Cell Function

MeSH ID: T043

Related Concepts:

  • Acrosome Reaction [M0029835]
    Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the ACROSOME of a sperm (SPERMATOZOA). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the ZONA PELLUCIDA and enter the OVUM during FERTILIZATION.
  • Action Potentials [M0000303]
    Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
  • Active Ion Transport [M0384361]
    Ion transport that is coupled to an energy-yielding process. When proteins such as ION PUMPS couple transport directly to a chemical or photochemical reaction such as ATP hydrolysis the process is considered primary active transport pumps. Secondary active transport utilizes the voltage and ion gradients produced by the primary transport to drive the cotransport of other ions or molecules. SYMPORTERS may use secondary active transporters to transport ions in the same direction (symport). ANTIPORTERS may use secondary active transporters to transport ions in the opposite direction (antiport).
  • Active Transport, Cell Nucleus [M0352614]
    Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
  • Adipogenesis [M0472915]
    The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
  • Anoikis [M0360494]
    APOPTOSIS triggered by loss of contact with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
  • Antibody Formation [M0001366]
    The proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES into PLASMA CELLS or memory cells. On stimulation by ANTIGENS, those cells then produce ANTIBODIES.
  • Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity [M0001370]
    The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
  • Antigen Presentation [M0027113]
    The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
  • Antigen Processing [M0027112]
  • Antiport [M0026030]
  • Apoptosis [M0026116]
    One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
  • Autocrine Communication [M0029554]
    Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone.
  • Autophagy [M0002016]
    The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
  • Axonal Transport [M0002053]
    The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
  • Axoplasmic Flow [M0002054]
  • Bacterial Translocation [M0028361]
    The passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the intestinal mucosa resulting in increased intestinal permeability. These mechanisms can act in concert to promote synergistically the systemic spread of indigenous translocating bacteria to cause lethal sepsis.
  • Biological Transport [M0002537]
    The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
  • Bystander Effect [M0369610]
    The result of a positive or negative response (to drugs, for example) in one cell being passed onto other cells via the GAP JUNCTIONS or the intracellular milieu.
  • Bystander Help [M0369611]
  • Bystander Suppression [M0369612]
  • Calcium Puffs [M0029718]
  • Calcium Signaling [M0029721]
    Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
  • Calcium Spikes [M0029719]
  • Calcium Waves [M0029720]
  • Cell Adhesion [M0003740]
    Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
  • Cell Aggregation [M0003741]
    The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
  • Cell Aging [M0025749]
    The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
  • Cell Communication [M0003742]
    Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
  • Cell Compartmentation [M0003743]
    A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
  • Cell Cycle [M0003747]
    The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
  • Cell Death [M0025750]
    The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
  • Cell Degranulation [M0023917]
    The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.
  • Cell Differentiation [M0003749]
    Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
  • Cell Division [M0003750]
    The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
  • Cell Enlargement [M0463618]
    Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.
  • Cell Fusion [M0003756]
    Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
  • Cell Growth Processes [M0464312]
    Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.
  • Cell Hypoxia [M0024063]
    A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
  • Cell Membrane Permeability [M0003760]
    A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
  • Cell Movement [M0003765]
    The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
  • Cell Nucleus Division [M0462392]
    The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.
  • Cell Nucleus Division Phases [M0463633]
  • Cell Physiology [M0003768]
    The functions of CELLS from the time of their origin (CELL DIVISION) to CELL DEATH.
  • Cell Proliferation [M0463621]
    All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
  • Cell Respiration [M0028469]
    The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
  • Cell Survival [M0003770]
    The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
  • Chemotaxis [M0004027]
    The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
  • Chemotaxis, Leukocyte [M0004028]
    The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
  • Chromosome Pairing [M0368493]
    The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.
  • Chromosome Positioning [M0448825]
    The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
  • Contact Inhibition [M0005065]
    Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.
  • Cross-Presentation [M0447238]
    Transfer of exogenous ANTIGEN to the ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS for presentation to naive CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES.
  • Cross-Priming [M0447237]
    Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
  • Cytokinesis [M0003752]
    The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
  • Cytoplasmic Streaming [M0005616]
    The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
  • Cytotoxicity, Immunologic [M0005630]
    The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
  • Diakinesis [M0464740]
    The stage of meiotic prophase I following DIPLONEMA when the homologous CHROMOSOMES complete CROSSING OVER and separation, and become fully condensed.
  • Diplotene Stage [M0464739]
    The stage during the first meiotic prophase, following PACHYTENE STAGE, when the SYNAPTONEMAL COMPLEX dissolves and the homologous CHROMOSOMES begin to separate.
  • Down-Regulation [M0023902]
    A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
  • Embryonic Induction [M0007260]
    The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the EMBRYO. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
  • Endocytosis [M0007403]
    Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
  • Erythrocyte Aggregation [M0007693]
    The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.
  • Erythrocyte Aggregation, Intravascular [M0007694]
    Clumping of ERYTHROCYTES, in vivo, in intact blood vessels. Increased and/or abnormal aggregation may lead to impairment of MICROCIRCULATION (blood sludging and THROMBUS formation) and development of VASCULAR DISEASES.
  • Erythrocyte Aging [M0007695]
    The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.
  • Erythrocyte Deformability [M0007699]
    Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
  • Exocytosis [M0008023]
    Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
  • Facilitated Ion Transport [M0384360]
    Transport of ions down a concentration gradient at greater rates than would occur through passive diffusion through a pore.
  • G0 Phase [M0024711]
    A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.
  • G2 Phase [M0024714]
    The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
  • Gated Protein Transport [M0352613]
    A mechanism which uses selective gates to actively transport proteins from one cellular compartment to another.
  • Hemadsorption [M0010020]
    A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Histamine Release [M0010397]
    The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.
  • Immunocompetence [M0011091]
    The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
  • Immunologic Capping [M0011153]
    An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
  • Immunologic Tumoricidal Activities [M0005631]
  • Ion Channel Gating [M0023977]
    The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
  • Ion Exchange, Intracellular [M0026032]
  • Ion Transport [M0026035]
    The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
  • Leptotene Stage [M0464644]
    The first stage of meiotic prophase I when the CHROMOSOMES first become visible. Also called leptonema. Distinguish from the genus Leptonema.
  • Leukocyte Rolling [M0411381]
    Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
  • Locomotion, Cell [M0462414]
  • Lymphocyte Activation [M0012805]
    Morphologic alteration of small lymphocytes in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific antigens. It may also occur in vivo, as in GRAFT REJECTION and chronic myelogenous leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC).
  • Lymphocyte Cooperation [M0012803]
    T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
  • M Phase [M0462397]
    The period of the cell cycle when CELLS divide their nucleus and cytoplasm.
  • M Phase, Meiotic [M0463995]
  • M Phase, Mitotic [M0463993]
  • Macrophage Activation [M0012869]
    The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
  • MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways [M0331445]
  • Meiosis [M0013301]
    A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
  • Meiotic Prophase I [M0464642]
    The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
  • Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial [M0491181]
    The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
  • Membrane Potentials [M0013339]
    The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES' membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
  • Messenger RNA Localization Processes, Cellular [M0470171]
  • Migration, Cell [M0462413]
  • Mitochondrial Contraction [M0013939]
  • Mitochondrial Swelling [M0013943]
    An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
  • Mitosis [M0013950]
    A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
  • Myofibrillogenesis [M0370791]
  • Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous [M0014580]
    Disappearance of a neoplasm or neoplastic state without the intervention of therapy.
  • Nerve Impulses [M0492952]
  • Nerve Regeneration [M0014660]
    Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
  • Neural Conduction [M0014677]
    The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
  • Neural Inhibition [M0014680]
    The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
  • Nuclear Export [M0354407]
  • Nuclear Import [M0354406]
  • Pachytene Stage [M0464646]
    The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
  • Paracrine Communication [M0029555]
    Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
  • Passive Ion Transport [M0384359]
    Ion transport that derives its energy from the concentration gradient of the ion itself.
  • Phagocytosis [M0016452]
    The engulfing of microorganisms, other cells, and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
  • Phototransduction [M0028577]
    The transducing of light energy to afferent nerve impulses, such as takes place in the retinal rods and cones. After light photons are absorbed by the photopigments, the signal is transmitted to the outer segment membrane by the cyclic GMP second messenger system, where it closes the sodium channels. This channel gating ultimately generates an action potential in the inner retina.
  • Pinocytosis [M0016878]
    The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
  • Platelet Adhesiveness [M0017010]
    The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
  • Platelet Aggregation [M0017011]
    The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
  • Programmed Cell Death, Type II [M0474579]
  • Prometaphase [M0464637]
    The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
  • Protein Sorting [M0354322]
  • Protein Targeting [M0470172]
  • Protein Translocation [M0352612]
    The process by which proteins are moved into or through the cell membranes by protein translocator molecules that recognize their signal peptides.
  • Protein Transport [M0352611]
    The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
  • Protoplasmic Streaming [M0005617]
  • Quorum Quenching [M0495956]
    Inhibition of quorum sensing (signaling molecules) by degradation enzymes.
  • Quorum Sensing [M0490960]
    A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
  • Receptor Down-Regulation [M0374370]
    A negative regulatory process that decreases ligand-receptor interactions. Reduction in receptor binding after ligand exposure can result from the internalization of ligand-receptor complex, an increase in receptor degradation, and/or a decrease in gene expression resulting in a decrease in receptor biosynthesis.
  • Receptor Up-Regulation [M0374376]
    A positive regulatory process that increases ligand-receptor interactions. Increase in receptor binding after ligand exposure can result from receptor activation, aggregation, increase in half-life, and/or an increase in gene expression that leads to de novo receptor synthesis.
  • Receptor-Mediated Signal Transduction [M0023727]
  • Respiratory Burst [M0025710]
    A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
  • Reticulocytosis [M0026765]
    An increase in circulating RETICULOCYTES, which is among the simplest and most reliable signs of accelerated ERYTHROCYTE production. Reticulocytosis occurs during active BLOOD regeneration (stimulation of red bone marrow) and in certain types of ANEMIA, particularly CONGENITAL HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
  • RNA Localization Processes, Cellular [M0470170]
  • RNA Transport [M0405652]
    The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
  • Rouleaux Formation, Erythrocyte [M0448037]
    The clumping of ERYTHROCYTES that is like a stack or roll of coins.
  • Signal Pathways [M0023728]
  • Signal Transduction Pathways [M0023730]
  • Sperm Agglutination [M0020260]
    Agglutination of spermatozoa by antibodies or autoantibodies.
  • Sperm Motility [M0020268]
    Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
  • Sperm-Zona Pellucida Penetration [M0020272]
  • Spermatocytogenesis [M0020282]
    The process of male germ cell development in which the euploid SPERMATOGONIA give rise to SPERMATOCYTES and then the haploid SPERMATIDS by MITOSIS and MEIOSIS.
  • Spermatogenesis [M0020281]
    The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA, SPERM.
  • Spermiogenesis [M0020283]
    The process of male germ cell development in which the haploid SPERMATIDS give rise to SPERMATOZOA by metamorphosis.
  • Spike Potentials [M0000304]
  • Symport [M0026033]
  • Toxicokinetics [M0016467]
  • Uniport [M0026034]
  • Up-Regulation [M0024283]
    A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
  • Vesicular Protein Transport [M0352615]
    The process of the secretory and endocytic pathways, in which proteins are loaded into transport vesicles and then delivered to a different cellular compartments by the process of exocytosis.
  • Zygotene Stage [M0464647]
    The stage during meiotic prophase I, following LEPTOTENE STAGE, during which SYNAPSIS occurs between homologous CHROMOSOMES via the SYNAPTONEMAL COMPLEX.