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Cell

MeSH ID: T025

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  • 3T3 Cells [M0025161]
    Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
  • 3T3-L1 Cells [M0439109]
    A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
  • Acanthocytes [M0000076]
    Erythrocytes with protoplasmic projections giving the cell a thorny appearance.
  • Adipocytes [M0026722]
    Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
  • Adipocytes, Brown [M0486898]
    Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.
  • Adipocytes, White [M0486900]
    Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.
  • Adult Stem Cells [M0495580]
    Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
  • Amacrine Cells [M0373280]
    INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
  • Ameloblasts [M0000884]
    Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
  • Aneuploid Cell [M0445145]
  • Anterior Horn Cells [M0001300]
    Motor neurons in the anterior (ventral) horn of the spinal cord which project to skeletal muscles.
  • Antibody-Producing Cells [M0001371]
    Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
  • Antibody-Secreting Cells [M0001372]
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells [M0001402]
    Heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediates the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cell receptor. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. Follicular dendritic cells (DENDRITIC CELLS, FOLLICULAR) are also considered to be antigen-presenting cells by some authors.
  • APUD Cells [M0001632]
    Cells with the capacity to take up and decarboxylate the amine precursors DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE or 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN - a property of endocrine cells of neural and non-neural origin. APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells.
  • Astrocytes [M0001890]
    A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
  • B-Lymphocytes [M0002097]
    Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
  • BALB 3T3 Cells [M0439097]
    Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).
  • BALB 3T3 clone A31 [M0439098]
  • Basophils [M0002222]
    Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.
  • Blastocyst Inner Cell Mass [M0495037]
    The collection of cells that are inside the blastocyst. Depending on the stage of blastocyst, these cells can be pluripotent or totipotent EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS capable of yielding all types of tissues in a developing organism.
  • Blood Cells [M0002677]
  • Blood Platelets [M0002704]
    Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
  • Bone Marrow Cells [M0002787]
    Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES), STROMAL CELLS, MEGAKARYOCYTES, and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
  • Burst-Forming Units, Erythroid [M0441056]
  • Caco-2 Cells [M0028307]
    Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes [M0023858]
    A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes [M0027643]
    A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
  • Cell Line [M0003757]
    Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
  • Cell Line, Transformed [M0003758]
    Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
  • Cell Line, Tumor [M0022147]
    A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
  • Cell Transplants [M0029300]
  • Cells [M0003777]
    The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
  • Cells, Cultured [M0003779]
    Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
  • Cells, Immobilized [M0028283]
    Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
  • Chemoreceptors [M0004020]
    Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptors may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
  • Chief Cells, Gastric [M0029509]
    Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.
  • CHO Cells [M0025152]
    CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
  • Chondroblasts [M0029560]
  • Chondrocytes [M0029561]
    Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
  • Chromaffin Cells [M0028920]
    Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
  • Chromatophores [M0004384]
    The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)
  • Clone Cells [M0004604]
    A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
  • Colony-Forming Unit [M0020473]
  • Colony-Forming Units, Erythroid [M0441057]
  • Colony-Forming Units, Hematopoietic [M0010056]
  • Cones (Retina) [M0027110]
    One of the two photoreceptor cell types in the vertebrate retina. In cones the photopigment is in invaginations of the cell membrane of the outer segment. Cones are less sensitive to light than rods, but they provide vision with higher spatial and temporal acuity, and the combination of signals from cones with different pigments allows color vision.
  • Connective Tissue Cells [M0005026]
    A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.
  • Corticotrophs [M0488565]
    Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.
  • COS Cells [M0029043]
    CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
  • COS-1 Cells [M0444191]
  • COS-7 Cells [M0444192]
  • Dendritic Cells [M0005828]
    Immunocompetent cells of the lymphoid and hemopoietic systems and SKIN, and possessing branching morphology. They function morphologically and phenotypically by processing ANTIGENS or presenting them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR). When found in the skin they are called LANGERHANS CELLS; when found in the lymph nodes, they are called interdigitating cells.
  • Dendritic Cells, Follicular [M0328454]
    Cells with extensive dendritic processes found in the B-cell areas (primary follicles and germinal centers) of lymphoid tissue. They are unrelated to the DENDRITIC CELLS associated with T-cells. Follicular dendritic cells have Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) and C3b receptors (RECEPTORS, COMPLEMENT 3B), but unlike other dendritic cells, they do not process or present antigen in a way that allows recognition by T-cells. Instead, they hold antigen in the form of immune complexes on their surfaces for long periods and can present antigen to B-cells during an immune response. (From Herbert et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
  • Diploid Cell [M0445144]
  • Embolism, Tumor [M0014574]
  • Embryonal Carcinoma Cells [M0022152]
  • Embryonic Stem Cells [M0494884]
    Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
  • Endothelial Cells [M0441917]
    Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
  • Enterochromaffin Cells [M0007477]
    A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
  • Enterochromaffin-like Cells [M0029484]
    Neuroendocrine cells in the glands of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. They produce HISTAMINE and peptides such as CHROMOGRANINS. ECL cells respond to GASTRIN by releasing histamine which acts as a paracrine stimulator of the release of HYDROCHLORIC ACID from the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
  • Enterocytes [M0328442]
    Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
  • Enteroendocrine Cells [M0029481]
    Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.
  • Eosinophils [M0007534]
    Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
  • Epithelial Cells [M0007604]
    Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) from mesoderm.
  • Epithelioid Cells [M0023966]
    Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).
  • Erythroblasts [M0007689]
    Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. Popularly called normoblasts.
  • Erythrocytes [M0007711]
    Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
  • Erythrocytes, Abnormal [M0007712]
  • Erythroid Progenitor Cells [M0024026]
    Committed, erythroid stem cells derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS. The progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
  • Eukaryotic Cells [M0007945]
    Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
  • Extraglomerular Mesangial Cells [M0476063]
  • Fetal Stem Cells [M0495577]
    Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
  • Fibroblasts [M0008438]
    Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
  • Foam Cells [M0008654]
    Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
  • FSH Cells [M0488567]
  • Gastric delta Cells [M0474989]
  • Gastrin-Secreting Cells [M0029490]
    Endocrine cells which secrete GASTRIN, a peptide that induces GASTRIC ACID secretion. They are found predominantly in the GASTRIC GLANDS of PYLORIC ANTRUM in the STOMACH, but can also be found in the DUODENUM, nervous and other tissues.
  • Germ Cells [M0009199]
    The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms.
  • Giant Cells [M0024113]
    Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
  • Giant Cells, Foreign-Body [M0024132]
    Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages), characteristic of granulomatous inflammation, which form around exogenous material in the skin. They are similar in appearance to Langhans giant cells (GIANT CELLS, LANGHANS), but foreign-body giant cells have more abundant chromatin and their nuclei are scattered in an irregular pattern in the cytoplasm.
  • Giant Cells, Langhans [M0024133]
    Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages) seen in granulomatous inflammations such as tuberculosis, syphilis, sarcoidosis, and deep fungal infections. They resemble foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN BODY) but Langhans giant cells contain less chromatin and their nuclei are arranged peripherally in a horseshoe-shaped pattern. Langhans giant cells occur frequently in delayed hypersensitivity.
  • Glomerular Mesangial Cells [M0476062]
  • Glucagon-Secreting Cells [M0011742]
    A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.
  • Goblet Cells [M0030041]
    A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
  • Gonadotrophs [M0488566]
    Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
  • Granulocyte Precursor Cells [M0441193]
    The cells in the granulocytic series that give rise to mature granulocytes (NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.) These precursor cells include myeloblasts, promyelocytes, myelocytes and metamyelocytes.
  • Granulocytes [M0009603]
    Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
  • Granulosa Cells [M0009617]
    Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
  • Hair Cells [M0009747]
    Mechanoreceptors located in the organ of Corti that are sensitive to auditory stimuli and in the vestibular apparatus that are sensitive to movement of the head. In each case the accessory sensory structures are arranged so that appropriate stimuli cause movement of the hair-like projections (stereocilia and kinocilia) which relay the information centrally in the nervous system.
  • Hair Cells, Inner [M0009748]
    Bulbous cells that are medially placed in one row in the organ of Corti. In contrast to the outer hair cells, the inner hair cells are fewer in number, have fewer sensory hairs, and are less differentiated.
  • Hair Cells, Outer [M0027263]
    Mechanoreceptors in the organ of Corti. In mammals the outer hair cells are arranged in three rows which are further from the modiolus than the single row of inner hair cells. The motile properties of the outer hair cells may contribute actively to tuning the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the cochlea.
  • Hair Cells, Vestibular [M0027259]
    Mechanoreceptors located in the acoustic maculae and the semicircular canals that mediate the sense of balance, movement, and head position. The vestibular hair cells are connected to accessory structures in such a way that movements of the head displace their stereocilia. This influences the membrane potential of the cells which relay information about movements via the vestibular part of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE to the brain stem.
  • Haploid Cell [M0445147]
  • HCT116 Cells [M0447749]
    Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.
  • Hela Cells [M0009998]
    The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks (one of several pseudonyms). These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells [M0010055]
    Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
  • Hemocytes [M0010101]
    Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
  • Hepatocytes [M0359086]
    The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
  • Histiocytes [M0010405]
    Macrophages found in the TISSUES, as opposed to those found in the blood (MONOCYTES) or serous cavities (SEROUS MEMBRANE).
  • HL-60 Cells [M0028291]
    A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
  • HT29 Cells [M0028473]
    Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
  • Hurthle Cells [M0372531]
    Oxyphil cells in the thyroid gland are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.
  • Hybrid Cells [M0010667]
  • Hybridomas [M0010670]
    Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure or "monoclonal" antibodies or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent, and continually grow and divide as the neoplastic parent.
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells [M0011743]
    A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
  • Interdigitating Cells [M0459387]
    ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS of dendritic cell morphology found in the LYMPH NODES and other lymphoid tissues.
  • Interfascicular Oligodendroglia [M0015270]
  • Interneurons [M0011531]
    Most generally any neurons which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose axons remain within a particular brain region as contrasted with projection neurons which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
  • Intestinal L Cells [M0029479]
    Intestinal L cells are located in the MUCOSA of distal ILEUM and COLON. They secrete GLUCAGON-like peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY or PEPTIDE YY).
  • Intestinal Secretin Cells [M0029480]
    These cells produce SECRETIN and are found in the MUCOSA of upper SMALL INTESTINE and PYLORIC ANTRUM in mammals. Secretin also has been found in cells in the BRAIN and other tissues.
  • Jurkat Cells [M0028573]
    A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
  • K562 Cells [M0029722]
    An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.
  • KB Cells [M0011933]
    This line KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous KERATIN-forming tumor cell line HeLa. It was originally thought to be derived from an epidermal carcinoma of the mouth, but was subsequently found, based on isoenzyme analysis, HeLa marker chromosomes, and DNA fingerprinting, to have been established via contamination by HELA CELLS. The cells are positive for keratin by immunoperoxidase staining. KB cells have been reported to contain human papillomavirus18 (HPV-18) sequences.
  • Keratinocytes [M0023947]
    Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
  • Killer Cells [M0012034]
    Lymphocyte-like effector cells which mediate antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. They kill antibody-coated target cells which they bind with their Fc receptors.
  • Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated [M0024414]
    Cytolytic lymphocytes with the unique capacity of killing natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh tumor cells. They are interleukin-2-activated NK cells that have no MHC (major histocompatibility complex) restriction or need for antigen stimulation. LAK cells are used for adoptive immunotherapy in cancer patients.
  • Killer Cells, Natural [M0012035]
    Cells responsible for spontaneous cytotoxicity of a variety of tumor cells without prior immunization. These natural killer cells are found in non-immune humans and experimental animals and are thought by some to be the same as KILLER CELLS (killing by antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity), but they can also kill in the absence of antibody.
  • Kupffer Cells [M0012083]
    Specialized phagocytic cells of the RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
  • L Cells (Cell Line) [M0012095]
    A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
  • Labyrinth Supporting Cells [M0012126]
    Cells forming a framework supporting the organ of Corti. Specific cells are those of Claudius, Deiters and Hensen.
  • Lactotrophs [M0488572]
    Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.
  • Langerhans Cells [M0012200]
    Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the epidermis and are rich in Class II major histocompatibility complex molecules.
  • Large Luteal Cells [M0402902]
  • LE Cells [M0014783]
  • Leukocytes [M0012411]
    White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear [M0012412]
    Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
  • Leydig Cells [M0012443]
    Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
  • LH Cells [M0488568]
  • LLC-PK1 Cells [M0027600]
    Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.
  • Luteal Cells [M0012762]
    PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
  • Lymphocytes [M0012806]
    White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each); those with characteristics of neither major class are called null cells.
  • Lymphocytes, Null [M0012808]
    A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
  • Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating [M0024809]
    Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
  • Lymphoid Cells [M0012807]
  • Macrophages [M0012871]
    The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
  • Macrophages, Alveolar [M0025409]
    Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal [M0026804]
    Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
  • Mast Cells [M0013089]
    Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
  • Megakaryocytes [M0013294]
    Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
  • Megaloblasts [M0013295]
    Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
  • Melanocytes [M0013308]
    Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.
  • Melanophores [M0013314]
    Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
  • Melanotrophs [M0488969]
    Neuroendocrine cells in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY. They produce MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from the post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
  • Merkel Cells [M0028216]
    Modified epidermal cells located in the stratum basale. They are found mostly in areas where sensory perception is acute, such as the fingertips. Merkel cells are closely associated with an expanded terminal bulb of an afferent myelinated nerve fiber. Do not confuse with Merkel's corpuscle which is a combination of a neuron and an epidermal cell.
  • Merozoites [M0490386]
    Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan PROTOZOA. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.
  • Mesangial Cells [M0475996]
    Smooth muscle-like cells adhering to the wall of the small blood vessels of the KIDNEY at the glomerulus and along the vascular pole of the glomerulus in the JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS. They are myofibroblasts with contractile and phagocytic properties. These cells and their MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX constitute the GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM.
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells [M0446924]
    Cells that can develop into distinct mesenchymal tissue such as BONE; TENDONS; MUSCLES; ADIPOSE TISSUE; CARTILAGE; NERVE TISSUE; and BLOOD and BLOOD VESSELS.
  • Metamyelocytes [M0441198]
  • Microglia [M0026694]
    The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
  • Monocytes [M0014033]
    Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
  • Monocytes, Activated Killer [M0024854]
    Monocytes made cytotoxic by ex vivo incubation with cytokines, especially interferon-gamma. AKM cells are used for adoptive immunotherapy in cancer patients.
  • Motor Neurons [M0014114]
    Neurons which activate muscle cells.
  • Motor Neurons, Gamma [M0014115]
    Motor neurons which activate the contractile regions of intrafusal muscle fibers, thus adjusting the sensitivity of the muscle spindles to stretch. Gamma motor neurons may be "static" or "dynamic" according to which aspect of responsiveness (or which fiber types) they regulate. The alpha and gamma motor neurons are often activated together (alpha gamma coactivation) which allows the spindles to contribute to the control of movement trajectories despite changes in muscle length.
  • Multipotent Stem Cells [M0419812]
    Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
  • Muscle Cells [M0400305]
    Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
  • Muscle Fibers [M0027727]
    Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of skeletal muscle tissue. They consist of a soft contractile substance enclosed in a tubular sheath. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
  • Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch [M0027953]
    Skeletal muscle fibers having high myofibrillar ATPase activity, high glycolytic enzyme activities, and an intermediate glycogen content which produce a fast twitch. There are two types. Fast fatigable fibers, also called white fibers, have a low myoglobin content, and a small mitochondrial content, and fatigue rapidly due to their limited glycogen content and low capacity for oxidative metabolism. Fast fatigue-resistant fibers, also called red fibers, have a large mitochondrial content and a high myoglobin content, related to their resistance to fatigue. (From Best, Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p100)
  • Muscle Fibers, Red [M0027954]
  • Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch [M0027956]
    Skeletal muscle fibers having low myofibrillar ATPase activity, low glycogen content, and high myoglobin content, high mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activities, and an intermediate mitochondrial content which produce a slow twitch and are fatigue-resistant. (From Best, Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p101)
  • Muscle Fibers, White [M0027955]
  • Myeloblasts [M0444196]
  • Myelocytes [M0441194]
  • Myeloid Cells [M0358025]
    The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).
  • Myeloid Progenitor Cells [M0362090]
    One of the two stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS - the other being the lymphoid progenitor cell. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS and the MYELOID CELLS; (MONOCYTES and GRANULOCYTES).
  • Myoblasts [M0400529]
    Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
  • Myoblasts, Cardiac [M0400431]
    Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).
  • Myoblasts, Skeletal [M0400543]
    Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
  • Myoblasts, Smooth Muscle [M0400436]
    Precursor cells destined to differentiate into smooth muscle myocytes (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
  • Myocytes, Cardiac [M0400427]
    Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
  • Myocytes, Smooth Muscle [M0400435]
    Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
  • Neoplasm Circulating Cells [M0014575]
    Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.
  • Neuroepithelial Bodies [M0454724]
    Innervated clusters of NEUROEPITHELIAL CELLS found in the LUNGS. They act as airway OXYGEN sensors, releasing regulatory PEPTIDES and SEROTONIN in response to HYPOXIA.
  • Neuroepithelial Cells [M0454726]
    Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; cochlear HAIR CELLS; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.
  • Neuroglia [M0014711]
    The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
  • Neurons [M0014736]
    The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
  • Neurons, Afferent [M0014737]
    Neurons which convey sensory information centrally from the periphery.
  • Neurons, Efferent [M0014738]
    Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
  • Neutrophils [M0014784]
    Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
  • NIH 3T3 Cells [M0439078]
    A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
  • Nitrergic Neurons [M0378494]
    Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
  • Odontoblasts [M0015219]
  • Odontoclasts [M0015528]
  • Olfactory Receptor Neurons [M0027220]
    Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
  • Oligodendroglia [M0015269]
    A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
  • Oocytes [M0015307]
    Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
  • Oogonia [M0015309]
    Euploid female germ cells of an early stage of OOGENESIS, derived from primordial germ cells during ovarian differentiation. Oogonia undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to haploid OOCYTES
  • Osteoblasts [M0015514]
    Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
  • Osteoclasts [M0015529]
    A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
  • Osteocytes [M0015530]
    Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
  • Ovum [M0015608]
    A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
  • Oxyphil Cells [M0372530]
    Large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askenazy cells.
  • Pancreatic delta Cells [M0029491]
  • Pancreatic Polypeptide-Secreting Cells [M0475038]
    A group of islet cells (10-35%) which secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE, a hormone that regulates APPETITE and FOOD INTAKE.
  • Paneth Cells [M0029518]
    Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.
  • Parietal Cells, Gastric [M0015954]
    Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
  • PC12 Cells [M0025457]
    A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
  • Pericytes [M0029935]
    Slender, contractile, mesenchymal-like cells found in close association with capillary walls. They are relatively undifferentiated and may become fibroblasts, macrophages, or smooth muscle cells. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Perineuronal Oligodendroglia [M0380853]
  • Perivascular Oligodendroglia [M0015272]
  • Phagocytes [M0016451]
  • Photoreceptors [M0016754]
    Cells specialized to detect and transduce light.
  • Photoreceptors, Invertebrate [M0027121]
    Cells in invertebrates which are specialized to detect and transduce light and darkness and relay that information centrally in the nervous system.
  • Photoreceptors, Vertebrate [M0030076]
    Cells specialized to detect and transduce light. Rods and cones are the photoreceptors in the vertebrate retina.
  • Plasma Cells [M0016978]
    Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells [M0419814]
    Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
  • Podocytes [M0473246]
    Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
  • Polyploid Cell [M0445148]
  • Proerythroblasts [M0007690]
  • Prokaryotic Cells [M0017688]
    Cells, such as those of bacteria and the blue green algae, which lack a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
  • Promyelocytes [M0009604]
    The cells in the granulocytic series that are derived from myeloblasts and that are the earliest cells of the myelocyte stage.
  • Protoplasts [M0017915]
  • Purkinje Cells [M0018171]
    The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
  • Pyramidal Cells [M0027134]
    Projection neurons in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
  • Radiation Hybrids [M0351524]
  • Reed-Sternberg Cells [M0025241]
    Large cells of unknown origin, usually multinucleate, whose presence is the common histologic characteristic of HODGKIN DISEASE.
  • Reticulocytes [M0018934]
    Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
  • Retinal Bipolar Cells [M0479891]
    INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive input from the VERTEBRATE PHOTORECEPTORS and send output to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.
  • Retinal Ganglion Cells [M0018946]
    Cells of the innermost nuclear layer of the retina, the ganglion cell layer, which project axons through the optic nerve to the brain. They are quite variable in size and in the shapes of their dendritic arbors, which are generally confined to the inner plexiform layer. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors and project to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the location of the circadian clock, setting the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
  • Retinal Horizontal Cells [M0479896]
    NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the VERTEBRATE PHOTORECEPTORS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.
  • Retinal Photoreceptors [M0016755]
  • Rods (Retina) [M0027109]
    One of the two photoreceptor cell types of the vertebrate retina. In rods the photopigment is in stacks of membranous disks separate from the outer cell membrane. Rods are more sensitive to light than cones, but rod mediated vision has less spatial and temporal resolution than cone vision.
  • Satellite Cells, Perineuronal [M0015271]
    The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.
  • Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle [M0400630]
    Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
  • Schizonts [M0490374]
    Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan PROTOZOA. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.
  • Schwann Cells [M0019523]
    Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
  • Sertoli Cells [M0019691]
    Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. Their tight junctions with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
  • Small Luteal Cells [M0402903]
  • Somatostatin-Secreting Cells [M0029492]
    Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.
  • Somatotrophs [M0488576]
    Anterior pituitary cells that produce GROWTH HORMONE.
  • Spermatids [M0020276]
    Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
  • Spermatocytes [M0020280]
    Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
  • Spermatogonia [M0020285]
    Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
  • Spermatozoa [M0020286]
    Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
  • Spherocytes [M0020293]
    Small, abnormal spherical red blood cells with more than the normal amount of hemoglobin.
  • Spheroids, Cellular [M0028227]
    Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)
  • Spheroplasts [M0020295]
    Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
  • Sporozoites [M0404683]
    The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic PROTOZOA comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.
  • Stem Cells [M0020472]
    Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
  • Stromal Cells [M0026054]
    Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
  • Swiss 3T3 Cells [M0439094]
    A cell line established in 1962 from disaggregated Swiss albino mouse embryos. This fibroblast cell line is extremely popular in research.
  • T-Lymphocytes [M0020987]
    Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic [M0020989]
    Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from natural killer cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) and from KILLER CELLS mediating antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer [M0010015]
    Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory [M0020988]
    CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. These include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Treg cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
  • TC1 Cells [M0373137]
  • TC2 Cells [M0373138]
  • Th1 Cells [M0027645]
    Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
  • Th2 Cells [M0027646]
    Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
  • Th3 Cells [M0474620]
  • Theca Cells [M0021274]
    The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
  • Thyrotrophs [M0488577]
    Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.
  • Totipotent Stem Cells [M0419811]
    Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
  • Tr1 Cells [M0474619]
  • Treg Cells [M0474618]
  • Trophozoites [M0491063]
    Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan PROTOZOA. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured [M0022146]
    Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
  • Tumor Cells, Embolic [M0014573]
  • Tumor Stem Cells [M0022153]
    Colony-forming cells which give rise to neoplasms.
  • Tumor-Derived Activated Cells [M0024810]
  • U937 Cells [M0029939]
    A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
  • Vascular Endothelial Cells [M0441918]
  • Veiled Cells [M0459386]
    ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS of dendritic cell morphology found in the afferent LYMPH and possessing veil-like processes. They represent an intermediate stage between LANGERHANS CELLS and interdigitating cells. (From Herbert et al, Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
  • Vero Cells [M0022619]
    A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
  • X-Chromosome-Bearing Sperm [M0023034]
  • Y-Chromosome-Bearing Sperm [M0023080]