MeSH
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Idea or Concept

MeSH ID: T078

Related Concepts:

  • Accident Prevention [M0000083]
    Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.
  • Accountability [M0405184]
    Responsibility for explaining or justifying one's conduct to the public or to one's superiors. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
  • affective aspects [M0030720]
  • American Civil War [M0459857]
    1861-1865 conflict between the Union (Northern states) and the 11 Southern states that seceded and were organized as the Confederate States of America.
  • American Revolution [M0459770]
    Armed conflict that resulted in separation of American colonies from Britain and established the United States of America.
  • Angle's Classification [M0012944]
  • Anglican Church [M0402263]
  • Animal Rights [M0025963]
    The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.
  • Antitrust Liability [M0025022]
  • Arab World [M0027935]
    A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the administrative, intellectual, social, and cultural domination of the Arab empire. The Arab world, under the impetus of Islam, by the eighth century A.D., extended from Arabia in the Middle East to all of northern Africa, southern Spain, Sardinia, and Sicily. Close contact was maintained with Greek and Jewish culture. While the principal service of the Arabs to medicine was the preservation of Greek culture, the Arabs themselves were the originators of algebra, chemistry, geology, and many of the refinements of civilization. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p260; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p126)
  • Armenian Orthodoxy [M0378731]
  • Bankruptcy [M0025019]
    The state of legal insolvency with assets taken over by judicial process so that they may be distributed among creditors.
  • Baptist Church [M0402264]
  • Beginning of Life [M0389283]
  • Behaviorism [M0002295]
    A psychologic theory developed by James B. Watson concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.
  • Beliefs [M0005413]
  • Beneficence [M0000821]
    The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
  • Bias (Epidemiology) [M0024418]
    Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
  • Bias, Aggregation [M0024417]
  • Biases [M0024422]
  • Biases, Statistical [M0024424]
  • Bioethical Issues [M0002513]
    Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.
  • Bioethics [M0002514]
    A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.
  • Biomedical Ethics [M0412695]
  • Buddhism [M0002997]
    The teaching ascribed to Gautama Buddha (ca. 483 B.C.) holding that suffering is inherent in life and that one can escape it into nirvana by mental and moral self-purification. (Webster, 3d ed)
  • Capitalism [M0017118]
    A political and economic system characterized by individual rights, by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
  • Carbohydrate Linkage [M0003354]
  • Casuistry [M0007842]
    A method of ETHICAL ANALYSIS that emphasizes practical problem solving through examining individual cases that are considered to be representative; sometimes used to denote specious argument or rationalization. Differentiate from casuistics, which is the recording and study of cases and disease.
  • Catholicism [M0003677]
    The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)
  • Causality [M0024428]
    The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
  • Causation [M0024434]
  • Cause of Death [M0003693]
    Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
  • Cell Lineage [M0028470]
    The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the EMBRYO.
  • Change, Organizational [M0015413]
  • Chernobyl Nuclear Accident [M0459891]
    April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.
  • Child Custody [M0004055]
    The formally authorized guardianship or care of a child.
  • Child Support [M0004054]
  • Christian Ethics [M0004353]
  • Christian Science [M0004351]
    A religion discovered by Mary Baker Eddy in 1866 that was organized under the official name of the Church of Christ, Scientist, that derives its teachings from the Scriptures as understood by its adherents, and that includes a practice of spiritual healing based upon the teaching that cause and effect are mental, and that sin, sickness, and death will be destroyed by a full understanding of the divine principle of Jesus' teaching and healing. (Webster, 3d ed)
  • Christianity [M0004354]
    The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
  • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints [M0405881]
    A group of religious bodies tracing their origin to Joseph Smith in 1830 and accepting the Book of Mormon as divine revelation. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
  • Civil Rights [M0004531]
    Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)
  • cognitive aspects [M0030721]
  • Colonialism [M0027874]
    The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
  • Commercial Sector [M0004849]
  • Common Good [M0413994]
    The good of a community.
  • Communication Barriers [M0004878]
    Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
  • Communism [M0004882]
    A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production with the professed aim of establishing a classless society.
  • Community Action [M0005056]
  • Community Consent [M0408371]
    Consent by a population group or its representative as proxy. Examples include a tribe, a village, or a town or city council.
  • Comorbidity [M0024328]
    The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
  • Competency-Based Education [M0004911]
    Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.
  • Complicity [M0382811]
    Association with or participation in an act that is, or is perceived to be, criminal or immoral. One is complicitous when one promotes or unduly benefits from practices or institutions that are morally or legally suspect.
  • Computer Architecture [M0004965]
  • Computerized Patient Records [M0024990]
  • Confidentiality [M0004996]
    The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
  • Conflict of Interest [M0024859]
    A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.
  • Confucianism [M0389343]
    A school of thought and set of moral, ethical, and political teachings usually considered to be founded by Confucius in 6th-5th century B.C. China. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)
  • Consequentialism [M0383197]
  • Conservation of Energy Resources [M0005034]
    Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
  • Conservation of Natural Resources [M0005036]
    The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
  • Conservatism [M0017122]
  • Consumer Participation [M0005058]
    Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
  • Crimean War [M0459875]
    Conflict between Russia and its ally the Ottoman Empire and England, France, and Sardinia. The immediate dispute was between Russia and France over control of Palestinian holy places.
  • Criminal Insanity [M0334323]
  • Criminal Justice [M0005326]
  • Cues [M0005406]
    Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
  • Cultural Background [M0005414]
  • Cultural Pluralism [M0020054]
    The presence of multiple value systems within or among societies. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
  • Culture [M0005415]
    A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
  • Customs [M0005416]
  • Dangerousness [M0005655]
  • Data Protection [M0025182]
  • Decentralization [M0017123]
  • Deductibles and Coinsurance [M0005742]
    Cost-sharing mechanisms that provide for payment by the insured of some portion of covered expenses. Deductibles are the amounts paid by the insured under a health insurance contract before benefits become payable; coinsurance is the provision under which the insured pays part of the medical bill, usually according to a fixed percentage, when benefits become payable.
  • Democracy [M0005806]
    A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.
  • Deontological Ethics [M0007831]
    Theories of ethics which hold that some actions are morally obligatory regardless of their actual or anticipated consequences. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
  • Diet, Vegan [M0416012]
    Dietary practice of avoiding animal products in their LIFESTYLE.
  • Disability Leave [M0027853]
  • Disease Reservoirs [M0006568]
    Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
  • distribution [M0030795]
  • Double Effect [M0383137]
    In ethics, a technical term which refers to two types of consequences which may be produced by a single action, namely, intended consequences and unintended side effects.
  • Due Process [M0004532]
  • Duty to Follow Up [M0405712]
  • Duty to Recontact [M0390086]
    The ethical and/or legal obligation of a health provider or researcher to communicate with a former patient or research subject about advances in research relevant to a treatment or to a genetic or other diagnostic test provided earlier, or about proposed new uses of blood or tissue samples taken in the past for another purpose.
  • Duty to Warn [M0025842]
    A health professional's obligation to breach patient CONFIDENTIALITY to warn third parties of the danger of their being assaulted or of contracting a serious infection.
  • Eastern Orthodox Ethics [M0004355]
  • Eastern Orthodoxy [M0390509]
    The name given to the religion of the body of modern churches, including among others the Greek and Russian Orthodox, that is derived from the church of the Byzantine Empire, adheres to the Byzantine rite, and acknowledges the honorary primacy of the patriarch of Constantinople. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed)
  • Eclecticism, Historical [M0380831]
    A system of medicine, most popular in the 19th century, that advocates the use of indigenous plants in the treatment of specific signs and symptoms.
  • Ecological Bias [M0024419]
  • Efficiency, Administrative [M0026665]
  • Efficiency, Organizational [M0026667]
    The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.
  • Ego [M0007131]
    The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
  • emotional aspects [M0030722]
  • Empiricism [M0028801]
    One of the principal schools of medical philosophy in ancient Greece and Rome. It developed in Alexandria between 270 and 220 B.C., the only one to have any success in reviving the essentials of the Hippocratic concept. The Empiricists declared that the search for ultimate causes of phenomena was vain, but they were active in endeavoring to discover immediate causes. The "tripod of the Empirics" was their own chance observations (experience), learning obtained from contemporaries and predecessors (experience of others), and, in the case of new diseases, the formation of conclusions from other diseases which they resembled (analogy). Empiricism enjoyed sporadic continuing popularity in later centuries up to the nineteenth. (From Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p186; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
  • Employee Health [M0024868]
  • Employee Incentive Plans [M0007314]
    Programs designed by management to motivate employees to work more efficiently with increased productivity, and greater employee satisfaction.
  • Employee Performance Appraisal [M0007315]
    The assessment of the functioning of an employee in relation to work.
  • Enabling Factors [M0024429]
  • Environment Design [M0007504]
    The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.
  • Epidemiologic Study Characteristics [M0024492]
    Types and formulations of studies used in epidemiological and clinical research.
  • Episcopal Church [M0402265]
  • Equal Protection [M0004533]
  • Ethical Analysis [M0007833]
    The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.
  • ethical aspects [M0421312]
  • Ethical Issues [M0007843]
  • Ethical Relativism [M0007834]
    The philosophical view that conceptions of truth and moral values are not absolute but are relative to the persons or groups holding them. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed)
  • Ethical Theory [M0007845]
    A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)
  • Ethics [M0007835]
    The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.
  • ethics [M0421311]
    Used with techniques and activities for discussion and analysis with respect to human and social values.
  • Ethics, Business [M0383202]
    The moral obligations governing the conduct of commercial or industrial enterprises.
  • Ethics, Clinical [M0007854]
    The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
  • Ethics, Corporate [M0426989]
  • Ethics, Dental [M0007850]
    The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Ethics, Health Facility [M0422450]
  • Ethics, Hospital [M0422449]
  • Ethics, Institutional [M0007851]
    The moral and ethical obligations or responsibilities of institutions.
  • Ethics, Medical [M0007853]
    The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Ethics, Nursing [M0007856]
    The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of nurses themselves, their patients, and their fellow practitioners, as well as their actions in the care of patients and in relations with their families.
  • Ethics, Organizational [M0415951]
  • Ethics, Pharmacy [M0007857]
    The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the pharmacist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the pharmacist in health care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Ethics, Professional [M0007858]
    The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Ethics, Research [M0383203]
    The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
  • Facility Access [M0001665]
  • Factors, Demographic [M0005811]
  • Family Health [M0008206]
    The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
  • Federal Aid [M0008487]
  • Feminism [M0028998]
    The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes and organized activity on behalf of women's rights and interests. (Webster New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
  • Feminist Ethics [M0028999]
  • Financial Support [M0008486]
    The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
  • Financing, Construction [M0008490]
    Funding resources and procedures for capital improvement or the construction of facilities.
  • Financing, Organized [M0008496]
    All organized methods of funding.
  • Folklore [M0008664]
    The common orally transmitted traditions, myths, festivals, songs, superstitions, and stories of all peoples.
  • Free Will [M0391023]
  • Freedom [M0008828]
    The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.
  • French Revolution [M0459876]
    Conflict during which traditional monarchy was ended and modern government functions were instituted.
  • Future Generations [M0413909]
    Individuals not yet in existence to whom obligations may be owed.
  • Gene Pool [M0009068]
    The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.
  • Genetic Determinism [M0389423]
    The theory that human CHARACTER and BEHAVIOR are shaped by the GENES that comprise the individual's GENOTYPE rather than by CULTURE; ENVIRONMENT; and individual choice.
  • Genetic Equilibrium [M0009148]
  • Genetic Phenomena [M0421280]
    Temporal, spatial, qualitative, and quantitative concepts related to GENETIC PROCESSES and GENETIC STRUCTURES.
  • Genetic Privacy [M0389545]
    The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.
  • Germ Line Theory [M0001365]
  • Greek Orthodoxy [M0378733]
  • Greek World [M0027938]
    A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)
  • Gulf War [M0459851]
    United Nations' action to intervene in conflict between the nation of Kuwait and occupying Iraqi forces, occurring from 1990 through 1991.
  • Health [M0009825]
    The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
  • Health Care Ethics [M0412696]
  • Health Care Facilities, Manpower, and Services [M0008128]
    The services provided in the delivery of health care, associated facilities in health care, and attendant manpower required or available.
  • Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation [M0026589]
    The concept concerned with all aspects of the quality, accessibility, and appraisal of health care and health care delivery.
  • Health Care Sector [M0029683]
    Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
  • Health Planning Guidelines [M0009876]
    Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.
  • Health Resources [M0009892]
    Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
  • Hedonism [M0016599]
  • Hindu Ethics [M0027876]
  • Hinduism [M0027875]
    A complex body of social, cultural, and religious beliefs and practices evolved in and largely confined to the Indian subcontinent and marked by a caste system, an outlook tending to view all forms and theories as aspects of one eternal being and truth, and the practice of the way of works, the way of knowledge, or the way of devotion as a means of release from the round of rebirths. (From Webster, 3d ed)
  • Historical Events, 15th Century [M0467889]
    Events of lasting impact or importance occurring in the 15th century.
  • Historical Events, 16th Century [M0467902]
    Events of lasting impact or importance occurring in the 16th century.
  • Historical Events, 17th Century [M0467913]
    Events of lasting impact or importance occurring in the 17th century.
  • Historical Events, 18th Century [M0468169]
    Events of lasting impact or importance occurring in the 18th century.
  • Historical Events, 19th Century [M0468203]
    Events of lasting impact or importance occurring in the 19th century.
  • Historical Events, 20th Century [M0468204]
    Events of lasting impact or importance occurring in the 20th century.
  • Historical Events, 21st Century [M0468259]
    Events of lasting impact or importance occurring in the 21st century.
  • History, 15th Century [M0467852]
    Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
  • History, 16th Century [M0467854]
    Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
  • History, 17th Century [M0467901]
    Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
  • History, 18th Century [M0467923]
    Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
  • History, 19th Century [M0467924]
    Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
  • History, 20th Century [M0467925]
    Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
  • History, 21st Century [M0467928]
    Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
  • Holistic Health [M0010491]
    Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.
  • Holistic Therapies [M0387603]
  • Humanism [M0010651]
    An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.
  • Humor [M0022987]
  • Humoralism [M0028819]
    An ancient Greek medical theory that health and illness result from a balance or imbalance of body fluids or "humors". The humors are blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile.
  • Id [M0010984]
    The part of the personality structure which harbors the unconscious instinctive desires and strivings of the individual.
  • Identity, Genetic [M0016090]
  • Impacts, Demographic [M0005812]
  • Income Generation Programs [M0011198]
  • Industrial Hygiene [M0024869]
  • Influentials [M0012270]
  • Informal Sector [M0007323]
  • Informed Consent [M0011326]
    Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
  • Insanity Defense [M0011378]
    A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)
  • Institutional Obligations [M0007852]
  • Insurance [M0011445]
    Coverage by contract whereby one part indemnifies or guarantees another against loss by a specified contingency.
  • Insurance Coverage [M0028949]
    Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
  • Insurance, Liability [M0011463]
    Insurance against loss resulting from liability for injury or damage to the persons or property of others.
  • Insurance, Life [M0011465]
    Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.
  • Interdisciplinary Communication [M0011554]
    Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.
  • Internal-External Control [M0011520]
    Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
  • International Aspects [M0011527]
  • International Health Problems [M0023013]
  • International Perspectives [M0416512]
  • Internationality [M0416511]
    The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
  • Islam [M0011738]
    A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.
  • Islamic Ethics [M0011739]
  • Jewish Ethics [M0011869]
  • Judaism [M0011870]
    The religion of the Jews characterized by belief in one God and in the mission of the Jews to teach the Fatherhood of God as revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Webster, 3d ed)
  • Kinetics [M0012044]
    The study of rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
  • Korean War [M0459943]
    An armed conflict between Communist and non-Communist forces in Korea from June 25, 1950, to July 27, 1953. The parties included United Nations forces from 15 member nations under United States command against military from North Korea and the Peoples Republic of China.
  • Land Tenure [M0020081]
  • Legal Rights [M0004534]
  • Legal Status [M0011887]
  • Leisure [M0012337]
  • Leninism [M0004883]
  • Liberalism [M0017125]
  • Libertarianism [M0008831]
  • Life [M0028824]
    The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
  • Litigation [M0011881]
  • Locus of Control [M0011521]
  • Logic [M0012674]
    The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
  • Logistics [M0015408]
  • Lutheran Church [M0402267]
  • M'Naghten Rule [M0334324]
  • Magic [M0012883]
    Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.
  • Malthusianism [M0017307]
  • McNaughton Rule [M0011379]
  • Medical Futility [M0027672]
    The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)
  • Medical Indigency [M0013212]
    The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.
  • Medical Jurisprudence [M0011882]
  • Medical Liability [M0011878]
  • Medical Record Linkage [M0013225]
    The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.
  • Medical Staff Privileges [M0013234]
    Those rights or activities which are specific to members of the institution's medical staff, including the right to admit private patients.
  • Medical Staff Privileges, Nonphysician [M0013235]
  • Medicine in Art [M0013252]
  • Medicine in Literature [M0013253]
  • Medicine, Holistic [M0383577]
  • mental aspects [M0030723]
  • Mental Health [M0013409]
    The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
  • Metaethics [M0007836]
  • Metaphor [M0028820]
    The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)
  • Metaphysics [M0013524]
    The branch of philosophy that treats of first principles, including ontology (the nature of existence or being) and cosmology (the origin and structure of the universe). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
  • Methodist Church [M0402268]
  • Mobile Health Units [M0013966]
    Movable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.
  • Models, Space [M0027824]
  • Moral Complicity [M0014055]
  • Moral Obligations [M0020041]
    Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.
  • Moral Policy [M0007837]
  • Morale [M0014051]
    The prevailing temper or spirit of an individual or group in relation to the tasks or functions which are expected.
  • Morality [M0014053]
  • Morals [M0014054]
    Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
  • Multifactorial Causality [M0024430]
  • Multiple Causation [M0024431]
  • Mysticism [M0014377]
    A philosophy based upon spiritual intuition that is believed to transcend ordinary sensory experiences or understanding.
  • Narrative Ethics [M0007855]
    An approach to ethics that focuses on the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
  • Narrative Medicine [M0402209]
  • National Health Insurance, United States [M0014501]
  • National Socialism [M0017119]
    The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)
  • Natural Law [M0390163]
    Rules of conduct derived from nature and considered to be binding upon human society in the absence of, or in addition to, institutional law. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
  • Natural Resources [M0005037]
  • Nature [M0028823]
    The system of all phenomena in space and time; the totality of physical reality. It is both a scientific and philosophic concept appearing in all historic eras. (Webster 2d; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
  • Neomalthusianism [M0017308]
  • Nonmaleficence [M0389203]
    In ethics, the principle that requires avoiding the causation of harm.
  • Nursing Theory [M0015110]
    Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.
  • Obligation, Social [M0020042]
  • Obligations of Society [M0409089]
  • Obligations to Society [M0020043]
  • Occultism [M0015186]
  • Occupational Health [M0024870]
    The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
  • Oral Health [M0015367]
    The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
  • Organizational Affiliation [M0015411]
    Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.
  • Organizational Objectives [M0015414]
    The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
  • Outcome Measurement Errors [M0024421]
  • Parental Consent [M0030126]
    Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.
  • Patient Access to Records [M0016038]
    The freedom of patients to review their own medical, genetic, or other health-related records.
  • Patient Rights [M0016036]
    Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.
  • Personal Autonomy [M0008830]
    Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
  • Personal Space [M0016384]
    Invisible boundaries surrounding the individual's body which are maintained in relation to others.
  • Personhood [M0011233]
    The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.
  • Persuasive Communication [M0016414]
    A mode of communication concerned with inducing or urging the adoption of certain beliefs, theories, or lines of action by others.
  • Philosophical Overview [M0016602]
  • Philosophy, Nursing [M0016605]
  • Phylogeny [M0016775]
    The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
  • Physical Fitness [M0016785]
    A state of well-being in which performance is optimal, often as a result of physical conditioning which may be prescribed for disease therapy.
  • Physician Assignment Acceptance [M0023799]
  • Placebo Effect [M0024443]
    An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
  • Political Systems [M0017120]
    The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.
  • Politics [M0017128]
    Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
  • Population Growth and Natural Resources [M0017324]
  • Population Programs, Goals [M0017299]
  • Population Theory [M0017314]
  • Population-Based Planning [M0027976]
  • Positive Eugenics [M0007940]
  • Postmodernism [M0389463]
    A late 20th-century philosophical approach or style of cultural analysis that seeks to reveal the cultural or social construction of concepts conventionally assumed to be natural or universal. (from E.R. DuBose, The Illusion of Trust: Toward a Medical Theological Ethics in the Postmodern Age, Kluwer, 1995)
  • Prayer [M0018758]
  • Presbyterian Church [M0402269]
  • Principle-Based Ethics [M0007849]
    An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.
  • Prisoner Dilemma [M0008970]
  • Privacy [M0028270]
    The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
  • Privacy of Patient Data [M0004997]
  • Productivity, Organizational [M0026666]
  • Professional Autonomy [M0025846]
    The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.
  • Program Efficiency [M0026664]
  • Property Rights [M0015617]
  • Protestant Ethics [M0004357]
  • Protestantism [M0004358]
    The name given to all Christian denominations, sects, or groups rising out of the Reformation. Protestant churches generally agree that the principle of authority should be the Scriptures rather than the institutional church or the pope. (from W.L. Reese, Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, 1999)
  • psychiatric aspects [M0030724]
  • psychogenic aspects [M0030725]
  • Psychological Phenomena and Processes [M0018003]
    Mechanisms and underlying psychological principles of mental processes and their applications.
  • psychology [M0030719]
    Used with non-psychiatric diseases, techniques, and named groups for psychologic, psychiatric, psychosomatic, psychosocial, behavioral, and emotional aspects, and with psychiatric disease for psychologic aspects; used also with animal terms for animal behavior and psychology.
  • psychosocial aspects [M0030726]
  • psychosomatic aspects [M0030727]
  • Punishment [M0018159]
    The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
  • Qi [M0028884]
    The vital life force in the body, supposedly able to be regulated by acupuncture. It corresponds roughly to the Greek pneuma, the Latin spiritus, and the ancient Indian prana. The concept of life-breath or vital energy was formulated as an indication of the awareness of man, originally directed externally toward nature or society but later turned inward to the self or life within. (From Comparison between Concepts of Life-Breath in East and West, 15th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - East and West, August 26-September 3, 1990, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. ix-x)
  • Recommendations [M0009877]
  • Reinforcing Factors [M0024433]
  • Religion [M0018754]
    A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)
  • Religion and Medicine [M0018760]
    The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
  • Religion and Psychology [M0018761]
    The interrelationship of psychology and religion.
  • Religion and Science [M0018762]
  • Religion and Sex [M0018763]
  • Religious Beliefs [M0018755]
  • Religious Ethics [M0018756]
  • Religious Philosophies [M0018764]
    Sets of beliefs on the nature of the universe or Man, practiced as a religion.
  • Reproduction Rights [M0453729]
  • Reproductive Rights [M0453727]
    Reproductive rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. They also include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence.
  • Resources [M0009893]
  • Retrospective Moral Judgment [M0014056]
    The application of current standards of morality to past actions, institutions, or persons.
  • Reward [M0018991]
    An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
  • Right to Die [M0019117]
    The right of the patient or the patient's representative to make decisions with regard to the patient's dying.
  • Right to Treatment [M0016037]
    In law, the claim of persons involuntarily institutionalized on the ground of mental disability to receive appropriate care for their conditions or diseases. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
  • Rightsizing [M0030070]
  • Role Concept [M0019252]
  • Roman Catholic Ethics [M0003678]
  • Roman Empire [M0027937]
  • Roman World [M0027936]
    A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the political domination and influence of ancient Rome, bringing to the conquered people the Roman civilization and culture from 753 B.C. to the beginning of the imperial rule under Augustus in 27 B.C. The early city built on seven hills grew to conquer Sicily, Sardinia, Carthage, Gaul, Spain, Britain, Greece, Asia Minor, etc., and extended ultimately from Mesopotamia to the Atlantic. Roman medicine was almost entirely in Greek hands, but Rome, with its superior water system, remains a model of sanitation and hygiene. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed pp196-99; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, pp107-120)
  • Rural Health [M0019306]
    The status of health in rural populations.
  • Russian Orthodoxy [M0378734]
  • Russian-Japanese War [M0459872]
    Conflict from 1904 through 1905 between Russia and Japan regarding Manchuria and Korea.
  • Safety, Occupational [M0024871]
  • Scholarships [M0008305]
  • Secrecy [M0422250]
  • Self [M0007132]
  • Self Determination [M0008829]
  • Self Psychology [M0028946]
    Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.
  • Self Regulation, Professional [M0025847]
  • September 11 Terrorist Attacks [M0459889]
    Terrorism on September 11, 2001 against targets in New York, the Pentagon in Virginia, and an aborted attack that ended in Pennsylvania.
  • Serbian Orthodoxy [M0378735]
  • Shamanism [M0028897]
    An intermediate stage between polytheism and monotheism, which assumes a "Great Spirit", with lesser deities subordinated. With the beginnings of shamanism there was the advent of the medicine man or witch doctor, who assumed a supervisory relation to disease and its cure. Formally, shamanism is a religion of Ural-Altaic peoples of Northern Asia and Europe, characterized by the belief that the unseen world of gods, demons, ancestral spirits is responsive only to shamans. The Indians of North and South America entertain religious practices similar to the Ural-Altaic shamanism. The word shaman comes from the Tungusic (Manchuria and Siberia) saman, meaning Buddhist monk. The shaman handles disease almost entirely by psychotherapeutic means; he frightens away the demons of disease by assuming a terrifying mien. (From Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p22; from Webster, 3d ed)
  • Sick Days [M0027854]
  • Sick Leave [M0027855]
    An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
  • Signal Detection (Psychology) [M0026676]
    Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
  • Situational Ethics [M0007839]
  • Social Accountability [M0020044]
  • Social Conditions [M0020013]
    The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.
  • Social Environment [M0020025]
    The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
  • Social Responsibility [M0020045]
    The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
  • Social Values [M0020055]
    Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
  • Socialism [M0020067]
    A system of government in which means of production and distribution of goods are controlled by the state.
  • Society of Friends [M0423294]
  • Sorcery [M0027879]
  • Spanish-American War, 1898 [M0459862]
    Conflict between Spain and the United States, arising out of Spanish policies in Cuba.
  • Specialism [M0020214]
    The limitation of practice or study to a particular branch of medicine, dentistry, or other health profession. It is philosophically distinct from the generalist theory in which familiarity with a wide cross-section of the particular discipline is advocated.
  • Speciesism [M0025964]
    The theory that there is a morally relevant distinction between humans and nonhuman species. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
  • Spiritualism [M0020344]
    Religious philosophy expressing the fundamental belief that departed spirits may be contacted by the living through a medium.
  • Spirituality [M0383296]
    Sensitivity or attachment to religious values, or to things of the spirit as opposed to material or worldly interests. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed, and Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed)
  • Spousal Consent [M0030127]
  • Stable Population Method [M0005819]
  • Stigmatization [M0020480]
  • Stoicism [M0016601]
  • Suburban Health [M0028236]
    The status of health in suburban populations.
  • Superego [M0020818]
    The component of the personality associated with ethics, standards, and self-criticism - the "conscience". It is derived mainly from identification with parents and parent substitutes.
  • Superstitions [M0020834]
    A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.
  • supply [M0030794]
  • supply & distribution [M0030793]
    Used for the quantitative availability and distribution of material, equipment, health services, personnel, and facilities. It excludes food supply and water supply in industries and occupations.
  • Surgery, Ghost [M0020873]
  • Syrian Orthodoxy [M0402650]
  • Systematic Bias [M0024420]
  • Taboo [M0020995]
    Any negative tradition or behavior that is generally regarded as harmful to social welfare and forbidden within a cultural or social group.
  • Taoism [M0389345]
    A Chinese philosophy and system of religion that is based on the teachings of Lao-tsu in the 6th century B.C. and on subsequent revelations. (from American Heritage College Dictionary, 4th ed)
  • Technology, Industry, and Agriculture [M0021114]
  • Teleological Ethics [M0007840]
    Theories of ethics which hold that the rightness or wrongness of an act can be determined by assessing the good and evil consequences which the act produces. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
  • Tertiary Sector [M0011261]
  • Theology [M0018757]
    The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)
  • Theoretical Effectiveness [M0007981]
  • Third-Party Consent [M0030125]
    Informed consent given by someone other than the patient or research subject.
  • transmission [M0030829]
    Used with diseases for studies of the modes of transmission.
  • Treatment Futility [M0027671]
  • Truncation Biases [M0024423]
  • ultrastructure [M0030844]
    Used with tissues and cells (including neoplasms) and microorganisms for microanatomic structures, generally below the size visible by light microscopy.
  • Uncertainty [M0017598]
    The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.
  • Universal Coverage [M0028964]
    Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.
  • Urban Health [M0022308]
    The status of health in urban populations.
  • Use-Effectiveness [M0007982]
  • Utilitarianism [M0007841]
    An ethical theory which holds that the morality of an act or a policy can be determined by whether it produces the greatest net benefit. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
  • Value Orientation [M0020056]
  • Vietnam Conflict [M0459847]
    A conflict occurring from 1954 through 1975 within the Republic of Vietnam. It involved neighboring nations and the United States and other members of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.
  • Virtues [M0020058]
    Character traits that are considered to be morally praiseworthy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
  • Vitalism [M0022785]
    The metaphysical doctrine that the functions and processes of life are due to a vital principle distinct from physicochemical forces and that the laws of physics and chemistry alone cannot explain life functions and processes. Vitalism is opposed to mechanistic materialism. The belief was that matter was divided into two classes based on behavior with respect to heat: organic and inorganic. Inorganic material could be melted but could always be recovered by removing the heat source. Organic compounds changed form upon heating and could not be recovered by removing the heat source. The proposed explanation for the difference between organic and inorganic compounds was the Vitalism Theory, which stated that inorganic materials did not contain the "vital force" of life.
  • Voting Rights [M0004535]
  • Wedge Argument [M0007847]
    An assertion that an action apparently unobjectionable in itself would set in motion a train of events leading ultimately to an undesirable outcome. (From Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)
  • Western World [M0028821]
    A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
  • Wit [M0022988]
  • Wit and Humor [M0022989]
    The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
  • Witchcraft [M0027880]
    An act of employing sorcery (the use of power gained from the assistance or control of spirits), especially with malevolent intent, and the exercise of supernatural powers and alleged intercourse with the devil or a familiar. (From Webster, 3d ed)
  • Withdrawing Care [M0007965]
  • Women's Health [M0025065]
    The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
  • Work Schedule Tolerance [M0023010]
    Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.
  • World Health [M0023014]
    The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
  • World War I [M0459843]
    Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.
  • World War II [M0459771]
    Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.
  • Yang [M0025450]
  • Yin [M0025451]
  • Yin-Yang [M0025449]
    In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)
  • Yoga [M0023100]
    A major orthodox system of Hindu philosophy based on Sankhya (metaphysical dualism) but differing from it in being theistic and characterized by the teaching of raja-yoga as a practical method of liberating the self. It includes a system of exercises for attaining bodily or mental control and well-being with liberation of the self and union with the universal spirit. (From Webster, 3d ed)