]
  • Pantetheine [M0015821]
    An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
  • Papillomavirus E7 Proteins [M0477407]
    ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
  • para-Tyramine [M0022195]
  • Paracrine Peptide Factors [M0409593]
  • Paracrine Protein Factors [M0409592]
  • Paramyxovirus Fusion Protein [M0022727]
  • Parathyroid Secretory Protein [M0492859]
  • Parvalbumin B [M0015993]
  • Parvalbumins [M0015994]
    Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
  • Pathogenicity Islands [M0444986]
  • Pathogenicity Islets [M0444988]
  • PAX2 Transcription Factor [M0197410]
    A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.
  • PAX7 Transcription Factor [M0221795]
    A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.
  • PAX9 Transcription Factor [M0220627]
    A paired box transcription factor that is involved in ODONTOGENESIS.
  • Paxillin [M0193207]
    Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein for CELL MIGRATION that localizes primarily to FOCAL ADHESIONS. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
  • Peanut Agglutinin [M0029528]
    Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
  • Pectins [M0016080]
    High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
  • Pedameth [M0013576]
  • Pentanucleotide Repeats [M0028256]
  • Peplomycin Sulfate [M0329228]
  • Peplomycin Sulfate (1:1) [M0329227]
  • Pepsinogen 3, Group I [M0029856]
  • Pepsinogen 5, Group I [M0029857]
  • Pepsinogen A [M0029855]
    This is one of 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans and is also known as pepsinogen. (The other is PEPSINOGEN C.) This includes isozymogens Pg1-Pg5 (pepsinogens 1-5, group I or products of PGA1-PGA5 genes). This is the main pepsinogen found in urine.
  • Pepsinogen B [M0016208]
  • Pepsinogen C [M0029854]
    This is one of the 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans. It is found in prostate and seminal fluid whereas PEPSINOGEN A is not.
  • Pepsinogens [M0016207]
    Proenzymes secreted by chief cells, mucous neck cells, and pyloric gland cells, which are converted into pepsin in the presence of gastric acid or pepsin itself. (Dorland, 28th ed) In humans there are 2 related pepsinogen systems: PEPSINOGEN A (formerly pepsinogen I or pepsinogen) and PEPSINOGEN C (formerly pepsinogen II or progastricsin). Pepsinogen B is the name of a pepsinogen from pigs.
  • Pepstatins [M0016209]
    N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.
  • Peptide Elongation Factors [M0016222]
    Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
  • Peptide Hormones [M0409611]
    Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
  • Peptide Initiation Factors [M0016226]
    Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.
  • Peptide PHI [M0016232]
    A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
  • Peptide Termination Factors [M0016236]
    Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.
  • Peptidoglycan [M0016240]
  • Perhepar [M0012649]
  • Periplasmic Binding Proteins [M0003560]
    Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
  • Periplasmic Proteins [M0404294]
    Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.
  • Peroxynitrite [M0321239]
  • Peroxynitrous Acid [M0281112]
    A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
  • Peroxynitrous Acid, Potassium Salt [M0327873]
  • Phalloidine [M0016455]
    Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
  • Phenol Sulfotransferase M [M0023425]
  • Phenoloxidase A [M0022200]
  • Phenoloxidase B [M0022201]
  • Phenylalanine [M0016544]
    An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
  • Pheophytins [M0016587]
    Chlorophylls from which the magnesium has been removed by treatment with weak acid.
  • Pheromones [M0016588]
    Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
  • Pheromones, Human [M0463423]
    Chemical substances excreted by humans that elicit behavior or physiological responses from other humans. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
  • Phlorhizin [M0016615]
  • Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate [M0023428]
    A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
  • Phosphate Carriers [M0386865]
  • Phosphate Transport Proteins [M0364120]
    Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.
  • Phosphate-Binding Proteins [M0075849]
    Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
  • Phosphatidyl Glycerol [M0016646]
  • Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Proteins [M0464770]
  • Phosphatidylcholines [M0016643]
    Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
  • Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein [M0074920]
    A ubiquitously found basic protein that binds to phosphatidylethanolamine and NUCLEOTIDES. It is an endogenous inhibitor of RAF KINASES and may play a role in regulating SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein is the precursor of hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide, which is cleaved from the N-terminal region of the protein.
  • Phosphatidylglycerols [M0016647]
    A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
  • Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate [M0028698]
    A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
  • Phosphatidylinositol Glycan [M0026198]
  • Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates [M0027334]
    Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
  • Phosphatidylinositol Transfer Protein alpha [M0424970]
  • Phosphatidylinositol Transfer Protein beta [M0424969]
  • Phosphatidylinositol Transfer Proteins [M0464771]
  • Phosphatidylinositols [M0016648]
    Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
  • Phosphatidylserine Translocase [M0069069]
  • Phosphoadenosine Phosphosulfate [M0016656]
    3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.
  • Phosphocreatine [M0016657]
    An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate [M0016661]
  • Phospholipid Scramblase [M0476528]
  • Phospholipid Transfer Proteins [M0074935]
    A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
  • Phosphoproteins [M0016705]
  • Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate [M0016716]
    The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
  • Phosphorus [M0016721]
    An element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element in the diet, a major component of the mineral phase of bone, and is abundant in all tissues, being involved in some form in almost all metabolic processes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Phosphoserine [M0016735]
    The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
  • Phosphotyrosine [M0028374]
    An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
  • Phosvitin [M0016741]
    An egg yolk phosphoglycoprotein which contains about 90% of the yolk protein phosphorus. It is synthesized in the liver of the hen and transferred to the developing oocyte, where it is bound to lipoproteins within the yolk granules.
  • Photoreceptors, Microbial [M0029933]
    Light absorbing proteins and protein prosthetic groups found in certain microorganisms. Some microbial photoreceptors initiate specific chemical reactions which signal a change in the environment, while others generate energy by pumping specific ions across a cellular membrane.
  • Photosynthetic Complexes [M0447903]
  • Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins [M0447746]
    Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of PLANTS and other photosynthetic organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
  • Photosynthetic Reaction Center, Bacterial [M0024729]
    A system consisting of proteins and cofactors which acts as a light-driven electron pump across the photosynthetic membrane of photosynthetic bacteria.
  • Photosynthetic Reaction Center, Plant [M0024721]
    A system consisting of proteins and cofactors which facilitates light energy and electron transfer in plants.
  • Photosynthetic Reaction Centers [M0447902]
  • Photosystem II Protein Complex [M0024723]
    A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
  • Photosystem II Reaction Center Complex D1 Protein [M0170005]
  • Photosystem II Reaction Center Complex D2 Protein [M0207896]
  • Phycobiliproteins [M0065798]
    Light harvesting proteins found in phycobilisomes.
  • Phycocyanin [M0016771]
    The metal-free blue phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of blue-green algae. It functions as light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.
  • Phycoerythrin [M0016773]
    The metal-free red phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of red algae. It functions as a light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.
  • Physalaemin [M0016776]
    An oligopeptide isolated from the skin of Physalaemus fuscumaculatus, a South American frog. It is a typical kinin, resembling SUBSTANCE P in structure and action and has been proposed as a sialagogue, antihypertensive, and vasodilator.
  • Phytate [M0016822]
  • Phytic Acid [M0016819]
    Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
  • Phytochrome [M0016823]
    A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
  • Phytol [M0016825]
  • Phytomitogens [M0012279]
  • Phytosterols [M0016830]
  • PIAS1 Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT [M0479986]
  • PIAS2 Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT [M0479990]
  • PIAS3 Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT [M0479991]
  • PIAS4 Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT [M0479993]
  • PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins [M0160770]
    A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.
  • PIN2 Protein [M0407292]
    An alternatively spliced form of telomeric repeat binding protein 1. In human it lacks 20 amino acids.
  • Pit1 Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Symporter [M0466347]
  • Pit2 Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Symporter [M0225998]
  • Pituitrin [M0016920]
    A substance or extract from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).
  • Placental Extracts [M0016939]
    Extracts prepared from placental tissue; they may contain specific but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities.
  • Plakins [M0479544]
    A family of related proteins that associate with cytoskeletal elements and junctional complexes at INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS. Plakins share a common plakin domain or a plakin repeat domain.
  • Plakophilin 1 [M0479610]
  • Plakophilin 2 [M0239807]
  • Plakophilin 2a [M0239808]
  • Plakophilin 2b [M0239809]
  • Plakophilin 3 [M0334927]
  • Plakophilins [M0239811]
    Members of the armadillo family of proteins that are found in DESMOSOMES and interact with various proteins including desmocadherins; DESMOPLAKIN; ACTIN FILAMENTS; and KERATINS.
  • Plant Extracts [M0016957]
    Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
  • Plant Extracts, Chinese [M0006859]
  • Plant Growth Regulators [M0016958]
    Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
  • Plant Lectins [M0412051]
    Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
  • Plant Oils [M0016959]
    Oils derived from plants or plant products.
  • Plant Tumor-Inducing Plasmids [M0410871]
    Plasmids coding for proteins which induce PLANT TUMORS. The most notable example of a plant tumor inducing plasmid is the Ti plasmid found associated with AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS.
  • Plant Viral Movement Proteins [M0187871]
    Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
  • Plantaglucide [M0018066]
  • Plantago Seed [M0018070]
  • Plasma Albumin [M0447123]
  • Plasma Factor VIII Complex [M0022849]
  • Plasma Membrane Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins [M0475594]
    A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that facilitate NEUROTRANSMITTER reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. They may play a role in regulating the intensity and duration of neurotransmission.
  • Plasma Prokallikrein A [M0017529]
  • Plasma Proteins [M0002711]
  • Plasmids [M0016988]
    Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
  • Plasminogen [M0016989]
    Precursor of fibrinolysin (plasmin). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 [M0026409]
    A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2 [M0026410]
    Member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitors, Endothelial [M0024269]
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitors, Placental [M0024270]
  • Plasminogen Inactivators [M0024271]
    Important modulators of the activity of plasminogen activators. Four inhibitors, all belonging to the serpin family of proteins, have been implicated in plasminogen activation inhibition. They are PAI-1; PAI-2; protease-nexin; and PROTEIN C INHIBITOR; (PAI-3). All inhibit both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.
  • Plastocyanin [M0017005]
    A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
  • Plastoquinone [M0017007]
    Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
  • Platelet Factor 3 [M0017018]
    A phospholipid from the platelet membrane that contributes to the blood clotting cascade by forming a phospholipid-protein complex (THROMBOPLASTIN) which serves as a cofactor with FACTOR VIIA to activate FACTOR X in the extrinsic pathway of BLOOD COAGULATION.
  • Platelet Factor 4 [M0017019]
    A high-molecular-weight proteoglycan-platelet factor complex which is released from blood platelets by thrombin. It acts as a mediator in the heparin-neutralizing capacity of the blood and plays a role in platelet aggregation. At high ionic strength (I=0.75), the complex dissociates into the active component (molecular weight 29,000) and the proteoglycan carrier (chondroitin 4-sulfate, molecular weight 350,000). The molecule exists in the form of a dimer consisting of 8 moles of platelet factor 4 and 2 moles of proteoglycan.
  • Platelet Protein p235 [M0025327]
  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor [M0017024]
    Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
  • Plectin [M0105731]
    A cytoskeletal linker protein with a molecular weight of greater than 500 kDa. It binds INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS; MICROTUBULES; and MICROFILAMENTS and plays a central role in the organization and stability of the CYTOSKELETON. Plectin is phosphorylated by CALMODULIN KINASE; PROTEIN KINASE A; and PROTEIN KINASE C.
  • Podophyllin [M0017086]
    Caustic extract from the roots of Podophyllum peltatum and P. emodi. It contains PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and its congeners and is very irritating to mucous membranes and skin. Podophyllin is a violent purgative that may cause CNS damage and teratogenesis. It is used as a paint for warts, skin neoplasms, and senile keratoses.
  • Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins [M0407612]
    Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
  • Poly(A) Tail [M0019171]
  • Poly(A)-Binding Protein I [M0103429]
    A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.
  • Poly(A)-Binding Protein II [M0103425]
    A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.
  • Poly(A)-Binding Proteins [M0103438]
    Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
  • Polyadenylation Factors [M0195407]
  • Polyglucin [M0372349]
  • Polyisoprenyl Phosphate Monosaccharides [M0017199]
    These compounds function as activated monosaccharide carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and oligosaccharide phospholipids. Obtained from a nucleoside diphosphate sugar and a polyisoprenyl phosphate.
  • Polynucleosomes [M0015070]
  • Polypeptide Hormones [M0409649]
  • Polypeptide VP1, Structural [M0024032]
  • Polyproteins [M0017889]
    Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
  • Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein [M0190270]
    A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.
  • Polysialoglycoproteins [M0019813]
  • Polyubiquitin [M0184920]
    An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.
  • Porcine Intestinal Heptacosapeptide [M0016233]
  • Pore Proteins [M0027503]
  • Porins [M0027502]
    Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
  • Porphobilinogen [M0017331]
  • Porphyrinogens [M0017335]
    Colorless reduced precursors of porphyrins in which the pyrrole rings are linked by methylene (-CH2-) bridges.
  • Porphyrins [M0017336]
    A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
  • Portuguese Man-of-War Venom [M0004709]
  • Potassium [M0017374]
    An element that is in the alkali group of metals. It has an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte and it plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the water-electrolyte balance.
  • Potassium Channels [M0023384]
    Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
  • Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated [M0371394]
    Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
  • Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying [M0371374]
    Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
  • Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain [M0371430]
    Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
  • Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated [M0371348]
    Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
  • Potassium Orotate [M0015447]
  • Potassium Urate [M0022338]
  • Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters [M0110471]
    Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.
  • POU Domain Factors [M0208075]
    A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a bipartite DNA-binding domain known as the POU domain. The POU domain contains two subdomains, a POU-specific domain and a POU-homeodomain. The POU domain was originally identified as a region of approximately 150 amino acids shared between the Pit-1, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Unc-86 transcription factors.
  • PQQ Cofactor [M0091136]
    A pyrrolo-quinoline having two adjacent keto-groups at the 4 and 5 positions and three acidic carboxyl groups. It is a coenzyme of some DEHYDROGENASES.
  • Prealbumin [M0017446]
    A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.
  • Precolicin E1 [M0004761]
  • Pregnancy Proteins [M0017484]
    Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
  • Pregnancy-Associated alpha 2-Macroglobulins [M0447960]
    Large (>160 kDa) glycoproteins with electrophoretic mobility of ALPHA-GLOBULINS, found in high concentration in the plasma of pregnant women but also in a number of species including mouse, rat, and others (ALPHA-MACROGLOBULINS). In humans, they are always present in the circulation and are nonspecific inhibitors of PROTEINASES, similar to COMPLEMENT PROTEINS (C3; C4; C5).
  • Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein B [M0461394]
  • Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein C [M0461396]
  • Pregnancy-Specific beta 1-Glycoproteins [M0017495]
    Glycoproteins with the electrophoretic mobility of BETA-GLOBULINS, secreted by the placental TROPHOBLASTS into the maternal bloodstream during PREGNANCY. They can be detected 18 days after OVULATION and reach 200 mg/ml at the end of pregnancy. They are associated with fetal well-being.
  • Pregnanolone [M0017509]
    A pregnane found in the urine of pregnant women and sows. It has anesthetic, hypnotic, and sedative properties.
  • Pregnanolone, (3alpha)-isomer [M0367234]
  • Pregnanolone, (3alpha, 5beta, 17-alpha)-isomer [M0367230]
  • Pregnanolone, (3alpha,5alpha)-isomer [M0017511]
  • Pregnanolone, (3beta)-isomer [M0017510]
  • Pregnanolone, (3beta, 5alpha)-isomer [M0329751]
  • Pregnanolone, (3beta, 5alpha, 17alpha)-isomer [M0367231]
  • Pregnanolone, (3beta, 5alpha, 8alpha, 17beta)-isomer [M0367233]
  • Pregnanolone, (3beta, 5beta)-isomer [M0017512]
  • Pregnanolone, (3beta, 5beta, 17alpha)-isomer [M0367236]
  • Pregnanolone, (3beta, 5beta,14beta)-isomer [M0367232]
  • Pregnanolone, (5alpha)-isomer [M0367235]
  • Prekallikrein [M0017530]
    A plasma protein which is the precursor of kallikrein. Plasma that is deficient in prekallikrein has been found to be abnormal in thromboplastin formation, kinin generation, evolution of a permeability globulin, and plasmin formation. The absence of prekallikrein in plasma leads to Fletcher factor deficiency, a congenital disease.
  • Preproendothelin-1 [M0167677]
  • Preproglucagon [M0097238]
  • Presenilin-1 [M0248671]
    Integral membrane protein of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Its homodimer is an essential component of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN precursors. PSEN1 mutations cause early-onset ALZHEIMER DISEASE type 3 that may occur as early as 30 years of age in humans.
  • Presenilin-2 [M0257716]
    Integral membrane protein of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Its homodimer is an essential component of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN precursors. PSEN2 mutations cause ALZHEIMER DISEASE type 4.
  • Presenilins [M0496221]
    Integral membrane proteins and essential components of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN precursors. Mutations of presenilins lead to presenile ALZHEIMER DISEASE with onset before age 65 years.
  • Primary RNA Transcript [M0411952]
    The product of RNA polymerase prior to any post-transcriptional modifications (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL), i.e. RNA copies from DNA that exactly represent the genome sequence.
  • Pro alpha 1 Collagen [M0017622]
  • Pro alpha 2 Collagen [M0017623]
  • Pro-Apolipoprotein A-II [M0140943]
  • Procarboxypeptidase A [M0092192]
  • Procarboxypeptidase A1 [M0289902]
  • Procarboxypeptidase A2 [M0285035]
  • Procarboxypeptidase B [M0129225]
  • Procaspase-8 [M0360985]
  • Procollagen [M0017624]
    A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.
  • Procollagen Type I [M0017630]
  • Procollagen Type II [M0017625]
  • Procollagen Type IV [M0017627]
  • Procollagen Type IX [M0372058]
  • Procollagen Type M [M0017628]
  • Procollagen Type V [M0017629]
  • Procollagen Type VI [M0372056]
  • Procollagen Type VII [M0372055]
  • Procollagen Type X [M0372059]
  • Procollagen Type XII [M0372061]
  • Procollagen Type XIII [M0372062]
  • Procollagen Type XVIII [M0442532]
  • Prodigiosin [M0017640]
    4-Methoxy-5-((5-methyl-4-pentyl-2H-pyrrol-2-ylidene)methyl)- 2,2'-bi-1H-pyrrole. A toxic, bright red tripyrrole pigment from Serratia marcescens and others. It has antibacterial, anticoccidial, antimalarial, and antifungal activities, but is used mainly as a biochemical tool.
  • Proendothelin (1-38) [M0174536]
    A 38 amino acid form of endothelin-1 that results from alternative processing of proendothelin-1.
  • Profilin 1 [M0366972]
  • Profilin 2 [M0063581]
  • Profilin 3 [M0398501]
  • Profilin 4 [M0480099]
  • Profilins [M0063582]
    A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.
  • Progesterone, (13 alpha,17 alpha)-(+-)-Isomer [M0329762]
  • Progesterone, (17 alpha)-Isomer [M0329760]
  • Progesterone, (9 beta,10 alpha)-Isomer [M0329761]
  • Progesterone-Binding Globulin [M0017674]
    A glycoprotein migrating as alpha 1-globulin, molecular weight 70,000 to 120,000. The protein, which is present in increased amounts in the plasma during pregnancy, binds mainly progesterone, with other steroids including testosterone competing weakly.
  • Proglucagon [M0086289]
    The common precursor polypeptide of pancreatic GLUCAGON and intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Proglucagon is the 158-amino acid segment of preproglucagon without the N-terminal signal sequence. Proglucagon is expressed in the PANCREAS; INTESTINES; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Posttranslational processing of proglucagon is tissue-specific yielding numerous bioactive peptides.
  • Proinsulin [M0017685]
    A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.
  • Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-1 [M0419356]
    The smallest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 8 kD. It binds near the A-site of the 30S subunit of RIBOSOMES and may play a role in preventing premature addition of aminoacyl-tRNA-linked PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR TU to the ribosome during the initiation of a peptide chain (PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL).
  • Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2 [M0176255]
    The largest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 80 kD. It functions in the transcription initiation process by promoting the binding of formylmethionine-tRNA to the P-site of the 30S ribosome and by preventing the incorrect binding of elongator tRNA to the translation initiation site.
  • Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-3 [M0078903]
    A prokaryotic initiation factor that plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits for a new round of translational initiation. It binds to 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and stimulates the dissociation of vacant 70S ribosomes. It may also be involved in the preferential binding of initiator tRNA to the 30S initiation complex.
  • Prokaryotic Initiation Factors [M0419376]
    Peptide initiation factors from prokaryotic organisms. Only three factors are needed for translation initiation in prokaryotic organisms, which occurs by a far simpler process than in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL of eukaryotic organisms.
  • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen [M0028162]
    Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
  • Proline [M0017693]
    A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
  • Promoter (Genetics) [M0017730]
  • Promoter Regions (Genetics) [M0017727]
    DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
  • Propolis [M0017766]
    A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.
  • Proprotein Convertase 2 [M0183722]
    A serine endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, proluteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, proenkephalins, prodynorphin, and PROINSULIN.
  • Prorenin [M0061608]
  • Proscillaridin [M0017785]
    A cardiotonic glycoside isolated from Scilla maritima var. alba (Squill).
  • Prostaglandin D2 [M0023403]
    The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
  • Prostaglandins I [M0017817]
    A class of cyclic prostaglandins that contain the 6,9-epoxy bond. Endogenous members of this family are biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES.
  • Prostatic Secretory Proteins [M0384976]
    Proteins secreted by the prostate gland. The major secretory proteins from the human prostate gland include PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and prostate-specific protein-94.
  • Protamines [M0017844]
    A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
  • Protease Inhibitors [M0017845]
    Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
  • Protein C [M0017852]
    A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.
  • Protein C Inhibitor [M0027231]
    A member of the serpin family of proteins that is found in plasma and urine. It is dependent on heparin and able to inhibit activated protein C, thrombin, kallikrein, and other SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
  • Protein Inducer MGI [M0004824]
  • Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT [M0478067]
    A family of structurally related proteins that are constitutively expressed and that negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PIAS proteins inhibit the activity of SIGNAL TRANSDUCERS AND ACTIVATORS OF TRANSCRIPTION.
  • Protein Precursors [M0017873]
  • Protein S [M0026253]
    The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.
  • Protein Sorting Signals [M0352619]
    Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
  • Proteinase Inhibitory Peptides, Secretory [M0493736]
  • Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory [M0493685]
    Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.
  • Proteins [M0017890]
    Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
  • Proteochondroitin Sulfate [M0017893]
  • Proteochondroitin Sulfates [M0017894]
    Proteoglycans found in cartilage. They consist of several chondroitin sulfate molecules linked to protein(s) by neutral sugar linkage regions.
  • Proteoglycans [M0017897]
    Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
  • Proteolipids [M0017898]
    Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
  • Proteome [M0328053]
    The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
  • Prothrombin [M0017904]
    A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.
  • Proto-Oncogene Protein c-crk-1 [M0180675]
  • Proto-Oncogene Protein c-crk-2 [M0259688]
  • Proto-Oncogene Protein c-crk-3 [M0477438]
  • Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1 [M0139271]
    An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
  • Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-2 [M0172600]
    A ubiquitously expressed ets proto-oncogene protein that may play a role in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
  • Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1 [M0215273]
    A member of the c-ets family of transcription factors that is preferentially expressed in cells of hematopoietic lineages and vascular endothelial cells. It was originally identified as a protein that provides a retroviral integration site for integration of FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS.
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins [M0017909]
    Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 [M0028673]
    Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6 [M0222844]
    A DNA-binding protein that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target genes by recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Aberrant Blc-6 expression is associated with certain types of human B-CELL LYMPHOMA.
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk [M0180679]
    Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets [M0139274]
    A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-ETS of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos [M0025542]
    Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun [M0025512]
    Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf [M0227896]
    Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myb [M0328560]
    Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the myb gene (GENES, MYB). They are expressed in a wide variety of cells including thymocytes and lymphocytes, and