MeSH
HOME · CREATIVE · WEB · TECH · BLOG

Geographic Area

MeSH ID: T083

Related Concepts:

  • Abu Dhabi [M0022258]
  • Aden [M0023089]
  • Administrative Districts [M0009177]
  • Afghanistan [M0000531]
  • Africa [M0000534]
  • Africa South of the Sahara [M0027116]
    All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
  • Africa, Central [M0000535]
    The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.
  • Africa, Eastern [M0000536]
    The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.
  • Africa, Northern [M0000538]
    The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
  • Africa, Southern [M0000540]
    The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE. It includes what was formerly called South-West Africa or German Southwest Africa but it was terminated in 1966 by a United Nations resolution. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1144)
  • Africa, Western [M0000541]
    The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.
  • Agalega Islands [M0013128]
  • Alabama [M0000617]
  • Alaska [M0000624]
  • Albania [M0000626]
  • Alberta [M0000627]
    A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)
  • Alderney Island [M0003986]
  • Aleutian Islands [M0000625]
  • Algeria [M0000705]
    A country in northern Africa between MOROCCO and LIBYA. Its capital is Algiers. It was known to the Romans as Numidia. From 430 A.D. until 1942 it was successively in the hands of the Vandals, the Eastern Roman Empire, the Arabs, the Ottoman Empire, and the French, and gained independence in 1962. The country took its name from its capital, from the Arabic al (the) + jaza'ir (islands), with reference to four islands lying off the coast at Algiers but joined to the mainland by 1525. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p31 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p14)
  • American Samoa [M0028318]
    A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)
  • Americas [M0000889]
    The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
  • Ancient Lands [M0027660]
    Geographical sites known to be extant in a remote period in the history of civilization, familiar as the names of ancient countries and empires.
  • Andorra [M0001102]
    A principality in the Pyrenees between France and Spain. Its capital is also called Andorra. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p50)
  • Angola [M0001211]
    A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda. It was formerly a Portuguese overseas province called Portuguese West Africa, having been reached by Portuguese sailors in 1483, with Portuguese rule established in 1575. Its status was changed from colony to overseas province in 1951 and it received its independence in 1975. Angola is named for N'gola, a native ruler there in the 16th century. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p51 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p23)
  • Antarctic Regions [M0001290]
    The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
  • Antigua [M0001453]
    An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Leeward Islands. With Barbuda and Redonda, an uninhabited island, it constitutes the independent state of Antigua and Barbuda. Its capital is St. Johns. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493, settled by the English in 1632, occupied by the French in 1666, returned to the British in 1667, became self-governing in 1967 and independent in 1981. It was named by Columbus after the church of Santa Maria la Antigua (St. Mary the Ancient) in Seville. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p56; Antigua and Barbuda Embassy (telephone 202-362-5122); Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p24)
  • Appalachian Region [M0001607]
    A geographical area of the United States with no definite boundaries but comprising northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, western North Carolina, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia, West Virginia, western Maryland, southwestern Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, and southern New York.
  • Arab Countries [M0013856]
  • Arabia [M0001638]
    The great peninsula of southwest Asia comprising most of the present countries of the Middle East. It has been known since the first millennium B.C. In early times it was divided into Arabia Petraea, the northwest part, the only part ever conquered, becoming a Roman province; Arabia Deserta, the northern part between Syria and Mesopotamia; and Arabia Felix, the main part of the peninsula but by some geographers restricted to modern Yemen. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p63)
  • Arctic Regions [M0001669]
    The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
  • Argentina [M0001678]
  • Arizona [M0001695]
  • Arkansas [M0001696]
  • Armenia [M0001702]
    An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
  • Aruba [M0022927]
  • Asia [M0001805]
    The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
  • Asia, Central [M0001807]
    The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)
  • Asia, Southeastern [M0001808]
    The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.
  • Asia, Western [M0001809]
    The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
  • Atlantic Islands [M0001907]
    Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.
  • Atlantic Ocean [M0001910]
  • Australasia [M0444919]
    Australia, New Zealand and neighboring islands in the South Pacific Ocean. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
  • Australia [M0001978]
    The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
  • Australian Capital Territory [M0328054]
    A territory of Australia consisting of Canberra, the national capital and surrounding land. It lies geographically within NEW SOUTH WALES and was established by law in 1988.
  • Austria [M0001980]
  • Azerbaijan [M0002070]
  • Azores [M0002084]
    A group of nine islands and several islets belonging to Portugal in the north Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Portugal. The islands are named after the acores, the Portuguese for goshawks, living there in abundance. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p102 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p42)
  • Bahamas [M0002149]
    A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)
  • Bahrain [M0002150]
    An independent state, an archipelago in the western Persian Gulf, northwest of Qatar. It comprises low-lying islands of Bahrain (the largest), Muharraq, Sitra, and several islets. It has extensive oil fields. The name comes from the Arabic al-bahrayn, "the two seas", with reference to its lying in the middle of a bay with its "two seas" east and west of it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p107 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)
  • Baltic States [M0002164]
    The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)
  • Baltimore [M0023278]
  • Bangladesh [M0002172]
  • Barbados [M0002173]
    An island in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It is chiefly of coral formation with no good harbors and only small streams. It was probably discovered by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. The name was given by 16th-century Spanish explorers from barbados, the plural for "bearded", with reference to the beard-like leaves or trails of moss on the trees that grew there in abundance. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p116 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p49)
  • Barbuda [M0001455]
  • Barbuda and Antigua [M0001454]
  • Bashkiria [M0002216]
    A political subdivision of eastern RUSSIA located within Europe. It consists of a plateau and mountainous area of the Southern Urals. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1997)
  • Bathing Beaches [M0002227]
    Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.
  • Belgium [M0002297]
  • Belize [M0002298]
  • Benin [M0002311]
    A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
  • Berlin [M0002401]
  • Bermuda [M0002402]
    A British colony in the western North Atlantic Ocean about 640 miles east southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. It comprises a group of about 300 islands of which only about 20 are inhabited. It is called also the Bermuda Islands or the Bermudas. It was named for the Spanish explorer Juan Bermudez who visited the islands in 1515. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p140 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p61)
  • Bhutan [M0002453]
    A kingdom in the eastern Himalayas on the northeast border of India, bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Assam, on the south by Assam and West Bengal, and on the west by Sikkim and Tibet. From 1720 to 1970 it was under Chinese or Indian domination. In 1971 it became a member of the United Nations. The name comes from the Sanskrit bhota, the name for Tibet, + anta, end, with reference to its location at the southern extremity of Tibet. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p144 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p64)
  • Bolivia [M0002762]
  • Bonin Islands [M0021624]
  • Borneo [M0002829]
    An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)
  • Bosnia-Herzegovina [M0026584]
    A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).
  • Boston [M0002837]
  • Botswana [M0002839]
    A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest. Botswana was organized as a British protectorate in 1885 and became independent in 1966. The name comes from bo, the prefix for abstract nouns + Tswana, the people themselves. Bechuana in its earlier name is the English corruption of Botswana. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p185 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p74)
  • Brazil [M0002902]
  • British Columbia [M0002924]
    A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
  • British Indian Ocean Territory [M0000537]
  • British Solomon Islands [M0013303]
  • Brunei [M0002992]
    An independent sultanate on the northeast coast of Borneo. Its chief products are oil and natural gas. Its name is Hindi, coming from the Sanskrit bhumi, land or region. It gave its name Brunei to Borneo. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p183 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p82)
  • Bulgaria [M0003020]
  • Burkina Faso [M0003057]
    A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984. A French protectorate was established over the region 1895-97. It was part of Upper Senegal-Niger colony until 1919 when it became a separate colony. Burkina Faso remained under French jurisdiction with varied status until it became totally independent in 1960. Its name is native, meaning land of worthy men, from burkina (worthy) + faso (land, literally father village from fa (father) + so (village)). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p191, 1273 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p85)
  • Burundi [M0003072]
    A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. It was formerly called Urundi. Its capital is Bujumbura. With Ruanda it was part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urundi from 1919 to 1962 when it was divided into two independent countries, Burundi and Rwanda. The name comes from the name of the people, the Barundi: Ba- is the prefix for the people, Bu- is the prefix for the country. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p194, 1034; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p86)
  • Byelarus [M0003119]
  • Byzantium [M0027894]
    An ancient city, the site of modern Istanbul. From the 4th to 15th centuries the empire extended from southeastern Europe to western Asia, reaching its greatest extent under Justinian (527-565). By about 1000 A.D. it comprised the southern Balkans, Greece, Asia Minor, and parts of southern Italy. The capture of Constantinople in 1453 marked the formal end of the Byzantine Empire. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
  • California [M0003198]
  • Callisto [M0027791]
  • Cambodia [M0003232]
  • Cameroon [M0003239]
    A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC. Its capital is Yaounde. As the Cameroons, it existed from 1884 under German, British, French, and UN mandates until it achieved independence in 1960. It united with the former British trust territory of Southern Cameroons in 1961. Its name is from the river that runs through it, Rio dos Camaroes, river of prawns, so called by 16th century Portuguese explorers impressed by the abundance of prawns in its waters. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p208 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p93)
  • Canada [M0003246]
    The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
  • Cape Verde [M0000542]
  • Caribbean Region [M0026756]
    The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.
  • Caroline Islands [M0013802]
  • Catchment Area (Health) [M0003635]
    A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.
  • Cayman Islands [M0022922]
  • Celebes [M0011249]
  • Cemeteries [M0014081]
  • Central African Republic [M0003799]
    A republic in central Africa lying south of CHAD, west of SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. In 1906 it united with Chad to form the French colony of Ubangi-Shari-Chad and, through various changes in status, achieved independence in 1960. The earlier name Ubangi-Shari comes from the Bantu u (land or country) + bangi (rapid), with reference to the current of the river and territory through which it flows, and Shari or Chari, a native word for river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p370, 562)
  • Central America [M0003800]
  • Central City [M0022313]
  • Chad [M0003980]
    A republic in central Africa, west of SUDAN. Its capital is N'Djamena, called Fort-Lamy before 1973. Explored in 1891 by the French, it became part of French Equatorial Africa in 1910 and, after many changes of status, became independent in 1960. The republic is named from Lake Chad, from the Arabic tsad, a local word meaning large expanse of water (or lake). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p239, 407 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p104)
  • Channel Islands [M0003987]
    A group of four British islands and several islets in the English Channel off the coast of France. They are known to have been occupied prehistorically. They were a part of Normandy in 933 but were united to the British crown at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066. Guernsey and Jersey originated noted breeds of cattle. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p242)
  • Charon [M0027803]
  • Chicago [M0004039]
  • Chile [M0004085]
  • China [M0004090]
    A republic in east and central Asia, known also as the People's Republic of China. It is an ancient country, with a civilization existing as early as 3000 B.C. Until 1912 it was known as the Chinese Empire. It was one of the four Great Powers in World War II. By 1950 the Communist regime had gained control. China became a member of the United Nations in 1971. The name may be derived from the qin or Ts'in dynasty (221-206 B.C.) or the Sanskrit name cina or the central province of Shaanxi or Shensi (its capital is Shian). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p257 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p111)
  • Christmas Island (Australia) [M0013793]
  • Cities [M0004511]
    A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands [M0011212]
  • Colombia [M0004807]
  • Colorado [M0004831]
  • Commonwealth of Independent States [M0026582]
  • Community [M0018862]
  • Comoros [M0026567]
    A group of Indian Ocean Islands, the islands of Great Comoro, Anjouan, Mayotte, and Moheli, lying between northeast Mozambique and northwest Madagascar. The capital is Moroni. In 1914 they became a colony attached to Madagascar administratively and were made a French overseas territory in 1947. Except for Mayotte which remained French, Comoros became an independent republic in 1975. Comoros represents the Arabic qamar, moon, said by some scholars to be linked with the mystical Mountains of the Moon said to be somewhere in equatorial Africa. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p283 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p122)
  • Congo [M0005002]
    A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO. Its capital is Brazzaville. It became a territory of French Equatorial Africa in 1910, a French overseas territory in 1946, an autonomous republic within the French Community in 1958, and achieved independence in 1960. The country takes its name from the Congo River running through it: the Bantu name for the river means mountain, with reference to the local topography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p285 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p123)
  • Connecticut [M0005024]
  • Cook Islands [M0017218]
  • Corsica [M0008814]
  • Costa Rica [M0005240]
  • Cote d'Ivoire [M0011817]
    A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO. Its capital is Abidjan. It was formerly called Ivory Coast. From 1842 the French had a treaty with the native rulers. By 1889 a French protectorate was established and in 1893 it was made a colony. Cote d'Ivoire achieved self-government in 1958 and became an independent republic in 1960. It is named for the ivory first traded by the Portuguese there in the 16th century. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p295, 560 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p264)
  • Counties [M0009182]
  • Crete [M0009635]
  • Croatia [M0026585]
    Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
  • Cuba [M0005405]
    An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies, south of Florida. With the adjacent islands it forms the Republic of Cuba. Its capital is Havana. It was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage in 1492 and conquered by Spain in 1511. It has a varied history under Spain, Great Britain, and the United States but has been independent since 1902. The name Cuba is said to be an Indian name of unknown origin but the language that gave the name is extinct, so the etymology is a conjecture. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p302 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p132)
  • Cyprus [M0005525]
    An island republic in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Its capital is Nicosia. It was colonized by the Phoenicians and ancient Greeks and ruled successively by the Assyrian, Persian, Ptolemaic, Roman, and Byzantine Empires. It was under various countries from the 12th to the 20th century but became independent in 1960. The name comes from the Greek Kupros, probably representing the Sumerian kabar or gabar, copper, famous in historic times for its copper mines. The cypress tree is also named after the island. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p308 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p134)
  • Czech Republic [M0027363]
    Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
  • Czechoslovakia [M0005634]
    Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
  • Dagestan [M0005645]
    One of the former Associated Soviet Socialist Republics, situated on the Caspian Sea in southwest Russia.
  • Deimos [M0027786]
  • Delaware [M0005771]
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo [M0023117]
    A republic in central Africa, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. Its name changes bespeak its history: 1885-1908 Congo Free State, 1908-60 Belgian Congo, 1960-71 Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1971-97 Zaire. It changed its name back to Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1997. The name Zaire is an alternate name for the Congo River from nzai, a Kikongo dialect form of nazdi, river. (From Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p608)
  • Denmark [M0005834]
  • District of Columbia [M0006598]
    A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.
  • Djibouti [M0024115]
    A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital. It was formerly the French Territory of Afars and Issas and later French Somaliland, in French hands from 1862 to 1977 when it became independent. The republic was named from the capital, which is said to derive from an Afar word gabouri, plate, with reference to a plate woven from doum palm used in ceremonies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p10, 335 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p149)
  • Dominica [M0028898]
    An island republic of the West Indies. Its capital is Roseau. It was discovered in 1493 by Columbus and held at different times by the French and the British in the 18th century. A member of the West Indies Federation, it achieved internal self-government in 1967 but became independent in 1978. It was named by Columbus who discovered it on Sunday, Domingo in Spanish, from the Latin Dominica dies, the Lord's Day. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)
  • Dominican Republic [M0006751]
    A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)
  • Earth (Planet) [M0027785]
    Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
  • East Timor [M0467525]
    A country in Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago. It includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco. On May 20, 2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state. This followed its declared independence from Portugal on November 20, 1975 and a period of armed conflict with Indonesia.
  • Easter Island [M0017219]
  • Ecuador [M0007047]
  • Egypt [M0007136]
    A republic in northwest Africa. Its capital is Cairo. It was a very ancient kingdom which, by ca. 3000 B.C., was one of the early civilizations of the ancient world. It was the center of Hellenistic culture 330-323 B.C. and part of the Roman Empire from 30 B.C. until 640 A.D.
  • El Salvador [M0007147]
  • England [M0007448]
  • Equatorial Guinea [M0025440]
    A republic in central Africa, north of GABON and bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. Its capital is Malabo. Equatorial Guinea was discovered by the Portuguese in 1491 and ceded to Spain in 1778. The country gained independence in 1968. Equatorial refers to its location near the equator in the broad region long known as Guinea (from the Tuareg aginaw, black people). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p375 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p173, 222)
  • Eritrea [M0028396]
    A country of eastern Africa, west of the Red Sea. In ancient times, it formed a part of many kingdoms at different periods. Its capital is Asmara. Under Italian rule from 1869 to 1890 and under the British as a protectorate until 1952, it was federated with Ethiopia in 1952 and was made one of its provinces in 1962. In 1991 Eritrea was established as a de facto independent state and became fully independent in 1993. The name Eritrea alludes to its location near the Red Sea since it comes from the Greek erythros, red. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, p376 & Information Section, Embassy of Eritrea, Washington, D.C., 1995; from Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p174)
  • Estonia [M0007771]
  • Ethiopia [M0007871]
    An independent state in eastern Africa, east of SUDAN and bounded on the north by the Red Sea. Its capital is Addis Ababa. It gained independence in 1941. In 1952 it became federated with ERITREA which became a separate nation in 1993. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1997, p366)
  • Europa [M0027792]
  • Europe [M0007948]
  • Europe, Eastern [M0007952]
  • Faeroe Islands [M0005835]
  • Falkland Islands [M0028908]
    A British colony in the Atlantic Islands, comprising two principal islands, East Falkland and West Falkland. Its capital is Stanley. Discovered in 1592, it was not occupied until the French settled there briefly in 1764. Later the English settled there but were expelled by the Spanish in 1770. The Falklands were claimed by Argentina but were occupied in 1833 by the British who, after an April 1982 invasion by Argentina, regained them in June. The islands were named by British Captain John Strong in 1690 for the fifth Viscount Falkland who financed Strong's expedition. The Spanish name for the islands, Malvinas, is from the French Malouins, inhabitants of St. Malo who attempted to colonize the islands in 1764. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p389 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p182)
  • Far East [M0008231]
    A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.
  • Fiji [M0008466]
    A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Suva. It was discovered by Abel Tasman in 1643 and was visited by Captain Cook in 1774. It was used by escaped convicts from Australia as early as 1804. It was annexed by Great Britain in 1874 but achieved independence in 1970. The name Fiji is of uncertain origin. In its present form it may represent that of Viti, the main island in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p396 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p186)
  • Finland [M0008505]
  • Florida [M0008567]
  • France [M0008813]
    A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
  • French Guiana [M0008838]
    A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)
  • French Polynesia [M0017220]
  • Gabon [M0008929]
    A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of CONGO. Its capital is Libreville. It was the first part of French Equatorial Africa to be settled in 1841. Gabon achieved independence from France in 1960. Gabon was named for the Gabon River, whose estuary was discovered by the Portuguese in the late 15th century: gabao is the word for hood, probably with reference to its shape. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p423 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p198)
  • Galapagos Islands [M0007048]
  • Galaxies [M0001894]
  • Gambia [M0008966]
    A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst. The mouth of the river was discovered in 1455 by the Portuguese and the English ascended the river 1618-19. The British claim to the region was recognized by the Treaty of Versailles in 1783. Its status under the British and Sierra Leone changed several times from 1807 until 1965 when it became independent. The country is named for the river and is a Portuguese corruption of the native name Ba-Dimma, meaning river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p426 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p200)
  • Ganymede [M0027793]
  • Gaza Strip [M0013853]
  • Geographic Locations [M0009176]
    All of the continents and every country situated within, the UNITED STATES and each of the constituent states arranged by region, CANADA and each of its provinces, AUSTRALIA and each of its states, the major bodies of water and major islands on both hemispheres, and selected major cities. Although the geographic locations are not printed in INDEX MEDICUS as main headings, in indexing they are significant in epidemiologic studies and historical articles and for locating administrative units in education and the delivery of health care.
  • Georgia [M0009185]
  • Georgia (Republic) [M0009186]
  • Germany [M0009206]
  • Germany, East [M0009207]
  • Germany, West [M0009208]
  • Ghana [M0009220]
    A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra. It was called the Gold Coast until 1957, from the gold discovered there by the Portuguese in the late 15th century. A center for slave trade, it was acquired by the British in the 19th century and became independent in 1957. Ghana took its name from a tribal leader that stands for king. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p441 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p206)
  • Gibraltar [M0009227]
  • Gilbert Islands [M0013794]
    A group of islands containing 16 atolls in the western Pacific Ocean. Though discovered probably as early as 1567, it was associated with the British for the next 300 years. It was proclaimed a British protectorate in 1892 and made a part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony in 1915. It became a separate territory in 1976 and achieved independence in 1979 when it was named Kiribati. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p443)
  • Great Britain [M0009631]
  • Great Lakes Region [M0009634]
    The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
  • Greece [M0009636]
  • Greenland [M0009638]
  • Grenada [M0028899]
    An island of the West Indies. Its capital is St. George's. It was discovered in 1498 by Columbus who called it Concepcion. It was held at different times by the French and the British during the 18th century. The British suppressed a native uprising in 1795. It was an associate state of Great Britain 1967-74 but became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth in 1974. The original name referred to the Feast of the Immaculate Conception but it was later renamed for the Spanish kingdom of Granada. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p467 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p219)
  • Grenadines [M0028915]
  • Guadeloupe [M0028906]
    The name of two islands of the West Indies, separated by a narrow channel. Their capital is Basse-Terre. They were discovered by Columbus in 1493, occupied by the French in 1635, held by the British at various times between 1759 and 1813, transferred to Sweden in 1813, and restored to France in 1816. Its status was changed from colony to a French overseas department in 1946. Columbus named it in honor of the monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe in Spain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p470 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p221)
  • Guam [M0009670]
    An island in Micronesia, east of the Philippines, the largest and southernmost of the Marianas. Its capital is Agana. It was discovered by Magellan in 1521 and occupied by Spain in 1565. They ceded it to the United States in 1898. It is an unincorporated territory of the United States, administered by the Department of the Interior since 1950. The derivation of the name Guam is in dispute. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p471)
  • Guatemala [M0009704]
  • Guernsey [M0028913]
    The second largest of the Channel Islands in the English Channel. It covers about 30 square miles and is where the Guernsey breed of cattle originated. The name is Scandinavian, Grani's island (ey means island). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p474 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p222)
  • Guinea [M0025439]
    A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry. Its coastal region was proclaimed a French protectorate in 1849, was established as a separate colony called French Guinea in 1893, and gained its independence in 1958. This Guinea gave its name to the coin originally made out of gold coming from there. Guinea is from a Tuareg word aginaw, meaning black people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p474 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p222)
  • Guinea-Bissau [M0009708]
    A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau. It was discovered by the Portuguese in 1446. In the 17th and 18th centuries it was active in slave trading. Its boundaries were established by convention with France in 1886 and 1902-05 and in 1974 it gained its independence. As a Portuguese overseas province, the country was called Portuguese Guinea; it was named Guinea-Bissau in 1974. The name Guinea is from the Tuareg word Aginaw, meaning black people. Bissau is from the native name of the people there, the Bijuga, whose meaning is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p975 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p222)
  • Guyana [M0009711]
    A republic in the north of South America, east of BRAZIL. Its capital is Georgetown. It was formerly called British Guiana and its history is allied with that of the region of Guiana which comprised British Guiana, FRENCH GUIANA, and Dutch Guiana (now SURINAME). It was founded about 1620 by the Dutch and settled in the 18th century by many non-Dutch, mainly British, to whom it was ceded in 1814. Guyana gained independence in 1966 and became a republic in 1970. The name is probably of Indian origin meaning respectable, but some derive it from the Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p477 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p223)
  • Haiti [M0009755]
    A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
  • Hawaii [M0009812]
    A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)
  • Hazardous Waste Sites [M0009816]
  • Hebrides [M0009994]
    A group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean west of Scotland, comprising the Outer Hebrides and the Inner Hebrides. They were the scene of frequent incursions of Scandinavian settlers from the 6th century A.D. They were ceded to Scotland by Norway in the 13th century. The origin of the name is uncertain. It is suggested that it is the result of a miscopying of the Roman name Ebudae or Hebudae with ri for u. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p496 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p235)
  • Historical Geographic Locations [M0026581]
    Countries known in remote history (as BYZANTIUM) or former names of countries reflecting political changes in the 20th century (as GERMANY, EAST).
  • Honduras [M0010526]
  • Hong Kong [M0010528]
    The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
  • Hungary [M0010658]
  • Iceland [M0010977]
  • Idaho [M0010985]
  • Ifni [M0014061]
  • Illinois [M0011039]
  • Independent State of Samoa [M0022932]
    An island group and constitutional monarchy in the southwest central Pacific Ocean. The capital is Apia. The islands were jointly administered by England, the United States, and Germany 1889-99, with the chief islands of Savai'i and Upolu recognized as German until 1919. Western Samoa gained independence in 1962 and assumed its present formal name in 1997.
  • India [M0011211]
  • Indian Ocean [M0028561]
    A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
  • Indian Ocean Islands [M0011213]
    Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).
  • Indiana [M0011216]
  • Indonesia [M0011243]
    A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
  • Inner Mongolia [M0004091]
  • Io [M0027794]
  • Iowa [M0011690]
  • Iran [M0011706]
  • Iraq [M0011707]
  • Ireland [M0011708]
  • Islands [M0009181]
  • Isle of Man [M0009632]
  • Israel [M0011811]
  • Italy [M0011812]
  • Jamaica [M0011820]
    An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Kingston. It was discovered in 1494 by Columbus and was a Spanish colony 1509-1655 until captured by the English. Its flourishing slave trade was abolished in the 19th century. It was a British colony 1655-1958 and a territory of the West Indies Federation 1958-62. It achieved full independence in 1962. The name is from the Arawak Xaymaca, rich in springs or land of springs. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p564 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p267)
  • Japan [M0011821]
  • Java [M0011246]
  • Jersey Island [M0003988]
  • Johnston Island [M0013795]
  • Jordan [M0011866]
  • Jupiter [M0027795]
    The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.
  • Kalahari [M0002840]
  • Kansas [M0011924]
  • Katanga [M0023118]
  • Kazakhstan [M0011932]
  • Kentucky [M0011940]
  • Kenya [M0011941]
    A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA and east of SOMALIA. Its capital is Nairobi. The region was organized as the British East Africa Protectorate in 1895, became a British colony in 1920, became independent in 1963, and became a republic in 1964. It took its name from Mount Kenya which probably meant simply mountain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p601 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p282)
  • Korea [M0012076]
  • Korea, Republic of [M0012078]
  • Kosovo [M0023115]
  • Kowloon [M0010529]
  • Kuwait [M0012085]
  • Kyrgyzstan [M0012056]
  • Labrador [M0014803]
  • Laos [M0012215]
  • Latin America [M0012257]
    The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
  • Latvia [M0012258]
  • Lebanon [M0012275]
  • Lesotho [M0012369]
    A kingdom in southern Africa, an enclave lying within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru. It was mostly uninhabited before 1800. In the early 19th century it had many disputes with the Boers. First receiving British protection in 1843, it was annexed in 1868 and made part of Cape Colony in 1871. It became a British colony in 1884 and gained independence in 1966. Sotho is the name of the indigenous people, probably meaning black. The plural is Basotho which gave the former name Basutoland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p664 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p304)
  • Liberia [M0012451]
    A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia, named for the U.S. President James Monroe. Liberia was projected as a settlement of freed American slaves by the American Colonization Society in 1817 and hence named from the Latin liber, free. In 1847 it was established as the Free and Independent Republic of Liberia. Liberia is the only black African state never to have been subjected to colonial rule. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p668 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p307)
  • Libya [M0012469]
    A country in northern Africa. Its capital is Tripoli. The general geographical area has been known since ancient times to the Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans. Although the name is ancient and appeared in Egyptian hieroglyphics as early as 2000 B.C., the meaning is not known. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p668)
  • Liechtenstein [M0012493]
  • Lithuania [M0012629]
  • London [M0012680]
  • Los Angeles [M0023277]
  • Louisiana [M0012705]
  • Luxembourg [M0012767]
  • Macao [M0012862]
    A Portuguese colony on the island of Macao and adjacent islands off the southeast coast of China.
  • Macedonia (Greece) [M0009637]
  • Macedonia (Republic) [M0028196]
    Formerly a constituent republic of Yugoslavia, comprising the Yugoslav section of the region of Macedonia. It was made a constituent republic in the 1946 constitution. It became independent on 8 February 1994 and was recognized as The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia by the United States Board on Geographic Names 16 February 1994.
  • Madagascar [M0012878]
    One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
  • Madeira Island [M0017345]
  • Madoera [M0011247]
  • Maine [M0012899]
  • Malawi [M0012918]
    A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland. This region was visited by Livingstone in 1859. It became a British protectorate in 1891, part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in 1953, and independent in 1964. It takes its name from the Malavi people whose name means flames, possibly referring to the reflection of the rising sun on Lake Malawi. Its former name Nyasaland is from the Malawi word for lake. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p326, 386)
  • Malay Peninsula [M0012921]
  • Malaysia [M0012919]
    A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
  • Maldives [M0011214]
  • Mali [M0012929]
    A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and north of SUDAN. Its capital is Bamako. Its earlier names give a clue to its African and overseas connections: 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960 but the government is at present in transition. Mali was the name of a former empire, extinct from the 17th century. It may be derived from Malinke, an indigenous people of this region or from a Mandingo word meaning hippopotamus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, p717 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
  • Malta [M0012955]
    An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)
  • Manchuria [M0004092]
  • Manitoba [M0012992]
    A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. Its capital is Winnipeg. Taking its name from Lake Manitoba, itself named for one of its islands, the name derived from Algonquian Manitou, great spirit. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p724 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p332)
  • Mariana Islands [M0013796]
  • Mars [M0027788]
    The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
  • Marshall Islands [M0013797]
  • Martinique [M0013070]
    An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Windward Islands. Its capital is Fort-de-France. It was discovered by Columbus in 1502 and from its settlement in 1635 by the French it passed into and out of Dutch and British hands. It was made a French overseas department in 1946. One account of the name tells of native women on the shore calling "Madinina" as Columbus approached the island. The meaning was never discovered but was entered on early charts as Martinique, influenced by the name of St. Martin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p734 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p339)
  • Maryland [M0013071]
  • Massachusetts [M0013085]
  • Mauritania [M0013127]
    A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott. Its coast was opened by the Portuguese in the 15th century. Although recognized as in the French sphere from 1817, it did not become a French colony until 1921. It gained independence in 1960. Mauritania takes its name from the Moors, either from the Greek mauros, dark, with reference to their skin or from the Punic mahurim or mauharin, western, with reference to the geographical area of North Africa that they occupied. It should not be confused with the ancient country of Mauretania in northern Africa, although both share a common derivation for their names. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p742 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p361)
  • Mauritius [M0013129]
    One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Port Louis. It was discovered by the Portuguese in 1505, occupied by the Dutch 1598-1710, held by the French 1715-1810 when the British captured it, formally ceded to the British in 1814, and became independent in 1968. It was named by the Dutch in honor of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange (1567-1625). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p742 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p341)
  • Mayotte [M0026568]
  • Medically Underserved Area [M0013242]
    A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.
  • Mediterranean Islands [M0013274]
    Scattered islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The chief islands are the Balearic Islands (belong to Spain; Majorca and Minorca are among these), Corsica (belongs to France), Crete (belongs to Greece), CYPRUS (a republic), the Cyclades, Dodecanese and Ionian Islands (belong to Greece), MALTA (a republic), Sardinia and SICILY (belong to Italy). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p747)
  • Mediterranean Region [M0028483]
    The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
  • Mediterranean Sea [M0013275]
  • Mekong Valley [M0013302]
    The geographic area of the Mekong Valley in general or when the specific country or countries are not indicated. Usually includes Cambodia, Indochina, and Laos.
  • Melanesia [M0013304]
    The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)
  • Mexico [M0013717]
  • Michigan [M0013755]
  • Micronesia [M0013798]
    The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. Micronesia is from the Greek micro, small + nesos, island, so named because the islands in this group are much smaller than those in MELANESIA. Micronesia is inhabited by a mixed race of Melanesians, Polynesians, and some Malaysians. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)
  • Micronesia, Federated States of [M0013803]
  • Micronesia-Polynesia [M0015734]
  • Mid-Atlantic Region [M0013841]
    A geographical area of the United States comprising the District of Columbia, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.
  • Middle East [M0013854]
    The countries of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
  • Midway Island [M0009813]
  • Midwestern United States [M0023282]
    The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.
  • Minnesota [M0013910]
  • Minor Planets [M0027805]
    Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
  • Mississippi [M0013928]
  • Missouri [M0013929]
  • Moldova [M0013983]
  • Monaco [M0014006]
  • Mongolia [M0014010]
  • Montana [M0014047]
  • Montenegro [M0023112]
  • Montserrat [M0022923]
  • Moon [M0024563]
    The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.
  • Morocco [M0014062]
    A kingdom in northern Africa, west of ALGERIA. Its capital is Rabat. It was known to the Romans as Mauretania, part of the Carthaginian empire (not to be confused with the modern MAURITANIA, a country of western Africa). Morocco was invaded by the Muslims in the 7th century A.D. It engaged in hostilities with England, France, and Spain from 1662 to 1911. The country gained independence in 1956. The name is from the Arabic marukus, the name of the former capital Marrakech, from a Berber word meaning fortified. The Arabic name for Morocco is al-magrib al-aasa, the far west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p708, 792 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p362)
  • Moscow [M0014088]
  • Mozambique [M0014147]
    An independent state in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA and east of ZAMBIA, on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa, the town of Mozambique having been a Portuguese trading fort early in the 16th century. Organized as a colony in 1907, it became an overseas province of Portugal in 1951 and became independent in 1975. The name is a Portuguese corruption of the Arabic musa malik: Musa (the name of an early African ruler) + malik (king). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1992, p798 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p365)
  • Municipalities [M0004512]
  • Muscat [M0015289]
  • Muscat and Oman [M0015290]
  • Myanmar [M0003059]
    A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)
  • Namibia [M0014451]
    A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek. It was a region not much visited before the middle of the 19th century although the Portuguese landed at one of its harbors in 1486. Namibia was annexed by Germany in 1885. As the former German colony of South West Africa, it was mandated to South Africa 1920-1966, and made a direct dependent of the United Nations 1966. Its name was changed from South West Africa to Namibia in 1968. The name is from Nama, the Hottentot people who inhabit it; its origin is unknown. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1144 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p369)
  • Nauru [M0013799]
  • Near East [M0013855]
  • Nebraska [M0014532]
  • Neighborhood [M0018863]
  • Nepal [M0014621]
  • Neptune [M0027802]
    The eighth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its two natural satellites are Nereid and Triton.
  • Nereid [M0027800]
  • Netherlands [M0014671]
  • Netherlands Antilles [M0014672]
    A Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It includes the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. Its capital is Willemstad. Its former names are Curacao, Netherlands West Indies, and Dutch West Indies. Its colonial status was abolished by the Netherlands government in 1954 but it is considered an integral part of the Dutch realm. There is no positive evidence for the name Antilles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p823)
  • Nevada [M0014785]
  • Nevis [M0028917]
  • New Brunswick [M0014789]
    A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NOVA SCOTIA; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND. Its capital is Fredericton. It was named in honor of King George III, of the House of Hanover, also called Brunswick. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p828 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)
  • New Caledonia [M0014790]
    A group of islands in Melanesia constituting a French overseas territory. The group includes New Caledonia (the main island), Ile des Pins, Loyalty Island, and several other islet groups. The capital is Noumea. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774 and visited by various navigators, explorers, and traders from 1792 to 1840. Occupied by the French in 1853, it was set up as a penal colony 1864-94. In 1946 it was made a French overseas territory. It was named by Captain Cook with the 5th and 6th century A.D. Latin name for Scotland, Caledonia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p830 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)
  • New England [M0014791]
    The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
  • New Guinea [M0014792]
    Originally an island of the Malay Archipelago, the second largest island in the world. It divided, West New Guinea becoming part of Indonesia and East New Guinea becoming Papua New Guinea.
  • New Hampshire [M0014793]
  • New Jersey [M0014795]
  • New Mexico [M0014796]
  • New South Wales [M0014797]
    A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)
  • New Territories [M0010530]
  • New York [M0014798]
  • New York City [M0014799]
  • New Zealand [M0014800]
    A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
  • Newfoundland [M0014804]
    An island in the Atlantic Ocean, off the east coast of Canada, constituting with Labrador on the mainland, a province of Canada. The name describing a land just discovered was recorded by John Cabot in 1497. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p831 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p376)
  • Nicaragua [M0014818]
  • Niger [M0014853]
    A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey. It was first explored by the Europeans in the late 18th century. It became part of the French sphere of influence in the latter part of the 19th century and was formally constituted as part of French West Africa in 1904. Nigeria gained independence in 1960. The country took its name from the river Niger flowing through it. The river's name came from the Tuareg egereou n-igereouen, river of rivers, the second part of the name giving the modern European form Niger. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p847 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p379)
  • Nigeria [M0014854]
    A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Lagos. From the time it was visited in the 18th and 19th centuries by many European explorers, figuring in its administrative history were Great Britain, the native king, Sierra Leone, and the Gold Coast colony. Nigeria gained independence in 1960, becoming a republic in 1961. Nigeria derives its name from the Niger River which flows through it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p848 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p379)
  • Niue [M0017221]
  • Norfolk Island [M0013305]
  • North America [M0014996]
  • North Carolina [M0014998]
  • North Dakota [M0014999]
  • North Korea [M0012077]
  • North Sea [M0015000]
  • North Vietnam [M0022665]
  • North Yemen [M0023092]
  • Northern America [M0014997]
  • Northern Europe [M0007949]
  • Northern Ireland [M0015001]
  • Northern Mariana Islands [M0013804]
  • Northern Territory [M0024305]
    A territory in north central Australia, east of the state of Queensland. Its capital is Darwin. Originally a part of New South Wales, it was annexed to South Australia in 1863, entered the Commonwealth as part of it in 190l, transferred to the Commonwealth in 1911, divided in 1927, but was reestablished in 1931. It was granted self government within the Commonwealth of Australia in 1978. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p864)
  • Northwest Territories [M0024302]
    A federally administered division of Canada. Its capital is Yellowknife. The former northern and eastern-most parts of the Territory comprise the new territory of Nunavut, effective April 1, 1999.
  • Northwestern United States [M0023366]
    The geographic area of the northwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.
  • Norway [M0015007]
  • Nova Scotia [M0015019]
    A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NEW BRUNSWICK; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND. Its capital is Halifax. The territory was granted in 1621 by James I to the Scotsman Sir William Alexander and was called Nova Scotia, the Latin for New Scotland. The territory had earlier belonged to the French, under the name of Acadia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p871 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p384)
  • Nunavut [M0328105]
    A self-governing territory formed from the central and eastern portions of the Northwest Territories. It was officially established April 1, 1999. The capital is Iqaluit.
  • Oceania [M0015735]
    The islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia. (Random House Dictionary, 2d ed)
  • Oceans [M0015203]
  • Oceans and Seas [M0015204]
    Geographic locations providing habitat for marine organisms.
  • Ohio [M0015238]
  • Oklahoma [M0015244]
  • Oman [M0015288]
    A sultanate on the southeast coast of the Arabian peninsula. Its capital is Masqat. Before the 16th century it was ruled by independent emirs but was captured and controlled by the Portuguese 1508-1648. In 1741 it was recovered by a descendent of Yemen's imam. After its decline in the 19th century, it became virtually a political and economic dependency within the British Government of India, retaining close ties with Great Britain by treaty from 1939 to 1970 when it achieved autonomy. The name was recorded by Pliny in the 1st century A.D. as Omana, said to be derived from the founder of the state, Oman ben Ibrahim al-Khalil. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p890; Oman Embassy, Washington; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
  • Ontario [M0015306]
    A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
  • Oregon [M0015388]
  • Pacific Islands [M0015733]
    The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)
  • Pacific Islands (Trust Territory) [M0013800]
  • Pacific Northwest [M0023367]
  • Pacific Ocean [M0015736]
  • Pacific States [M0029100]
    The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)
  • Pakistan [M0015757]
  • Palau [M0028406]
    A republic consisting of a group of about 100 islands and islets in the western Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Koror. Under Spain it was administered as a part of the Caroline Islands but was sold to Germany in 1899. Seized by Japan in 1914, it was taken by the Allies in World War II in 1944. In 1947 it became part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, became internally self-governing in 1980, obtained independent control over its foreign policy (except defense) in 1986, and achieved total independence October 1, 1994. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p915; telephone communication with Randy Flynn, Board on Geographic Names, 17 January 1995)
  • Panama [M0015787]
  • Panama Canal Zone [M0015788]
  • Papua New Guinea [M0015848]
    A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
  • Paraguay [M0015873]
  • Paris [M0015956]
  • Pemba [M0011215]
  • Pennsylvania [M0016162]
  • Persia [M0028471]
    An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)
  • Persian Gulf [M0028559]
  • Peru [M0016425]
  • Philadelphia [M0023279]
  • Philippines [M0016594]
  • Phobos [M0027787]
  • Phoebe [M0027797]
  • Pitcairn Island [M0016904]
    An island in Polynesia, in the south Pacific Ocean. It was discovered in 1767 by Philip Carteret, uninhabited until 1790 when settled by mutineers from the English ship, Bounty. The settlement was discovered in 1808; the population was removed temporarily to Tahiti in 1831 and to Norfolk Island (between New Caledonia and New Zealand) in 1856. Some later returned to Pitcairn and their descendents constitute the present population of this British colony. The island is named for the midshipman who first sighted it from the ship. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p958 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p422)
  • Place of Birth [M0018864]
  • Pluto [M0027804]
    The ninth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its only natural satellite is Charon.
  • Poland [M0017103]
  • Polar Regions [M0004736]
  • Polynesia [M0017222]
    The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)
  • Portugal [M0017346]
  • Prince Edward Island [M0017582]
    An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)
  • Professional Practice Location [M0017656]
    Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.
  • Puerto Rico [M0018118]
    An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)
  • Qatar [M0018310]
  • Quebec [M0018325]
    A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)
  • Queensland [M0018326]
    A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)
  • Red Sea [M0028560]
  • Reunion [M0026569]
    One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Saint-Denis. It was discovered in 1507 by the Portuguese and claimed by France in 1638. It was first colonized in 1662 as Isle de Bourbon but renamed Reunion in 1793. In 1946 it was made an overseas department of France. The name commemorates the reunion of the revolutionaries from Marseilles with the National Guard in Paris in 1792. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1011; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p454; French Embassy)
  • Rhode Island [M0019041]
  • Rio Muni [M0025441]
  • Romania [M0019256]
  • Rome [M0019257]
  • Russia [M0019311]
  • Russia (Pre-1917) [M0019310]
  • Rwanda [M0019317]
    A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO. It was originally called Ruanda. Its capital is Kigali. Formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urundi (now RWANDA and BURUNDI), it became independent in 1962. The country has taken the name of the people, the Rwanda, but its meaning is unknown. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1038 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p469)
  • Sabah [M0012922]
  • Sahara [M0000539]
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis [M0028916]
    An independent federation of the Leeward Islands in the West Indies, consisting of Saint Christopher, Nevis, and Sombrero. Its capital is Basseterre. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493, settled by the British in 1625, the first of the Leeward Islands to be colonized by them. It was held jointly by the French and English 1628-1713, but returned to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. It was held by the French 1782-83. Under the British for the next 200 years, it gained its independence in 1983. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1045; Embassy, telephone 202-686-2636)
  • Saint Lucia [M0028907]
    An independent state in the West Indies. Its capital is Castries. It was probably discovered by Columbus in 1502 and first settled by the English in 1605. Contended for by the French and English in the 17th century, it was regarded as neutral in 1748 but changed hands many times in the wars of the 19th century. It became a self-governing state in association with Great Britain in 1967 and achieved independence in 1979. Columbus named it for the day on which he discovered it, the feast of St. Lucy, a Sicilian virgin martyr. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1051 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p477)
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines [M0028914]
    A self-governing state of the Windward Islands in the West Indies, comprising Saint Vincent and the northern islets of the Grenadines. Its capital is Kingstown. It is one of the original homes of the Carib Indians supposed to have been sighted by Columbus in 1498. It was in English hands from 1627 till held by the French 1779-83. Saint Vincent subsequently became a British possession and, with other nearby British territories, was administered by the Governor of the Windward Islands till 1959. It attained a measure of independence in 1969 but achieved full independence as Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 1979. Saint Vincent was the 4th century Spanish martyr on whose feast day Columbus discovered the island. Grenadines is derived from the Spanish kingdom of Granada. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1054 & The Europa World Year Book 1993, p2441)
  • Samoa [M0028317]
    A group of islands in the southwest central Pacific, divided into AMERICAN SAMOA and the INDEPENDENT STATE OF SAMOA (Western Samoa). First European contact was made in 1722 by Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman. In 1768 they were named Navigators Islands by Louis de Bougainville. The present name may derive from that of a local chieftain or from a local word meaning place of the moa, a now-extinct island bird. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1061 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p481)
  • San Francisco [M0019411]
  • San Marino [M0019412]
  • Sanaa [M0023093]
  • Sao Tome and Principe [M0001908]
  • Sarawak [M0012920]
  • Sardinia [M0011813]
  • Sark [M0003989]
  • Saskatchewan [M0019450]
    A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba. Its capital is Regina. It is entirely a plains region with prairie in the south and wooded country with many lakes and swamps in the north. The name was taken from the Saskatchewan River from the Cree name Kisiskatchewani Sipi, meaning rapid-flowing river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1083 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p486)
  • Satellites, Natural [M0024566]
  • Saturn [M0027796]
    The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
  • Saudi Arabia [M0019454]
  • Scandinavia [M0019466]
  • Scotland [M0019562]
  • Seas [M0015205]
  • Senegal [M0019647]
    A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar. The first settlements were by the Portuguese in the 15th century and the French in the 17th century, with the coastal region becoming the object of much rivalry and conflict between the two until French possession was recognized in 1814. Senegal became independent in 1960. The nation was named for the Senegal River, its main river, which possibly derived its name from a local African word meaning navigable. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1097 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p493)
  • Serbia [M0023113]
  • Seychelles [M0019759]
    A group of Indian Ocean Islands, east of Tanzania. Their capital is Victoria. They were first claimed by the French in 1744 but taken by the English in 1794 and made a dependency of MAURITIUS in 1810. They became a crown colony in 1903 and a republic within the Commonwealth in 1976. They were named for the French finance minister, Jean Moreau de Sechelles, but respelled by the English in 1794. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1102 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p496)
  • Siberia [M0019824]
  • Sicily [M0019826]
  • Sierra Leone [M0019831]
    A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown. Its coast was first visited by the Portuguese in 1462, later by English slave traders. In 1787 English philanthropists sponsored settlements on the coast for runaway and freed slaves. After a clash with the French in 1893 the region was acquired by treaty in 1895, proclaimed a protectorate in 1896, and achieved independence in 1961. The name is from the Spanish sierra (mountain chain) + leone (lion), meaning Lion Mountains, which refers not to the roar of lions (they are not found in this part of Africa) but to the noise from claps of thunder from storm clouds constantly surrounding the mountains. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1114 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p504)
  • Sikkim [M0019848]
  • Singapore [M0019893]
  • Sinkiang [M0004093]
  • Slovakia [M0027364]
    Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
  • Slovenia [M0026586]
    Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
  • Solomon Islands [M0013306]
  • Somalia [M0020142]
    A republic in eastern Africa bounded by the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Mogadishu. In 1960 it was constituted as an independent republic by the union of British Somaliland with the Trust Territory of Somalia (formerly Italian Somaliland), both flourishing in the 19th century. Many derivations are posed for its name taken from the indigenous people: from a Cushitic word meaning dark or black with reference to their skin; from soo mal, a local phrase meaning go and milk with reference to the hospitable people offering milk to guests; from the name of a tribal chieftain; or from the Arabic zamla, cattle, with reference to the many herds there. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1130 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p512)
  • South Africa [M0020182]
    A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). The history is a fabric interwoven with hostile activity among the native tribes, particularly the Zulus, the Boers (Dutch settlers), and the British. Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
  • South America [M0020183]
  • South Australia [M0020184]
    A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)
  • South Carolina [M0020185]
  • South Dakota [M0020186]
  • South Yemen [M0023091]
  • Southeastern United States [M0023280]
    The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.
  • Southern Asia [M0001806]
  • Southern Europe [M0007950]
  • Southwestern United States [M0023368]
    The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.
  • Spain [M0020194]
  • Spitsbergen [M0020915]
  • Sri Lanka [M0020403]
  • St. Helena [M0001909]
  • St. Pierre and Miquelon [M0003247]
  • Sudan [M0020724]
    A republic in eastern Africa, south of EGYPT and west of ETHIOPIA. Its capital is Khartoum. It was under Egypt 1820-82, then jointly administered by Egypt and Great Britain after 1899 as the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. It gained independence in 1956. The name is of Arabic origin, balad as-sudan: bal (land) + al (as) (the) + sudan (black), the land of the blacks, the name given originally by Arabian travelers. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1161 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p524)
  • Sumatra [M0011248]
  • Sun [M0024565]
  • Suriname [M0020907]
    A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)
  • Svalbard [M0020914]
  • Swaziland [M0020918]
    A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)
  • Sweden [M0020926]
  • Switzerland [M0020937]
  • Syria [M0020977]
  • Tahiti [M0017223]
  • Taiwan [M0021016]
  • Tajikistan [M0021012]
  • Tanganyika [M0021036]
    A country in eastern Africa under the domination of various nations before and during the 19th century. It became a British mandate as Tanganyika in 1920. In 1964 it merged with Zanzibar to become TANZANIA. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1186)
  • Tanzania [M0021037]
    A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam (House of Peace). It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The country has been dominated successively by Arabs, Portugal, Oman, Zanzibar, Germany, and Britain. It became a British mandate in 1920 as Tanganyika and became independent in 1961. It united with Zanzibar in 1964 as Tanzania. Tanganyika was named for the lake of that name, kou tanganyika meaning to join, i.e., the place where waters met and Zanzibar, from Zeni or Zengj, the name of a local people, meaning black + the Arabic barr, coast or shore. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1186 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p533, 609)
  • Tasmania [M0021059]
    An island south of Australia and the smallest state of the Commonwealth. Its capital is Hobart. It was discovered and named Van Diemen's Island in 1642 by Abel Tasman, a Dutch navigator, in honor of the Dutch governor-general of the Dutch East Indian colonies. It was renamed for the discoverer in 1853. In 1803 it was taken over by Great Britain and was used as a penal colony. It was granted government in 1856 and federated as a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1190 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p535)
  • Tennessee [M0021162]
  • Texas [M0021257]
  • Thailand [M0021261]
  • Tibet [M0027891]
    A country of central Asia, nominally an autonomous region within Communist China. It first came under Chinese control during the Manchu dynasty in 1720 and was generally closed to foreigners until late in the nineteenth century. Tibetans are an ancient race of Mongolian type and their ruler is the Dalai Lama. Buddhism was introduced in the seventh century A.D. and most Tibetans are Buddhists. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
  • Timor [M0011245]
  • Titan [M0027798]
  • Tobago [M0021997]
  • Togo [M0021619]
    A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome. Togo was the eastern part of the German protectorate of Togoland from 1884 until it was captured by Anglo-French forces in 1914. It became an autonomous republic within the French Union in 1956, achieving independence in 1960. The country probably derives its name from Lake Togo, to (water) + go (edge or shore). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p548)
  • Tokelau [M0017227]
  • Tokelau Islands [M0017224]
  • Tokyo [M0021625]
  • Tonga [M0021654]
    An archipelago in Polynesia in the southwest Pacific Ocean, comprising about 150 islands. It is a kingdom whose capital is Nukualofa. It was discovered by the Dutch in 1616, visited by Tasman in 1643, and by Captain Cook in 1773 and 1777. The modern kingdom was established during the reign of King George Tupou I, 1845-93. It became a British protectorate in 1900 and gained independence in 1970. The name Tonga may be of local origin, meaning either island or holy. Its other name, Friendly Islands, was given by Captain Cook from the welcome given him by the natives. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1219 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p549)
  • Transcaucasia [M0021775]
    Area of Europe that includes ARMENIA,; AZERBAIJAN; and the Republic of GEORGIA.
  • Trinidad [M0021999]
  • Trinidad and Tobago [M0021998]
    An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)
  • Triton [M0027801]
  • Tunisia [M0022160]
    A republic in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis, which occupies the site of ancient Carthage. Tunisia became a French protectorate in 1881 but was reorganized in 1922. France recognized its independence in 1956. The country takes its name from the capital, which some authorities derive from the name of the Phoenician goddess Tanith, the meaning of which is uncertain. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1235 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p558)
  • Turkey [M0022167]
  • Turkmenistan [M0022169]
  • Turks and Caicos Islands [M0022924]
  • Tuvalu [M0013801]
  • Uganda [M0022224]
    A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and east of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala. In 1894 it was formally proclaimed a British protectorate but became independent in 1966. Its name is Swahili, u, land + Ganda, the name of its indigenous people, the land of the Ganda. The origin of their name is unknown. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1992, p1244 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p562)
  • Ukraine [M0022225]
  • United Arab Emirates [M0022259]
    A federation of seven states on the southeast portion of the Arabian peninsula: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Qaiwain. In 1820 a treaty of peace was concluded between Great Britain and native rulers. During the 19th century the rulers agreed to suppression of the slave trade and restriction of foreign relations to Great Britain. The Trucial Council was established in 1952 and defense treaties with Great Britain terminated. In 1971 an independent six-member federation was formed, with Ras al-Khaimah joining the federation in 1972. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1250)
  • United Arab Republic [M0007137]
  • United Kingdom [M0009633]
  • United States [M0022272]
  • Uranus [M0027799]
    The seventh planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. It has five known natural satellites.
  • Uruguay [M0022418]
  • USSR [M0022421]
  • Utah [M0022424]
  • Uzbekistan [M0022450]
  • Vanuatu [M0014794]
    A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Port-Vila. It was called New Hebrides until 1980. It was discovered in 1606 by the Portuguese, forgotten for 160 years, then visited by Bougainville in 1768 and Captain Cook in 1774. It was under joint British and French administration from 1906 until it became independent in 1980 under the name of Vanuatu. The name is native, meaning our land. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p833 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p570)
  • Vatican City [M0022569]
  • Venezuela [M0022589]
  • Venus [M0027789]
    The second planet in order from the sun. It has no known natural satellites. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
  • Vermont [M0022617]
  • Victoria [M0022658]
    A state in southeastern Australia, the southernmost state. Its capital is Melbourne. It was discovered in 1770 by Captain Cook and first settled by immigrants from Tasmania. In 1851 it was separated from New South Wales as a separate colony. Self-government was introduced in 1851; it became a state in 1901. It was named for Queen Victoria in 1851. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1295 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p574)
  • Vietnam [M0022666]
  • Virgin Islands of the United States [M0022740]
    A group of islands in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, the three main islands being St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. The capital is Charlotte Amalie. The Virgin Islands were discovered by Columbus in 1493. Before 1917 the U.S. Virgin Islands were held by the Danish and called the Danish West Indies but the name was changed when the United States acquired them by purchase. Virgin refers to the fact that Columbus made his discovery on St. Ursula's day - virgins being her legendary companions - or to the resemblance of the chain of islands to a procession of nuns or virgins. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1305 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p577)
  • Virgin Islands, British [M0022926]
  • Virginia [M0022741]
  • Vojvodina [M0023116]
  • Wake Island [M0017225]
  • Wales [M0022864]
  • Wallis and Futuna Islands [M0017226]
  • Washington [M0022876]
  • West Bank [M0013857]
  • West Indies [M0022925]
    Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)
  • West Irian [M0011244]
  • West Virginia [M0022930]
  • Western Australia [M0022931]
    A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)
  • Western Europe [M0007951]
  • Wisconsin [M0022984]
  • Wyoming [M0023033]
  • Yemen [M0023090]
  • Yugoslavia [M0023114]
    Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries and split from Yugoslavia 7 April 1992. Macedonia, one of the Yugoslav republics, became an independent country 8 February 1994 as The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA (REPUBLIC);).
  • Yukon Territory [M0024303]
    A territory of northwest Canada, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the south by British Columbia, and on the west by Alaska. Its capital is Whitehorse. It takes its name from the Yukon River, the Indian yu-kun-ah, meaning big river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1367 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p608)
  • Zambia [M0023119]
    A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia. Under the jurisdiction of the British South Africa Company 1889-1924, it became a British Protectorate in 1924, then part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1953-63. It became an independent republic in 1964. The country takes its name from the Zambezi River flowing through it, the fourth longest on the continent. Za (river) also gave its name to Zaire. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1370 & Room, Brewers' Dictionary of Names, 1992, p608)
  • Zanzibar [M0021038]
  • Zimbabwe [M0023126]
    A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia. The region was under the administration of the British South Africa Company from 1889 to 1923 when it became a self-governing British colony. Zimbabwe was a member of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1953-63. It was granted independence by the British in 1980 when it became Zimbabwe. The name is from that of a famous archaeological site whose name is the Bantu zimba we bahwe, (house of stones) from zimba, the plural of imba (house) + bahwe (stones). It refers to ruins comprising an acropolis with huge walls of monoliths fitted without mortar. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1013, 1374 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p610)