Diagnostic Procedure

MeSH ID: T060

Related Concepts:

  • 2D Doppler Echocardiography [M0023290]
  • 2D Echocardiography [M0006976]
  • Absorptiometry, Photon [M0023863]
    A noninvasive method for quantitating bone mineral content. It is used especially in the diagnosis of osteoporosis and also in measuring bone mineralization in infants.
  • Accelography [M0012046]
  • Acoustic Impedance Tests [M0000237]
    Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).
  • Acoustic Stimulation [M0000243]
    Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
  • Acute Toxicity Tests [M0361897]
    Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
  • Admission Tests, Routine [M0006196]
  • Adrenal Cortex Function Tests [M0000479]
  • Age Determination by Skeleton [M0000558]
  • Age Determination by Teeth [M0000559]
  • AIDS Serodiagnosis [M0023854]
    Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY; (ELISA, immunofluorescence, immunoblot, etc.) that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
  • Alternate Binaural Loudness Balance Test [M0018650]
  • Ambulatory Esophageal pH Monitoring [M0477850]
  • Amniocentesis [M0000991]
    Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
  • Amnioscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332432]
  • Amnioscopy [M0332433]
  • Analogue Pain Scale [M0015744]
  • Angiocardiography [M0001184]
    Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
  • Angiography [M0001187]
    Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
  • Angiography, Digital Subtraction [M0024333]
    A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
  • Angioscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332105]
  • Angioscopy [M0026609]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.
  • Animal Use Alternatives [M0361915]
    Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
  • Anonymous Testing [M0004999]
    Testing in which the source of the specimen or the person being tested is not individually identified.
  • Antemortem Diagnosis [M0482526]
    Diagnosis of a disease or condition made before DEATH.
  • Aortography [M0001561]
    Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.
  • Apex Cardiography [M0012047]
  • Aphasia Tests [M0014757]
  • Aptitude Tests [M0001631]
    Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.
  • Arm Ergometry Test [M0008003]
  • Arteriography [M0001188]
  • Arthrography [M0001753]
    Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.
  • Arthroscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332122]
  • Arthroscopy [M0001760]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
  • Aspiration Biopsy [M0002560]
  • Aspiration Biopsy, Fine-Needle [M0446811]
  • Audiometry [M0001957]
    The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.
  • Audiometry, Bekesy [M0001960]
  • Audiometry, Evoked Response [M0001958]
    A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.
  • Audiometry, Impedance [M0000240]
  • Audiometry, Pure-Tone [M0001961]
    Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.
  • Audiometry, Speech [M0001962]
    Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.
  • Auditory Brainstem Responses [M0024544]
  • Auscultation [M0001977]
    Act of listening for sounds within the body.
  • Automated Multiphasic Health Testing [M0014190]
  • Autopsy [M0002017]
    Postmortem examination of the body.
  • Axiography [M0011833]
  • Ballistocardiography [M0002156]
    Technique of graphic representation of the movements of the body imparted by the ballistic forces (recoil and impact) associated with cardiac contraction and ejection of blood and with the deceleration of blood flow through the large blood vessels. These movements, quantitatively very minute, are translated by a pickup device (transducer) into an electrical potential which is suitably amplified and recorded on a conventional electrocardiograph or other recording machine.
  • Barany's Test [M0003222]
  • Basal Metabolism [M0002200]
    Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
  • Bender-Gestalt Test [M0002309]
    A psychological test consisting of nine geometric designs on cards. The subject is asked to redraw them from memory after each one is presented individually.
  • Beta Rhythm Electroencephalography [M0002411]
  • Bicycle Ergometry Test [M0008001]
  • Biopsy [M0002558]
    Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
  • Biopsy, Fine-Needle [M0446808]
    Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.
  • Biopsy, Needle [M0002559]
    Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
  • Blood Circulation Time [M0002680]
    Determination of the shortest time interval between the injection of a substance in the vein and its arrival at some distant site in sufficient concentration to produce a recognizable end result. It represents approximately the inverse of the average velocity of blood flow between two points.
  • Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous [M0002691]
    The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring [M0023345]
    Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
  • Blood Pressure Determination [M0002707]
    Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory [M0027958]
    Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Home [M0456886]
    An element of HOME CARE SERVICES.
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Self [M0456887]
    An element of SELF CARE.
  • Blood Specimen Collection [M0002716]
    The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
  • Blood Volume Determination [M0002729]
    Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.
  • Body Measures [M0002761]
  • Body Surface Potential Mapping [M0028115]
    Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
  • Brain Electrical Activity Mapping [M0002882]
  • Brain Mapping [M0002883]
  • Branched DNA Signal Amplification Assay [M0351590]
    A molecular probe technique that utilizes branched DNA (bDNA) as a means to amplify the hybridization signal. One end of the bDNA molecule is designed to bind a specific target, while the other end of the bDNA molecule contains many branches of DNA that are designed to bind a probe used for signal detection.
  • Breast Self-Examination [M0025198]
    The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.
  • Breath Tests [M0002911]
    Any tests done on exhaled air.
  • Breathalyzer Tests [M0002912]
  • Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale [M0015597]
    A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)
  • Bronchial Lavage [M0028254]
  • Bronchial Provocation Tests [M0002966]
    Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage [M0028253]
    Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
  • Bronchography [M0002978]
    Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.
  • Bronchoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332203]
  • Bronchoscopy [M0002982]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
  • Bronchospirometry [M0002983]
    Spirometric technique in which the volume of air breathed in the right and left lung is recorded separately.
  • Caloric Tests [M0003221]
    Elicitation of a rotatory nystagmus by stimulating the semicircular canals with water or air which is above or below body temperature. In warm caloric stimulation a rotatory nystagmus is developed toward the side of the stimulated ear; in cold, away from the stimulated side. Absence of nystagmus indicates the labyrinth is not functioning.
  • Campimetry [M0016311]
  • Capnography [M0028728]
    Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.
  • Capsule Endoscopy [M0495689]
    Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPES to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.
  • Carcinogenicity Tests [M0023352]
    Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
  • Cardiography, Impedance [M0003458]
    A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.
  • Cardiotocogram [M0023283]
  • Cardiotocography [M0023284]
    Monitoring of fetal heart frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.
  • Catheterization, Bronchial [M0003667]
  • Catheterization, Central Venous [M0003666]
    Placement of an intravenous catheter in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein for central venous pressure determination, chemotherapy, hemodialysis, or hyperalimentation.
  • Catheterization, Peripheral [M0003668]
    Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
  • Catheterization, Peripheral Arterial [M0003669]
  • Catheterization, Swan-Ganz [M0003671]
    Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.
  • Catheterization, Ureteral [M0022364]
  • Catheterization, Urethral [M0022365]
  • Cattell Personality Factor Questionnaire [M0003685]
    Self report questionnaire which yields 16 scores on personality traits, such as reserved vs. outgoing, humble vs. assertive, etc.
  • Cell Array Analysis [M0455902]
  • Cephalometry [M0003823]
    The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
  • Cephalopelvic Proportion [M0016103]
  • Cephalopelvimetry [M0016104]
  • Cerebral Angiography [M0003871]
    Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
  • Cerebral Ventriculography [M0022599]
    Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.
  • Cervical Smears [M0022487]
  • Cholangiography [M0004225]
    Radiographic examination of the bile ducts.
  • Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde [M0004227]
    Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
  • Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance [M0464541]
    Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS. It has excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.
  • Cholecystography [M0004234]
    Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.
  • Chorionic Villi Sampling [M0023347]
    A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.
  • Cine-CT [M0021650]
  • Cineangiography [M0004488]
    Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.
  • Cineradiography [M0004489]
    Motion picture study of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen.
  • Cisternography, Myelographic [M0014326]
  • Cisternography, Pneumoencephalographic [M0017059]
  • Colonography, Computed Tomographic [M0368450]
    A non-invasive imaging method that uses computed tomographic data combined with specialized imaging software to examine the colon.
  • Colonoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332288]
  • Colonoscopy [M0004820]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
  • Color Perception Tests [M0004830]
  • Colposcopic Surgical Procedures [M0332291]
  • Colposcopy [M0004840]
    The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.
  • Conization [M0028496]
    The excision of a cone of tissue, especially of the CERVIX UTERI.
  • Cordocentesis [M0026128]
    The collecting of fetal blood samples via ultrasound-guided needle aspiration of the blood in the umbilical vein.
  • Corneal Topography [M0029345]
    Measurement of the anterior surface of the cornea, its curvature and shape. It is used often to diagnose keratoconus and other corneal diseases, and corneal changes after keratotomy and keratoplasty. A significant application is in the fitting of contact lenses. In performing corneal topography, many different techniques can be employed: keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing, videokeratography, etc.
  • Cornell Medical Index [M0005186]
    Self-administered health questionnaire developed to obtain details of the medical history as an adjunct to the medical interview. It consists of 195 questions divided into eighteen sections; the first twelve deal with somatic complaints and the last six with mood and feeling patterns. The Index is used also as a personality inventory or in epidemiologic studies.
  • Coronary Angiography [M0025864]
    Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
  • Cortical Synchronization [M0005216]
  • Counterimmunoelectrophoresis [M0005263]
    Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
  • Craniometry [M0005286]
    The measurement of the dimensions of the SKULL.
  • Crown-Rump Length [M0027833]
    In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)
  • Culdoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332311]
  • Culdoscopy [M0005408]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the female pelvic viscera by means of an endoscope introduced into the pelvic cavity through the posterior vaginal fornix.
  • Cutaneous Oximetry [M0002695]
  • Cystoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332314]
  • Cystoscopy [M0005560]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.
  • Cytodiagnosis [M0005599]
    Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Defecography [M0029451]
    Radiographic examination of the process of defecation after the instillation of a CONTRAST MEDIA into the rectum.
  • Delta Rhythm Electroencephalography [M0005793]
  • Densitometry, X-Ray [M0005838]
    Measurement of the degree of darkening of X-ray film by means of a photocell which measures light transmission through the film.
  • Dental Caries Activity Tests [M0005856]
  • Dental Pulp Test [M0005935]
  • Dental Radiovisiography [M0028672]
  • Dental Stress Analysis [M0005945]
    The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
  • Dermoscopy [M0453192]
    A noninvasive diagnostic technique that enables an experienced clinician to perform direct microscopic examination of the surface and architecture of pigmented SKIN lesions. The four major dermoscopic criteria are ABCD: asymmetry (A), borders (B), colors (C), and different structural components (D) providing a semiquantitative scoring system for each lesion.
  • Determination of Death [M0005702]
  • Diagnoses and Examinations [M0006169]
  • Diagnosis [M0006168]
    The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process.
  • Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted [M0006171]
    Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
  • Diagnosis, Differential [M0006172]
    Determination of which one of two or more diseases or conditions a patient is suffering from by systematically comparing and contrasting results of diagnostic measures.
  • Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry) [M0026943]
    The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
  • Diagnosis, Oral [M0006183]
    Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.
  • Diagnosis, Ultrasonic [M0022236]
  • Diagnostic Imaging [M0006190]
    Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
  • Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures [M0029611]
    Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular [M0006170]
    Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Digestive System [M0006173]
    Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the digestive system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine [M0006175]
    Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological [M0006181]
    Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the nervous system, central and peripheral, or demonstration of neurologic function or dysfunction.
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological [M0006182]
    Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of conditions related to pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium and of diseases of the female genitalia. It includes also demonstration of genital and pregnancy physiology.
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological [M0006176]
    Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Otological [M0006174]
    Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the ear or of hearing disorders or demonstration of hearing acuity or loss.
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Radioisotope [M0006185]
    Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System [M0006186]
    Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Surgical [M0006187]
    Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of disease or dysfunction by examination of the pathological site or operative field during surgical intervention.
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Urological [M0006188]
    Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.
  • Diagnostic Tests [M0006200]
  • Diagnostic Tests, Routine [M0006197]
    Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.
  • diagnostic use [M0030366]
    Used with chemical compounds, drugs, and physical agents when these substances are used for studies of clinical function of an organ, or for the diagnosis of human or animal diseases.
  • Diaphanography [M0021822]
  • Dichotic Listening Tests [M0006283]
    Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).
  • Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging [M0416334]
    A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
  • Digestive System Endoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332383]
  • Digital Dental Radiography, Direct [M0028671]
  • Digital Radiography [M0018411]
  • Digital Rectal Examination [M0480853]
    A physical examination in which the qualified health care worker inserts a lubricated, gloved finger of one hand into the RECTUM and may use the other hand to press on the lower ABDOMEN or pelvic area to palpate for abnormalities in the lower rectum, and nearby organs or tissues. The method is commonly used to check the lower rectum, the PROSTATE gland in men, and the UTERUS and OVARIES in women.
  • Digora [M0028667]
  • Disability Evaluation [M0006555]
    Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
  • Drug Monitoring [M0025724]
    The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.
  • Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry [M0005840]
  • Dual-Photon Absorptiometry [M0023864]
  • Duodenoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332351]
  • Duodenoscopy [M0006888]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.
  • Dye Dilution Technique [M0006902]
    Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Early Diagnosis [M0440733]
    Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.
  • Echo-Planar Imaging [M0026345]
    A type of MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING that uses only one nuclear spin excitation per image and therefore can obtain images in a fraction of a second rather than the minutes required in traditional MRI techniques. It is used in a variety of medical and scientific applications.
  • Echo-Planar MR Tomography [M0026346]
  • Echocardiography [M0006970]
    Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
  • Echocardiography, Continuous Doppler [M0023286]
  • Echocardiography, Contrast [M0006971]
  • Echocardiography, Cross-Sectional [M0006972]
  • Echocardiography, Doppler [M0023287]
    Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
  • Echocardiography, Doppler, Color [M0027903]
    Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.
  • Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed [M0027904]
    Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.
  • Echocardiography, Four-Dimensional [M0029050]
    Dynamic three-dimensional echocardiography using the added dimension of time to impart the cinematic perception of motion. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
  • Echocardiography, M-Mode [M0006973]
  • Echocardiography, Stress [M0374430]
    A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.
  • Echocardiography, Stress, Dobutamine [M0380430]
  • Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional [M0029049]
    Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
  • Echocardiography, Transesophageal [M0026610]
    Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
  • Echoencephalography [M0006977]
    Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
  • Echotomography, Computer [M0022233]
  • Edwards Personal Preference Schedule [M0016394]
  • Electroacoustic Impedance Tests [M0000239]
  • Electrocardiography [M0007174]
    Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
  • Electrocardiography, Ambulatory [M0024097]
    Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.
  • Electrocochleography [M0001959]
  • Electrodiagnosis [M0007182]
    Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.
  • Electroencephalogram [M0007184]
  • Electroencephalography [M0007183]
    Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
  • Electroencephalography, Alpha Rhythm [M0000777]
  • Electrokymography [M0007186]
    Radiographic technique combining a photoelectric recording system with fluoroscopy. It is used especially with electrocardiography to study heart motion.
  • Electromyography [M0007192]
    Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
  • Electron Beam Computed Tomography [M0021653]
  • Electronystagmography [M0007205]
    Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.
  • Electrooculograms [M0007207]
  • Electrooculography [M0007206]
    Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
  • Electrophysiologic Study, Cardiac [M0356528]
  • Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac [M0356516]
    Invasive procedures whereby tachyarrhythmias (TACHYCARDIA), induced or spontaneous, are mapped via heart catheterization techniques for the investigation of electrical activities in the heart. In addition to diagnostic purposes, the techniques of intracardiac programmed electrostimulation are used therapeutically.
  • Electroretinography [M0007220]
    Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
  • Embryoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332434]
  • Embryoscopy [M0332435]
  • Endoscopy [M0007425]
    Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument along either natural body pathways such as the digestive tract, or through keyhole incisions to examine the interior parts of the body. With advances in imaging, endoscope, and miniaturization of endosurgical equipment, surgery can be performed during endoscopy.
  • Endoscopy, Digestive System [M0024660]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal [M0024594]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Endosonography [M0028566]
    Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.
  • Esophageal pH Monitoring [M0477814]
    Analysis of the HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION in the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS. It is used to record the pattern, frequency, and duration of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy [M0024661]
  • Esophagoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332430]
  • Esophagoscopy [M0007758]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the esophagus.
  • Event-Related Potentials, P300 [M0028282]
    A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)
  • Evoked Potentials [M0007987]
    The recorded electrical responses from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported. Often used synonymously to event-related potentials which are associated with higher level cognitive processes.
  • Evoked Potentials, Auditory [M0007989]
    The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
  • Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem [M0024543]
    Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
  • Evoked Potentials, Motor [M0028444]
    The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
  • Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory [M0007990]
    The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.
  • Evoked Potentials, Visual [M0007991]
    The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
  • Examination, Oral [M0006184]
  • Exercise Test [M0008002]
    Controlled physical activity, more strenuous than at rest, which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used. The intensity of exercise is often graded, using criteria such as rate of work done, oxygen consumption, and heart rate.
  • Eye Movement Measurements [M0493574]
    Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
  • Factor Construct Rating Scales (FCRS) [M0017981]
  • Fallopian Tube Patency Tests [M0008174]
    Methods for assessing the patency of the fallopian tubes.
  • Fern Test [M0003941]
  • Fetal Monitoring [M0008406]
    Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
  • Fetal Ultrasonography [M0024765]
  • Fetoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332436]
  • Fetoscopy [M0008417]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.
  • Fluorescein Angiography [M0008599]
    Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
  • Fluorescence Angiography [M0008600]
  • Fluorescence Photography, Fundus [M0008601]
  • Fluorophotometry [M0023934]
    Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.
  • Fluoroscopy [M0008630]
    Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
  • fMRI [M0012895]
  • Formalin Test [M0015745]
  • Gastric Acidity Determination [M0009001]
    Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.
  • Gastrointestinal Transit [M0009041]
    Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
  • Gastroscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332449]
  • Gastroscopy [M0009042]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
  • Gated Blood-Pool Imaging [M0023975]
    Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).
  • Genetic Screening [M0009131]
    Searching a population or individuals for persons possessing certain genotypes or karyotypes that: (1) are already associated with disease or predispose to disease; (2) may lead to disease in their descendants; or (3) produce other variations not known to be associated with disease. Genetic screening may be directed toward identifying phenotypic expression of genetic traits. It includes prenatal genetic screening.
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate [M0009298]
    The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
  • Glucose Clamp Technique [M0023569]
    Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
  • Glucose Clamping [M0023568]
  • Glucose Tolerance Test [M0009346]
    A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
  • Gonioscopy [M0009552]
    Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.
  • Hearing Tests [M0009935]
  • Heart Auscultation [M0009942]
    Act of listening for sounds within the heart.
  • Heart Catheterization [M0009946]
    Procedure which includes placement of catheter, recording of intracardiac and intravascular pressure, obtaining blood samples for chemical analysis, and cardiac output measurement, etc. Specific angiographic injection techniques are also involved.
  • Heart Function Tests [M0009954]
  • Holography [M0010493]
    The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.
  • Holter Electrocardiography [M0024098]
  • Holtzman Inkblot Test [M0010495]
    Personality evaluation based on the scoring of several variables as a result of the subject's responses in perceiving 47 inkblot plates.
  • Hospital Admission Tests [M0006198]
  • Human Identification [M0028063]
  • Hysterosalpingography [M0010959]
    Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of a contrast medium.
  • Hysteroscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332591]
  • Hysteroscopy [M0024343]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted [M0011043]
    Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
  • Imaging Technics [M0006192]
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional [M0352826]
    The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional, Computer Assisted [M0352825]
    The generation of three dimensional images with the aid of computers.
  • Immunologic Tests [M0011163]
    Diagnostic techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, antigen-antibody reactions, serologic cross-reactivity, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, or heterogenetic responses.
  • In Vivo NMR Spectroscopy [M0351449]
  • Ink Blot Tests [M0011362]
    Projective tests utilizing ink blots to which a subject responds. They are used in personality diagnosis.
  • Intelligence Tests [M0011479]
    Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
  • Interview, Psychological [M0011562]
    A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
  • Intradermal Tests [M0011594]
    Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.
  • Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test [M0009347]
  • Irrigation [M0011726]
    The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing solution which is inserted and then removed. Any drug in the irrigation solution may be absorbed.
  • Kahn Test [M0020967]
  • Karnofsky Performance Status [M0026630]
    A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.
  • Katz Adjustment Scales [M0017982]
  • Kinetocardiography [M0012048]
    The graphic recording of chest wall movement due to cardiac impulses.
  • Kveim Test [M0012086]
    Intradermal injection of a heated (pasteurized) saline suspension of sarcoid tissue obtained from a sarcoid spleen or lymph node. In patients with active sarcoidosis a dusky red nodule develops slowly over the next few weeks at the injection site. Histologic examination, an essential part of the complete test, reveals sarcoid tissue.
  • Kymography [M0012089]
    The recording of wavelike motions or undulations. It is usually used on arteries to detect variations in blood pressure.
  • Laboratory Diagnosis [M0006177]
  • Language Comprehension Tests [M0012207]
  • Language Tests [M0012208]
    Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
  • Laparoscopy [M0016363]
    A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
  • Laparotomy [M0012216]
  • Laryngoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332989]
  • Laryngoscopy [M0012237]
    Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
  • Laser-Doppler Flowmetry [M0025952]
    A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of microcirculation. The technique is based on the values of the Doppler effect of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
  • Latex Fixation Tests [M0012255]
    Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Lorr's Inpatient Multidimensional Psychiatric Rating Scale [M0017983]
  • Lower Body Negative Pressure [M0012709]
    External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
  • Lung Compliance [M0012743]
    The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
  • Lung Volume Measurements [M0012751]
    Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
  • Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery [M0012760]
    A series of tests designed to assess neuropsychological function. The battery is used to diagnose specific cerebral dysfunction and also to determine lateralization.
  • Lymphangiography [M0012813]
  • Lymphography [M0012814]
    Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography [M0028163]
    Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging [M0012890]
    Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine [M0028405]
    A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional [M0496487]
    Minimally invasive procedures carried out with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging to visualize tissue structures.
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy [M0355968]
    Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
  • Magnetization Transfer Contrast Imaging [M0012894]
  • Magnetocardiography [M0496533]
    The measurement of magnetic fields generated by electric currents from the heart. The measurement of these fields provides information which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY.
  • Magnetoencephalography [M0023390]
    The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
  • Mammography [M0012965]
    Radiographic examination of the breast.
  • Mandatory Testing [M0027851]
    Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.
  • Manifest Anxiety Scale [M0012988]
    True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.
  • Mass Screening [M0013083]
    Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
  • McGill Pain Questionnaire [M0015746]
  • Mediastinoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0333013]
  • Mediastinoscopy [M0013201]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the anterior superior mediastinum of the thorax.
  • Medical History Taking [M0013209]
  • Medical Imaging [M0006191]
  • Memory for Designs Test [M0014758]
  • Mental Status Schedule [M0013416]
    Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.
  • Mental Tests [M0011480]
  • Microdissection [M0440795]
    The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
  • Micropunctures [M0018157]
  • Microradiography [M0013807]
    Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
  • Microscopic Angioscopy [M0328037]
    The noninvasive microscopic examination of the microcirculation, commonly done in the nailbed or conjunctiva. In addition to the capillaries themselves, observations can be made of passing blood cells or intravenously injected substances. This is not the same as endoscopic examination of blood vessels (ANGIOSCOPY).
  • Microscopy, Acoustic [M0402544]
    A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
  • Microscopy, Immunoelectron [M0024823]
    Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
  • Microscopy, Scanning Acoustic [M0402549]
  • Minilaparotomy [M0012217]
  • MMPI [M0013964]
    A personality inventory consisting of statements to be asserted or denied by the individual. The patterns of response are characteristic of certain personality attributes.
  • Monitoring, Ambulatory [M0027973]
    The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.
  • Monitoring, Intraoperative [M0024978]
    The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
  • Multiphasic Screening [M0014191]
    The simultaneous use of multiple laboratory procedures for the detection of various diseases. These are usually performed on groups of people.
  • Myelography [M0014327]
    X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator [M0016395]
  • Myography [M0014354]
    The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Nasal Provocation Tests [M0014488]
    Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
  • Neoplasm Staging [M0014582]
    Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
  • Neuroendoscopy [M0445445]
    PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.
  • Neurologic Examination [M0014714]
  • Neuronavigation [M0415950]
    Intraoperative computer-assisted 3D navigation and guidance system generally used in neurosurgery for tracking surgical tools and localize them with respect to the patient's 3D anatomy. The pre-operative diagnostic scan is used as a reference and is transferred onto the operative field during surgery.
  • Neuropsychological Tests [M0014759]
    Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
  • Neuroradiography [M0014761]
    Radiography of the central nervous system.
  • No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level [M0028446]
    The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects. The NOAEL will depend on how closely dosages are spaced (lowest-observed-adverse-effect level and no-observed-effect level) and the number of animals examined. The ultimate objective is usually to determine not the "safe" dosage in laboratory animals but the "safe" dosage for humans. Therefore, the extrapolation most often required of toxicologists is from high-dosage studies in laboratory animals to low doses in humans. (Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 4th ed)
  • No-Observed-Effect Level [M0028445]
  • Nuchal Translucency Measurement [M0460913]
    A prenatal ultrasonic measurement of the thickness or translucent area below the SKIN in the back of the fetal NECK, or nape of the neck, during the first 11-14 weeks of gestation (PREGNANCY TRIMESTER, FIRST). Abnormal thickness or nuchal translucent measurements resulting from fluid collection, is associated with increased risks of CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES. (Nicolaides et al., 1992)
  • Nutrition Assessment [M0023941]
    Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
  • Nystagmus, Barany [M0015140]
  • Nystagmus, Caloric [M0015141]
  • Nystagmus, Thermal [M0015142]
  • Occult Blood [M0015185]
    Chemical, spectroscopic, or microscopic detection of extremely small amounts of blood.
  • Odontometry [M0015229]
  • Ophthalmodynamometry [M0015330]
    Measurement of the blood pressure of the retinal vessels. It is used also for the determination of the near point of convergence (CONVERGENCE, OCULAR). (From Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
  • Ophthalmoscopy [M0015334]
    Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
  • Oral Glucose Tolerance Test [M0009348]
  • Oscillometry [M0015490]
    Measurement of oscillations of any kind. In medicine it is used in studying cardiovascular and respiratory physiology. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Otoscopy [M0417109]
    Examination of the EAR CANAL and eardrum with an OTOSCOPE.
  • Ovarian Function Tests [M0015591]
    Methods used for assessment of ovarian function.
  • Ovulation Detection [M0015605]
    Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
  • Ovulation Detection, Basal Body Temperature Method [M0440542]
  • Ovulation Detection, Cervical Mucus Method [M0015604]
  • Ovulation Detection, Sympto-Thermal Method [M0015606]
  • Ovulation Prediction [M0444963]
    Predicting the time of OVULATION can be achieved by measuring the preovulatory elevation of ESTRADIOL; LUTEINIZING HORMONE or other hormones in BLOOD or URINE. Accuracy of ovulation prediction depends on the completeness of the hormone profiles, and the ability to determine the preovulatory LH peak.
  • Oximetry [M0015654]
    The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
  • Oximetry, Pulse [M0015655]
  • P3a Event-Related Potentials [M0492855]
  • P3b Event-Related Potentials [M0492856]
  • Pain Measurement [M0015747]
    Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
  • Palm-Leaf Reaction [M0003942]
  • Palpation [M0015784]
    Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.
  • Paracentesis [M0028556]
    A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.
  • Passive Transfer Test [M0011595]
  • Patch Tests [M0016004]
    Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.
  • Paternity [M0016011]
    Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.
  • Pelvimetry [M0016105]
    Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.
  • Percussion [M0016274]
    Act of striking a part with short, sharp blows as an aid in diagnosing the condition beneath the sound obtained.
  • Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging [M0416335]
    A diagnostic technique for measuring the rate at which blood is delivered to tissue. In perfusion MRI, an exogenous contrast agent is usually injected to provide superior tissue contrast and easy delineation of perfusion abnormalities. Endogenous markers can also be used.
  • Perimetry [M0016312]
    Determination of the extent of the visual field for various types and intensities of stimuli.
  • Peripheral Venous Catheterization [M0003670]
  • Peritoneal Lavage [M0016361]
    Washing out of the peritoneal cavity. The procedure is a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic technique following abdominal trauma or inflammation.
  • Personality Assessment [M0016386]
    The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
  • Personality Inventory [M0016396]
    Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
  • Personality Tests [M0016397]
    Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.
  • Petrosal Sinus Sampling [M0026657]
    Sampling of blood levels of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by withdrawal of blood from the inferior petrosal sinus. The inferior petrosal sinus arises from the cavernous sinus and runs to the internal jugular vein. Sampling of blood at this level is a valuable tool in the differential diagnosis of Cushing disease, Cushing syndrome, and other adrenocortical diseases.
  • Phlebography [M0016609]
    Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.
  • Phonocardiography [M0016627]
    Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.
  • Photic Stimulation [M0016742]
  • Photofluorography [M0016746]
    The photography of images produced on a fluorescent screen by X-rays.
  • Photogrammetry [M0016747]
    Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.
  • Photography, Dental [M0368412]
    Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and PATIENT EDUCATION.
  • Photography, Intraoral [M0328493]
  • Photography, Orthodontic [M0368413]
  • Photokymography [M0007187]
  • Photoplethysmography [M0026056]
    Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.
  • Physical Examination [M0016782]
    Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
  • Physical Examination, Preadmission [M0006199]
  • Physical Examinations and Diagnoses [M0016783]
  • Physiognomy [M0016811]
  • Picture Frustration Study [M0019272]
  • Placental Function Tests [M0016940]
    Methods used for the assessment of placental function.
  • Plethysmography [M0017037]
    Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
  • Plethysmography, Impedance [M0017038]
    Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Plethysmography, Whole Body [M0017039]
    Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
  • Pneumoencephalography [M0017060]
    Radiographic visualization of the cerebral ventricles by injection of air or other gas.
  • Pneumomediastinum, Diagnostic [M0017061]
    Deliberate introduction of air or gas into the mediastinum as an aid to examination and diagnosis.
  • Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial [M0017081]
    Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.
  • Pneumoradiography [M0017082]
    Radiography using air, oxygen, or some other gas as a contrast medium.
  • Polarcardiography [M0022570]
  • Polysomnography [M0026240]
    Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of relevant normal and abnormal physiological activity during sleep. (Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Portography [M0017342]
    Examination of the portal circulation by the use of X-ray films after injection of radiopaque material.
  • Positron-Emission Tomography [M0021646]
    An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and BRAIN. SPECT is closely related to PET, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
  • Postmortem Diagnosis [M0482527]
    Diagnosis of a disease or condition made after DEATH.
  • Potentials, Event-Related [M0007988]
  • Pregnancy Tests [M0017485]
    Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
  • Pregnancy Tests, Immunologic [M0017486]
  • Preimplantation Diagnosis [M0029443]
    Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the ovum, zygote, or blastocyst prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.
  • Prenatal Diagnosis [M0017540]
    Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation embryo, fetus, or pregnant female before birth.
  • Proctoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0331501]
  • Proctoscopy [M0017636]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the rectum.
  • Programmed Electrostimulation [M0356527]
  • Projective Techniques [M0017687]
    Techniques whereby personality attributes are revealed through the subject's responses to relatively unstructured, ambiguous, or vague stimuli. These responses represent projections of the subject's own fears and needs.
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales [M0017984]
    Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
  • Psychological Techniques [M0018004]
    Methods used in the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral, personality, and mental disorders.
  • Psychological Tests [M0018005]
    Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
  • Psychometrics [M0018022]
    Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
  • Pulmonary Artery Catheterization [M0003672]
  • Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity [M0018124]
    The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
  • Pulmonary Function Tests [M0018894]
  • Pulse [M0018154]
    The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
  • Punctures [M0018158]
    Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.
  • Pyelography [M0022394]
  • Q-Sort [M0018309]
    A personality assessment technique in which the subject or observer indicates the degree to which a standardized set of descriptive statements actually describes the subject. The term reflects "sorting" procedures occasionally used with this technique.
  • Radiographic Absorptiometry, Dual-Energy [M0005839]
  • Radiographic Image Enhancement [M0018412]
    Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
  • Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted [M0018413]
    Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
  • Radiographic Magnification [M0018414]
    Use of optic and geometric techniques to enhance radiographic image quality and interpretation. It includes use of microfocal X-ray tubes and intensifying fluoroscopic screens.
  • Radiography [M0018415]
    Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of roentgen rays, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).
  • Radiography, Abdominal [M0018416]
    Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.
  • Radiography, Bitewing [M0024913]
    Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.
  • Radiography, Dental [M0018417]
    Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
  • Radiography, Dental, Digital [M0028666]
    A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
  • Radiography, Dual-Energy Scanned Projection [M0024332]
    A method of producing a high-quality scan by digitizing and subtracting the images produced by high- and low-energy x-rays.
  • Radiography, Interventional [M0023978]
    Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
  • Radiography, Panoramic [M0018418]
    Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.
  • Radiography, Thoracic [M0021403]
    X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
  • Radioimmunodetection [M0025461]
    Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
  • Radioisotope Dilution Technique [M0018421]
    Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Radioisotope Renography [M0018422]
    Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.
  • Radioligand Assay [M0018426]
    Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
  • Radionuclide Angiography [M0018438]
    The measurement of visualization by radiation of any organ after a radionuclide has been injected into its blood supply. It is used to diagnose heart, liver, lung, and other diseases and to measure the function of those organs, except renography, for which RADIOISOTOPE RENOGRAPHY is available.
  • Radionuclide Imaging [M0018440]
    Process whereby a radionuclide is injected or measured (through tissue) from an external source, and a display is obtained from any one of several rectilinear scanner or gamma camera systems. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
  • Radionuclide Ventriculography [M0023973]
    Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.
  • Radionuclide-Computed Tomography [M0021648]
  • Recruitment Detection, Audiologic [M0018651]
    Tests for measuring loudness recruitment.
  • Reflex, Abdominal [M0018687]
    Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)
  • Reflex, Acoustic [M0018692]
    Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.
  • Reflex, Pupillary [M0018695]
    Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
  • Refraction, Ocular [M0018700]
    Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
  • Remote Consultation [M0028523]
    Consultation via remote telecommunications, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment of a patient at a site remote from the patient or primary physician.
  • Renography [M0018423]
  • Respiratory Function Tests [M0018895]
    Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
  • Retinoscopy [M0440754]
    An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.
  • Rhinomanometry [M0374397]
    Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.
  • Rhinometry, Acoustic [M0368210]
    Diagnostic measurement of the nose and its cavity through acoustic reflections. Used to measure nasal anatomical landmarks, nasal septal deviation, and nasal airway changes in response to allergen provocation tests (NASAL PROVOCATION TESTS).
  • Rorschach Test [M0019266]
    A projective test used to evaluate a broad range of personality variables including pathology of thought and perception. The subject's responses to inkblot prints are scored along with subjective interpretation by the test administrator.
  • Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study [M0019273]
  • Salpingography [M0010960]
  • Scanora [M0028668]
  • Schilling Test [M0019475]
    A diagnostic test in which vitamin B12 is tagged with radioactive cobalt, taken orally, and gastrointestinal absorption is determined via measurement of the amount of radioactivity in a 24-hour urine collection.
  • Scintiphotography [M0018441]
  • Screening [M0013084]
  • Self-Examination [M0024994]
    The inspection of one's own body, usually for signs of disease (e.g., BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION, testicular self-examination).
  • Semantic Differential [M0019626]
    Analysis of word concepts by the association of polar adjectives, e.g., good-bad, with the concept, father. The adjectives are usually scaled in 7 steps. The subject's placement of the concept on the adjectival scale indicates the connotative meaning of the concept.
  • Sens-A-Ray [M0028669]
  • Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy [M0355040]
    A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
  • Sialography [M0019817]
    Radiography of the SALIVARY GLANDS or ducts following injection of contrast medium.
  • Sickness Impact Profile [M0027658]
    A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)
  • Sigmoidoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0333404]
  • Sigmoidoscopy [M0019839]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.
  • Single-Photon Absorptiometry [M0023865]
  • Sirognathography [M0011834]
  • Skin Test End-Point Titration [M0024373]
    A quantitative form of intradermal testing for the relative allergenicity of a substance. It is used to determine the amount of an allergen that will be tolerated in immunotherapy.
  • Skin Tests [M0019943]
    Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
  • Skinfold Thickness [M0019946]
    The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
  • Sonography, Speech [M0020180]
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment [M0024972]
    A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
  • Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared [M0028692]
    A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
  • Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance [M0015033]
  • Speech Articulation Tests [M0020246]
    Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.
  • Speech Discrimination Tests [M0020247]
    Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.
  • Speech Production Measurement [M0020255]
    Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
  • Speech Reception Threshold Test [M0020256]
    A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly.
  • Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic [M0025458]
    Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.
  • Spinal Puncture [M0020330]
    Tapping of the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.
  • Spirometry [M0020351]
    Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
  • Splenoportography [M0017343]
  • Stanford-Binet Test [M0020411]
    An individual intelligence test designed primarily for school children to predict school performance and the ability to adjust to everyday demands.
  • Step Test [M0008004]
  • Stereophotogrammetry [M0016748]
  • Stroboscopy [M0464772]
    The observation of successive phases of MOVEMENT by use of a flashing light.
  • Subtraction Technique [M0020699]
    Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).
  • Surgical Procedures, Endoscopic [M0028215]
  • Surgical Procedures, Endoscopic Gastrointestinal [M0331813]
  • Surgical Procedures, Laparoscopic [M0026102]
  • Surgical Procedures, Thoracoscopic [M0331661]
  • Surgical Procedures, Ureteroscopic [M0333632]
  • Syphilis Serodiagnosis [M0020968]
    Serologic tests for syphilis.
  • Szondi Test [M0020986]
  • Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale [M0012989]
  • Teleconsultation [M0028524]
  • Telemetry [M0021129]
    Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
  • Test Anxiety Scale [M0021187]
    A self-reporting test consisting of items concerning fear and worry about taking tests and physiological activity, such as heart rate, sweating, etc., before, during, and after tests.
  • Testing, Genetic Predisposition [M0009132]
  • Thematic Apperception Test [M0021282]
    A projective technique which focuses primarily on the dynamics of interpersonal relationships. It consists of a series of 31 pictures that depict various social situations and interpersonal relations. A subset is selected by the examiner and presented to the subject who is asked to tell a story about each picture. The stories are interpreted in terms of the subject's relations to authority figures, to contemporaries of both sexes, and in terms of the compromises between external demands and the needs of the id, the ego, and the superego. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
  • Thermography [M0021302]
    Measurement of the regional temperature of the body or an organ by infrared sensing devices, based on self-emanating infrared radiation.
  • Theta Rhythm Electroencephalography [M0021312]
  • Thoracoscopy [M0021408]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.
  • Thoracotomy [M0021410]
    Surgical incision into the chest wall.
  • Thrombelastography [M0021419]
    Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.
  • Thyroid Function Tests [M0021480]
  • Tilt-Table Test [M0027971]
    A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)
  • Tissue Array Analysis [M0455901]
    The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
  • Tocograms [M0027867]
  • Tomography [M0021645]
    Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
  • Tomography, Emission-Computed [M0021647]
    Tomography using emissions from radionuclides and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
  • Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon [M0024331]
    A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
  • Tomography, NMR [M0012893]
  • Tomography, Optical [M0438724]
    Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence [M0438726]
    An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
  • Tomography, Proton Spin [M0012891]
  • Tomography, Spiral Computed [M0410129]
    Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported through a rotating fan beam. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.
  • Tomography, Transmission Computed [M0021652]
  • Tomography, Ultrasonic [M0022234]
  • Tomography, X-Ray [M0021649]
    Tomography using x-ray transmission.
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed [M0021651]
    Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
  • Tonometry, Ocular [M0021662]
    Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
  • Topographic Brain Mapping [M0002884]
  • Tourniquet Pain Test [M0015748]
  • Toxicity Tests [M0027983]
    An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
  • Toxicity Tests, Chronic [M0409691]
    Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
  • Trail Making Test [M0021757]
    The subject's ability to connect 25 numbered and lettered circles in sequence in a specific length of time. A score of 12 or below is suggestive of organic brain damage.
  • Transcutaneous Capnometry [M0002694]
  • Transesophageal Electrophysiologic Study [M0356517]
  • Transillumination [M0021821]
    Passage of light through body tissues or cavities for examination of internal structures.
  • Treadmill Test [M0008005]
  • Trial of Labor [M0021892]
    Allowing a woman to be in LABOR, OBSTETRIC long enough to determine if vaginal birth may be anticipated.
  • Tuberculin Test [M0022104]
    One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.
  • Tympanometry [M0000238]
  • Ultrasonography [M0022235]
    The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections of echoes of pulses of ultrasonic waves directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
  • ultrasonography [M0030903]
    Used with organs and regions for ultrasonic imaging and with diseases for ultrasonic diagnosis. Does not include ultrasonic therapy.
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler [M0027890]
    Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color [M0027900]
    Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex [M0027901]
    Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed [M0027902]
    Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial [M0026650]
    A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
  • Ultrasonography, Endoscopic [M0028565]
  • Ultrasonography, Interventional [M0027278]
    Ultrasonography using invasive or surgical procedures. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
  • Ultrasonography, Intravascular [M0027277]
  • Ultrasonography, Mammary [M0024766]
    Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
  • Ultrasonography, Prenatal [M0024764]
    The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
  • Ultrasound Biomicroscopy [M0455719]
    A method to provide microscopic images of living tissue by analyzing the reflection data of high-frequency ultrasound.
  • Ureteroscopy [M0027970]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the ureter.
  • Urinary Catheterization [M0022366]
    Employment or passage of a catheter into the URINARY BLADDER (urethral c.) or kidney (ureteral c.) for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.
  • Urography [M0022395]
    Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.
  • Uterine Monitoring [M0027866]
    Measurement or recording of contraction activity of the uterine muscle. It is used to determine progress of LABOR, OBSTETRIC and assess status of pregnancy. It is also used in conjunction with FETAL MONITORING to determine fetal response to stress of maternal uterine contractions.
  • Vaginal Smears [M0022486]
    Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
  • Valsalva Maneuver [M0022506]
    Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.
  • Vectorcardiography [M0022571]
    Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the heart on a plane of the body surface delineated as a vector function of time.
  • Velocimetry, Laser-Doppler [M0025951]
  • Ventilation Tests [M0018885]
  • Ventriculography, First-Pass [M0023984]
    Radionuclide ventriculography where a bolus of radionuclide is injected and data are recorded from one pass through the heart ventricle. Left and right ventricular function can be analyzed independently during this technique. First-pass ventriculography is preferred over GATED BLOOD-POOL IMAGING for assessing right ventricular function.
  • Vestibular Function Tests [M0022640]
  • Videokeratography [M0029346]
  • Vision Screening [M0023636]
    Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.
  • Vision Tests [M0022772]
  • Visual Analog Scale [M0015749]
  • Visualix [M0028670]
  • Vocabulary Tests [M0012209]
  • Wassermann Reaction [M0020969]
  • Water Deprivation [M0022884]
    The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
  • Wechsler Scales [M0022907]
    Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
  • Whole Body Imaging [M0481092]
    The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.
  • Whole Body Screening [M0481093]
  • Whole-Body Counting [M0022975]
    Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
  • Wittenborn Scales [M0017985]
  • Word Association Tests [M0023006]
    Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.
  • Work Capacity Evaluation [M0023008]
    Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.
  • Work of Breathing [M0023009]
    RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
  • Xenodiagnosis [M0328591]
    A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)
  • Xeromammography [M0023064]
    Xeroradiography of the breast.
  • Xeroradiography [M0023066]
    A photoelectric method of recording an X-ray image on a coated metal plate, using low-energy photon beams, long exposure time and dry chemical developers.