MeSH
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Indicator, Reagent, or Diagnostic Aid

MeSH ID: T130

Related Concepts:

  • (131)I-Macroaggregated Albumin [M0019694]
  • (3-Iodo-(131I)benzyl)guanidine [M0029374]
  • 1-Naphthylisothiocyanate [M0023170]
    A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.
  • 19-Iodocholesterol [M0023184]
    19-Iodocholest-5-en-3 beta-ol. A cholesterol derivative usually substituted with radioactive iodine in the 19 position. The compound is an adrenal cortex scanning agent used in the assessment of patients suspected of having Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma and adrenal remnants following total adrenalectomy.
  • 2,2'-Dipyridyl [M0023198]
    A reagent used for the determination of iron.
  • 2,3-Dihydroxy-1,4-dithiolbutane [M0006615]
  • 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene Sulfonate [M0022002]
  • 2,4-Dinitrophenol [M0028729]
    A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)
  • 2,6-Dichloroindophenol [M0023203]
    A dye used as a reagent in the determination of vitamin C.
  • 2-Acetylaminofluorene [M0023186]
    A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
  • 2-Hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl Bromide [M0023190]
    A chemical reagent that reacts with and modifies chemically the tryptophan portion of protein molecules. Used for 'active site' enzyme studies and other protein studies. Sometimes referred to as Koshland's reagent.
  • 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine [M0023226]
  • 3-Iodobenzylguanidine [M0029373]
    A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.
  • 3-Iodobenzylguanidine, 123I Labeled [M0331309]
  • 3-Iodobenzylguanidine, 125I Labeled [M0331308]
  • 3-O-Methylglucose [M0028773]
    A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
  • 4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid [M0019908]
    A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
  • 4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid, Disodium Salt [M0329725]
  • 4-Butyrolactone [M0023238]
    One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
  • 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan [M0014530]
    A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
  • 5,5'-Dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic Acid) [M0006619]
  • 5,5'-Dithiobis(nitrobenzoate) [M0006620]
  • 99mTc-Albures [M0353697]
  • 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinate [M0029350]
  • 99mTc-Human Serum Albumin [M0021097]
  • 99Tc-Pertechnetate [M0418363]
  • Acenaphthenes [M0000104]
    Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.
  • Acetic Acid [M0028791]
    Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Acetic Anhydrides [M0000133]
    Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.
  • Acetonitriles [M0000143]
    Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
  • Acetrizoate Sodium [M0000152]
  • Acetrizoic Acid [M0000146]
    An iodinated radiographic contrast medium used as acetrizoate sodium in HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAPHY.
  • Acrichine Yperite [M0351955]
  • Acridine Orange [M0000247]
    A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.
  • Acriflavine [M0000250]
    3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.
  • Acriflavine Dihydrochloride [M0330709]
  • Acriflavine Trichydrochloride [M0330710]
  • Acrolein [M0000260]
  • Adosterol [M0000475]
    A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.
  • Aequorin [M0000509]
    A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).
  • Affinity Labels [M0000530]
    Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
  • Agar [M0000553]
    A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
  • Alcian Blue [M0000640]
    A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
  • Alkylating Agents [M0000721]
    Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
  • alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid [M0027584]
    An IBOTENIC ACID homolog and glutamate agonist. The compound is the defining agonist for the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, AMPA). It has been used as a radionuclide imaging agent but is more commonly used as an experimental tool in cell biological studies.
  • alpha-Aminotoluene [M0002391]
  • Alpha-Peroxidase [M0010545]
  • Amaranth Dye [M0000852]
    A sulfonic acid-based naphthylazo dye used as a coloring agent for foodstuffs and medicines and as a dye and chemical indicator. It was banned by the FDA in 1976 for use in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • Amido Black [M0000900]
    A dye used to stain proteins in electrophoretic techniques. It is used interchangeably with its acid form.
  • Amido Black, Dilithium salt [M0330754]
  • Amido Black, Sodium salt [M0330753]
  • Amidotricoic Acid [M0006227]
  • Amidotrizoic Acid [M0006223]
  • Aminacrine [M0000909]
    A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.
  • Aminacrine Hydrochloride [M0000910]
  • Aminohippurate Sodium [M0432631]
  • Aminohippuric Acids [M0000947]
    A group of glycine amides of aminobenzoic acids.
  • Aminoimidazole Carboxamide [M0000949]
    An imidazole derivative which is a metabolite of the antineoplastic agents BIC and DIC. By itself, or as the ribonucleotide, it is used as a condensation agent in the preparation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Compounded with orotic acid, it is used to treat liver diseases.
  • Aminopropionitrile [M0000960]
    3-Aminopropanenitrile. Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.
  • Aminopt [M0432519]
  • Aminotoluene [M0021642]
  • Amipak [M0351943]
  • Ammonium Aurintricarboxylate [M0330823]
  • Ammonium Sulfate [M0000986]
    Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.
  • Ampholyte Mixtures [M0001020]
    Such mixtures of amphoteric electrolytes or buffers that provide a continuous range of pH in an electric field; used for separating proteins by their isoelectric points, i.e., by isoelectric focusing.
  • Ampholytes [M0003008]
  • Ampyrone [M0001037]
    A metabolite of AMINOPYRINE with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is used as a reagent for biochemical reactions producing peroxides or phenols. Ampyrone stimulates LIVER MICROSOMES and is also used to measure extracellular water.
  • Angio-Conray [M0011689]
  • Angiografin [M0350710]
  • Anion Exchange Resins [M0001247]
    High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
  • Antisense Elements (Genetics) [M0025053]
    Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.
  • Antisense Probes [M0025054]
  • Aqualin [M0350817]
  • Arsenazo III [M0001722]
    Metallochrome indicator that changes color when complexed to the calcium ion under physiological conditions. It is used to measure local calcium ion concentrations in vivo.
  • Auramine O [M0351188]
  • Aurintricarboxylate [M0001975]
  • Aurintricarboxylic Acid [M0001974]
    A dye which inhibits protein biosynthesis at the initial stages. The ammonium salt (aluminon) is a reagent for the colorimetric estimation of aluminum in water, foods, and tissues.
  • Aurintricarboxylic Acid, Calcium (1:3) Salt [M0330825]
  • Aurintricarboxylic Acid, Calcium (2:3) Salt [M0330824]
  • Aurintricarboxylic Acid, Trisodium Salt [M0330822]
  • Aurovertins [M0001976]
    Very toxic and complex pyrone derivatives from the fungus Calcarisporium arbuscula. They bind to and inhibit mitochondrial ATPase, thereby uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. They are used as biochemical tools.
  • Azure Stains [M0002092]
    PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
  • B-15,000 [M0353503]
  • Baritop [M0369259]
  • Barium Sulfate [M0002181]
    A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.
  • Barium Sulfate (2:1) [M0330827]
  • Basic Orange 3RN [M0373511]
  • Benzoin [M0002361]
    A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses. This should not be confused with benzoin gum from STYRAX.
  • Benzophenoneidum [M0002365]
    An aniline dye used as a disinfectant and an antiseptic agent. It is weakly fluorescing and binds specifically to certain proteins.
  • Benzoylarginine Nitroanilide [M0002377]
    A chromogenic substrate that permits direct measurement of peptide hydrolase activity, e.g., papain and trypsin, by colorimetry. The substrate liberates p-nitroaniline as a chromogenic product.
  • Benzoylarginine Nitroanilide Monohydrochloride [M0330842]
  • Benzoylarginine Nitroanilide, (R)-Isomer [M0330838]
  • Benzoylarginine Nitroanilide, (S)-Isomer [M0330839]
  • Benzoylarginine Nitroanilide, Monosodium Salt, Monohydrochloride [M0330840]
  • Benzoylarginine-2-Naphthylamide [M0002379]
    An enzyme substrate which permits the measurement of peptide hydrolase activity, e.g. trypsin and thrombin. The enzymes liberate 2-naphthylamine, which is measured by colorimetric procedures.
  • Benzyl Viologen [M0002388]
    1,1'-Bis(phenylmethyl)4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride. Oxidation-reduction indicator.
  • Bilignost [M0011643]
  • Biligrafine [M0011644]
  • Bilimin [M0011697]
  • Bilipolinum [M0011645]
  • Bilivistan [M0351686]
  • Bilopaque [M0351857]
  • Biloptin [M0011698]
  • BioDex 1 [M0351192]
  • Bioquin [M0353875]
  • Bipyridyl [M0023199]
  • Bisbenzimide [M0010486]
    A benzimidazole antifilarial agent; it is fluorescent when it binds to certain nucleotides in DNA, thus providing a tool for the study of DNA replication; it also interferes with mitosis.
  • Biuret [M0002621]
    Used as feed supplement for sheep and cattle since it is a good non-protein nitrogen source. In strongly alkaline solution biuret gives a violet color with copper sulfate.
  • Bromcresol Green [M0002931]
    An indicator and reagent. It has been used in serum albumin determinations and as a pH indicator.
  • Bromcresol Purple [M0002932]
    An indicator and reagent. It has been used for several purposes including the determination of serum albumin concentrations
  • Bromosuccinimide [M0002952]
    A brominating agent that replaces hydrogen atoms in benzylic or allylic positions. It is used in the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones and in controlled low-energy brominations. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed; Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed,).
  • Bromphenol Blue [M0002958]
    A dye that has been used as an industrial dye, a laboratory indicator, and a biological stain.
  • Bromsulphalein [M0020786]
  • Bromthalein [M0361431]
  • Bromthymol Blue [M0002959]
    A pH sensitive dye that has been used as an indicator in many laboratory reactions.
  • Buffers [M0003009]
    A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
  • Butyrylthiocholine [M0003116]
    A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.
  • C.I. 23860 [M0351382]
  • C.I. 42555 [M0351187]
  • C.I. 45350 [M0350969]
  • C.I. 46005 [M0373513]
  • C.I. 75470 [M0350501]
  • C.I. Acid Black 1 [M0350871]
  • C.I. Basic Orange 14 [M0373512]
  • C.I. Direct Blue 53 [M0351381]
  • C.I. Solvent Yellow 1 [M0361791]
  • C.I.-20470 [M0350873]
  • Ca-DTPA [M0006872]
  • Calcium Disodium Versenate [M0363997]
  • Calcium Ipodate [M0011699]
  • Calcium Phytate [M0016818]
  • Calcium Tetacine [M0007072]
  • Caprolactam [M0003306]
    Cyclic amide of caproic acid used in manufacture of synthetic fibers of the polyamide type. Can cause local irritation.
  • Carbocyanines [M0003347]
    Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
  • Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone [M0003397]
    A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
  • Cardio-Green [M0353726]
  • Cardiolite [M0352057]
  • Carmine [M0003489]
    Coloring matter from the insect Coccus cacti L. It is used in foods, pharmaceuticals, toiletries, etc., as a dye, and also has use as a microscopic stain and biological marker.
  • Cation Exchange Resins [M0003680]
    High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
  • cDNA Library [M0332453]
  • cDNA Probes [M0027269]
  • Ceretec [M0351239]
  • Chelating Agents [M0004002]
    Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination bonds with a central metal ion. Heterocyclic rings are formed with the central metal atom as part of the ring. Some biological systems form metal chelates, e.g., the iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin and the magnesium-binding chlorophyll of plants. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed) They are used chemically to remove ions from solutions, medicinally against microorganisms, to treat metal poisoning, and in chemotherapy protocols.
  • Chelaton 3 [M0007073]
  • Chemet [M0475786]
  • Chinosol [M0353876]
  • Chloretone [M0350666]
  • Chlorobutanol [M0004163]
    A colorless to white crystalline compound with a camphoraceous odor and taste. It is a widely used preservative in various pharmaceutical solutions, especially injectables. Also, it is an active ingredient in certain oral sedatives and topical anesthetics.
  • Chloroform [M0004164]
    A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
  • Chloromercuribenzoates [M0004170]
    Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.
  • Chloromercurinitrophenols [M0004171]
    Mercuriphenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms and one or more nitro groups. Some of these are sulfhydryl reagents which act as chromophoric probes in enzymes and other proteins.
  • Cholestil [M0361691]
  • Cholevid [M0351851]
  • Chologon [M0351118]
  • Cholografin [M0351685]
  • Chromogenic Compounds [M0004393]
    Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).
  • Chromogenic Substrates [M0004394]
  • Chromomycin [M0004397]
  • Chromomycins [M0004396]
    A complex of several closely related glycosidic antibiotics from Streptomyces griseus. The major component, CHROMOMYCIN A3, is used as a fluorescent stain of DNA where it attaches and inhibits RNA synthesis. It is also used as an antineoplastic agent, especially for solid tumors.
  • Chromosomal Probes [M0023615]
  • Cialit [M0004471]
    Tissue preservative.
  • Cidex [M0350826]
  • Clofazimine [M0004579]
    A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)
  • Coccinellin [M0350503]
  • Coloring Agents [M0481616]
    Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
  • Compound 545 [M0351690]
  • Congo Red [M0005003]
    An acid dye used in testing for hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. It is also used histologically to test for AMYLOIDOSIS.
  • Conray 420 [M0351696]
  • Conray 60 [M0350801]
  • Conserved Gene Probes [M0023616]
  • Contrast Media [M0005129]
    Substances used in radiography that allow visualization of certain tissues.
  • Copper EDTA [M0007063]
  • Coprin [M0007074]
  • cRNA Probes [M0027267]
  • Cross-Linking Reagents [M0005349]
    Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
  • Culture Media [M0005417]
    Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
  • Culture Media, Conditioned [M0025950]
    Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
  • Culture Media, Serum-Free [M0025705]
    CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
  • Cuprizone [M0005418]
    Copper chelator that inhibits monoamine oxidase and causes liver and brain damage.
  • Curcumin [M0005421]
    A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.
  • Cyanine Dye DiS-C2-(5) [M0006612]
  • Cyanogen Bromide [M0005440]
    Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
  • Cyanogran [M0373240]
  • Cyclohexylamine [M0005474]
  • Cyclohexylamines [M0005475]
    A family of alicyclic hydrocarbons containing an amine group with the general formula R-C6H10NH2.
  • D & C Red No. 27 [M0016618]
  • D & C Yellow No. 7 [M0362130]
  • D & C Yellow No. 8 [M0350971]
  • Dansyl Compounds [M0005656]
    Compounds that contain a 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl group.
  • DEAE Sephadex [M0357371]
  • DEAE-Dextran [M0005691]
    Used as a support for ion-exchange chromatography.
  • Decholin [M0351122]
  • Deferoxamine [M0005750]
    Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
  • Dehydrocholate [M0005764]
  • Dehydrocholic Acid [M0005762]
    A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.
  • Dehydrocholic Acid, Lithium Salt [M0331374]
  • Dehydrocholic Acid, Magnesium Salt [M0331372]
  • Dehydrocholic Acid, Potassium Salt [M0331373]
  • Dehydrocholic Acid, Sodium Salt [M0331371]
  • Desferal [M0005752]
  • Desferrioxamine B Mesylate [M0005751]
  • Diamide [M0006203]
    A sulfhydryl reagent which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. It is a radiation-sensitizing agent of anoxic bacterial and mammalian cells.
  • Diatrizoate [M0006219]
    A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
  • Diatrizoate Meglumine [M0006224]
    A versatile x-ray contrast medium for diagnostic radiology. It can be administered by most routes.
  • Diatrizoic Acid Methylglucamine [M0006228]
  • Diazomethane [M0006239]
  • Dicobalt EDTA [M0007064]
  • Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide [M0006313]
    A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
  • Digitonin [M0006380]
    A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
  • Dimaval [M0352349]
  • Dimercaptosuccinic Acid [M0330502]
  • Dimethyl Adipimidate [M0006454]
    Bifunctional cross-linking agent that links covalently free amino groups of proteins or polypeptides, including those in cell membranes. It is used as reagent or fixative in immunohistochemistry and is a proposed antisickling agent.
  • Dimethyl Suberimidate [M0006455]
    The methyl imidoester of suberic acid used to produce cross links in proteins. Each end of the imidoester will react with an amino group in the protein molecule to form an amidine.
  • Dimethylformamide [M0006462]
  • Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine [M0006471]
    A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
  • Dinitrochlorobenzene [M0006475]
    A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.
  • Dinitrofluorobenzene [M0006477]
    Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
  • Diodrast [M0376143]
  • Diofluor [M0478615]
  • Dionosil [M0373167]
  • Diphenylcarbazide [M0006516]
    Used as an indicator in titrating iron and for the colorimetric determination of chromium and the detection of cadmium, mercury, magnesium, aldehydes, and emetine.
  • Diphenylhexatriene [M0006517]
    A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.
  • Disodium Calcitetracemate [M0363996]
  • Disodium Fluorescein [M0329115]
  • Distannous EDTA [M0007066]
  • Diswart [M0483113]
  • Dithiazanine [M0006610]
    3-Ethyl-2-(5-(3-ethyl-2-benzothiazolinylidene)-1,3- pentadienyl)benzothiazolium. A benzothiazole that was formerly used as an antinematodal agent and is currently used as a fluorescent dye.
  • Dithiazanine Iodide [M0006611]
  • Dithioerythritol [M0006614]
    A compound that, along with its isomer, Cleland's reagent (DITHIOTHREITOL), is used for the protection of sulfhydryl groups against oxidation to disulfides and for the reduction of disulfides to sulfhydryl groups.
  • Dithionitrobenzoic Acid [M0006618]
    A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.
  • Dithizone [M0006622]
    Chelating agent used for heavy metal poisoning and assay. It causes diabetes.
  • DNA Library [M0332450]
  • DNA Probes [M0023617]
    Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
  • DNA Probes, HLA [M0023621]
    DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).
  • DNA Probes, HPV [M0023628]
    DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.
  • DNA, Antisense [M0025051]
    DNA that is complementary to the sense strand. (The sense strand has the same sequence as the mRNA transcript. The antisense strand is the template for mRNA synthesis.) Synthetic antisense DNAs are used to hybridize to complementary sequences in target RNAs or DNAs to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
  • DNA, Complementary [M0027268]
    Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
  • Doxepin Hydrochloride [M0330406]
  • Dyes [M0006903]
    Coloring agents that are soluble, in contrast to pigments that are particulate. Dyes can also be used as therapeutic agents and test reagents in medicine and scientific research.
  • E-Z-CAT [M0369258]
  • Edetate Disodium Calcium [M0007061]
  • Edetates [M0007075]
  • Edetic Acid [M0007067]
    A chelating agent (CHELATING AGENTS) that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
  • Edetic Acid, Calcium Salt [M0330427]
  • Edetic Acid, Calcium, Sodium Salt [M0330426]
  • Edetic Acid, Chromium Salt [M0330421]
  • Edetic Acid, Dipotassium Salt [M0330419]
  • Edetic Acid, Disodium Salt [M0330416]
  • Edetic Acid, Disodium Salt, Dihydrate [M0330423]
  • Edetic Acid, Disodium, Monopotassium Salt [M0330420]
  • Edetic Acid, Magnesium Salt [M0330417]
  • Edetic Acid, Monopotassium Salt [M0330422]
  • Edetic Acid, Monosodium Salt [M0330418]
  • Edetic Acid, Potassium Salt [M0330424]
  • Edetic Acid, Sodium Salt [M0330425]
  • Egtazic Acid [M0007133]
    A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
  • Egtazic Acid Disodium Salt [M0330429]
  • Egtazic Acid Potassium Salt [M0330430]
  • Egtazic Acid Sodium Salt [M0330428]
  • Endocistobil [M0011646]
  • Endographin [M0011647]
  • Enzymes, Immobilized [M0007530]
    Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
  • Eosin (yellowish) (free acid) [M0331221]
  • Eosine I Bluish [M0016617]
    A red fluorescein dye used as a histologic stain. It may be cytotoxic, mutagenic, and inhibit certain mitochondrial functions.
  • Eosine I Bluish, Dipotassium Salt [M0329840]
  • Eosine Yellowish-(YS) [M0007531]
    A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.
  • Eosine Yellowish-(YS), Dipotassium Salt [M0331222]
  • Eosine Yellowish-(YS), Potassium, Sodium Salt [M0331220]
  • epsilon-ATP [M0007825]
  • Erythrosine [M0007727]
    A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.
  • Esculin [M0007736]
  • Ethenoadenosine Triphosphate [M0007826]
    1,N-6-Ethenoadenosine triphosphate. A fluorescent analog of adenosine triphosphate.
  • Ethiodan [M0351855]
  • Ethiodized Oil [M0007866]
    Ethyl ester of iodinated fatty acid of poppyseed oil. It contains 37% organically bound iodine and has been used as a diagnostic aid (radiopaque medium) and as an antineoplastic agent when part of the iodine is 131-I. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • Ethiodized Poppy Seed Oil [M0330362]
  • Ethiodol [M0372412]
  • Ethoxyquin [M0007889]
    Antioxidant; also a post-harvest dip to prevent scald on apples and pears.
  • Ethyldimethylaminopropyl Carbodiimide [M0007898]
    Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.
  • Ethylene Dichlorides [M0007900]
    Toxic, chlorinated, saturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. The latter is considerably more toxic. It has a sweet taste, ethereal odor and has been used as a fumigant and intoxicant among sniffers. Has many household and industrial uses.
  • Ethylmaleimide [M0007908]
    A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
  • Evans Blue [M0007985]
    An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.
  • Expressed Sequence Tags [M0029900]
    Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
  • Exypaque [M0351689]
  • FD & C Red No. 2 [M0350864]
  • FD & C Yellow No. 5 [M0351383]
  • FD&C Blue No. 2 [M0353725]
  • Ferrihorseradish Peroxidase [M0010546]
  • Ferrosoferric Oxide [M0091115]
    Iron oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism. The NANOPARTICLES; and MICROSPHERES of its mineral form, magnetite, have many biomedical applications.
  • Ferrozine [M0008360]
    A ferroin compound that forms a stable magenta-colored solution with the ferrous ion. The complex has an absorption peak at 562 nm and is used as a reagent and indicator for iron.
  • Ferrozine, Monosodium Salt [M0330382]
  • Ferrozine, Monosodium Salt, Monohydrate [M0330381]
  • Ferumoxytol [M0468340]
  • Ficoll [M0008461]
    A sucrose polymer of high molecular weight.
  • Fixatives [M0008528]
    Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.
  • Fluor-I-Strip A.T. [M0478616]
  • Fluorescamine [M0008598]
    A nonfluorescent reagent for the detection of primary amines, peptides and proteins. The reaction products are highly fluorescent.
  • Fluorescein [M0029368]
    A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium, such as the aqueous humor, and is used therapeutically as a diagnostic aid in corneal injuries and corneal trauma. It has been approved by FDA for use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics. (From Merck Index, 12th ed; American Medical Association Drug Evaluations; 1995, p2275)
  • Fluorescein (5 or 6)-Isothiocyanate [M0329381]
  • Fluorescein Dipotassium Salt [M0329116]
  • Fluorescein Monosodium Salt [M0329114]
  • Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate [M0025373]
    Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
  • Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate Hydrochloride [M0329382]
  • Fluoresceins [M0008602]
    A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
  • Fluorescent Dyes [M0008609]
    Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
  • Fluorescent Probes [M0008610]
  • Fluorescite [M0478614]
  • Fluorets [M0478617]
  • Fluorochromes [M0008611]
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 [M0029360]
    The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
  • Fluorogenic Substrate [M0008612]
  • Fluram [M0350965]
  • Formazans [M0008759]
    Colored azo compounds formed by the reduction of tetrazolium salts. Employing this reaction, oxidoreductase activity can be determined quantitatively in tissue sections by allowing the enzymes to act on their specific substrates in the presence of tetrazolium salts.
  • Ful-Glo [M0478618]
  • Funduscein [M0350972]
  • Fura-2 [M0024836]
    A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in many tissues. The fluorescent and chelating properties of Fura-2 aid in the quantitation of endothelial cell injury, in monitoring ATP-dependent calcium uptake by membrane vesicles, and in the determination of the relationship between cytoplasmic free calcium and oxidase activation in rat neutrophils.
  • Furaldehyde [M0008897]
  • Gadolinium DTPA [M0029353]
    A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
  • Gadolinium DTPA Disodium Salt [M0329086]
  • Gadopentetate Dimeglumine [M0329085]
  • Galactose [M0008938]
    An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
  • Gallic Acid [M0008960]
    A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.
  • Gallium EDTA [M0007069]
  • Gastrograffin [M0352441]
  • Gastromiro [M0353502]
  • Gastrotrast [M0373166]
  • Gene Library [M0024110]
    A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
  • Gene Probes, DNA [M0023618]
  • Genomic Library [M0024081]
    A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
  • Gentian Violet [M0009174]
    A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
  • Giemsa Stain [M0002093]
  • Giemsa-11 [M0002094]
  • Glucuronidase [M0009366]
  • Gludesin [M0350825]
  • Glutaral [M0009386]
    One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
  • Glutarol [M0483114]
  • Gold Colloid, Radioactive [M0009523]
    A suspension of radioactive gold particles emitting negative beta particles and gamma irradiation. It was formerly used for liver scans and irradiation treatment of some metastatic malignancies.
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins [M0198398]
    Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
  • Guaiac [M0009667]
    Resin from wood of certain species of GUAIACUM. It is used as clinical reagent for occult blood.
  • Hematoxylin [M0010064]
    A dye obtained from the heartwood of logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum Linn., Leguminosae) used as a stain in microscopy and in the manufacture of ink.
  • Hepatolite [M0351986]
  • HEPES [M0010239]
    A dipolar ionic buffer.
  • HEPES Monosodium Salt [M0330240]
  • Hexabrix [M0351942]
  • HLA-A DNA Probes [M0023622]
  • HLA-B DNA Probes [M0023623]
  • HLA-C DNA Probes [M0023624]
  • HLA-D DNA Probes [M0023625]
  • HLA-DR DNA Probes [M0023626]
  • HLA-Dw DNA Probes [M0023627]
  • Hoechst 33258 [M0353558]
  • Horseradish Peroxidase [M0010547]
    An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
  • Horseradish Peroxidase II [M0010548]
  • Horseradish Peroxidase III [M0010549]
  • Hydrochloric Acid [M0010701]
    A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
  • Hydrogen Peroxide [M0010718]
    A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
  • Hydrogen Sulfide [M0010721]
    A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • Hydroxymercuribenzoates [M0010771]
    Hydroxylated benzoic acid derivatives that contain mercury. Some of these are used as sulfhydryl reagents in biochemical studies.
  • Hymecromone [M0010801]
    A coumarin derivative possessing properties as a spasmolytic, choleretic and light-protective agent. It is also used in analytical chemistry for the determination of nitric acid.
  • Hypaque [M0351681]
  • Hypaque 50 [M0006222]
  • Ibotenic Acid [M0010964]
    A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
  • Imidoesters [M0011052]
    Esters of the hypothetical imidic acids. They react with amines or amino acids to form amidines and are therefore used to modify protein structures and as cross-linking agents.
  • Immunosorbents [M0011169]
    An insoluble support for an ANTIGEN or ANTIBODIES that is used in AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY to adsorb the homologous antibody or antigen from a mixture. Many different substances are used, among them SEPHAROSE; GLUTARALDEHYDE; copolymers of ANHYDRIDES; polyacrylamides, etc.
  • In-Transferrin [M0021804]
  • Indicators [M0011225]
  • Indicators and Reagents [M0011226]
    Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
  • Indigo Blue [M0011228]
  • Indigotindisulfonate Sodium [M0011229]
    An indolesulfonic acid that is used as a dye in renal function testing and as a reagent for the detection of nitrates and chlorates and in the testing of milk.
  • Indium-DTPA [M0006867]
  • Indocyanine Green [M0011235]
    A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
  • Intercalating Agents [M0011483]
    Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
  • Inulin [M0011618]
    A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
  • Iobenguane (131I) [M0029375]
  • Iodamide [M0011626]
    An ionic monomeric contrast medium. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
  • Iodamide Sodium [M0011627]
  • Iodine-123-IMP [M0363210]
  • Iodipamide [M0011648]
    A water-soluble radiographic contrast media for cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography.
  • Iodized Oil [M0011649]
    The mixture contains 38-42% organically combined iodine that is used as a diagnostic aid (radiopaque medium). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • Iodoacetamide [M0011650]
    An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.
  • Iodoacetic Acid [M0029399]
    Iodoacetic acid and its salts and derivatives. Iodoacetic acid reacts with cysteine (-SH) groups to form a carboxymethylated protein and is used as an enzyme inhibitor in biochemical research.
  • Iodocyanopindolol [M0029860]
    A highly selective and specific beta antagonist that is used to characterize beta-adrenoceptors.
  • Iodohippuric Acid [M0011662]
    An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.
  • Iodomiron [M0351684]
  • Iodopyracet [M0011668]
    An ionic monomeric contrast medium that was formerly used for a variety of diagnostic procedures. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
  • Iodopyridones [M0011669]
    Iodinated pyridine derivatives that are often used as contrast media.
  • Iodothalamate [M0011686]
  • Iofetamine [M0030006]
    An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.
  • Iofetamine Hydrochloride, I-123 [M0030007]
  • Ioglunide [M0351854]
  • Ioglycamic Acid [M0011671]
    A radiopaque medium. It is a mixture of its meglumine and sodium salts and is used to visualize the biliary tract.
  • Ioglycamide [M0011672]
  • Iohexol [M0011673]
    An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.
  • Ion Exchange Resins [M0011676]
    High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.
  • Iopagnost [M0351850]
  • Iopamidol [M0011680]
    A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.
  • Iopamidol, (+-)-Isomer [M0330178]
  • Iopamidol, (R)-Isomer [M0330181]
  • Iopamidol, Sodium Salt, (S)-Isomer [M0330180]
  • Iopamiro [M0353501]
  • Iopanoic Acid [M0011683]
    Radiopaque medium used as diagnostic aid.
  • Iophendylate [M0011684]
    A mixture of isomers used as contrast medium, mainly for brain and spinal cord visualization.
  • Iothalamate [M0011687]
  • Iothalamate Meglumine [M0011685]
    A radiopaque medium used for urography, angiography, venography, and myelography. It is highly viscous and binds to plasma proteins.
  • Iothalamic Acid [M0011688]
    A contrast medium in diagnostic radiology with properties similar to those of diatrizoic acid. It is used primarily as its sodium and meglumine (IOTHALAMATE MEGLUMINE) salts.
  • Iothalamic Acid, Calcium (2:1) Salt [M0330183]
  • Iothalamic Acid, Monosilver (1+) Salt [M0330185]
  • Iothalamic Acid, Monosodium Salt, Dimer [M0330184]
  • Ioxaglate [M0011691]
  • Ioxaglate Meglumine [M0011694]
  • Ioxaglate Sodium [M0011695]
  • Ioxaglic Acid [M0011693]
    A low-osmolar, ionic contrast medium used in various radiographic procedures.
  • Ioxaglic Acid, Calcium Salt (2:1) [M0330187]
  • Ioxeol [M0350709]
  • Ipodate [M0011700]
    Ionic monomeric contrast media. Usually the sodium or calcium salts are used for examination of the gall bladder and biliary tract. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p704)
  • Ipodate Sodium [M0011701]
  • Iron Chelating Agents [M0011721]
    Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
  • Isatin [M0011733]
    An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
  • Isethionic Acid [M0011736]
    A colorless, syrupy, strongly acidic liquid that can form detergents with oleic acid.
  • Isethionic Acid Monoammonium Salt [M0330190]
  • Isethionic Acid Monopotassium Salt [M0330188]
  • Isethionic Acid Monosodium Salt [M0330189]
  • Isopaque [M0013691]
  • Isovue [M0353500]
  • Isovue 370 [M0011681]
  • Jodopax [M0000147]
  • Khinozol [M0353877]
  • Korsolex [M0483115]
  • L-Sorbose [M0020171]
  • Lamprene [M0004580]
  • Leioderm [M0473945]
  • Lepromin [M0012359]
  • Lipiodol [M0330177]
  • Lipiodol UltraFluid [M0369425]
  • Liquoid [M0351832]
  • Lissamine Green Dyes [M0012612]
    Green dyes containing ammonium and aryl sulfonate moieties that facilitate the visualization of tissues, if given intravenously. They have mostly been used in the study of kidney physiology.
  • Lopamidol [M0351695]
  • Low-Serum Media [M0025706]
  • Luciferases [M0012720]
    Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
  • Luciferases, Bacterial [M0464574]
    Luciferases from BACTERIA such as PHOTOBACTERIUM; VIBRIO; and PHOTORHABDUS.
  • Luciferases, Firefly [M0464338]
    Luciferases from FIREFLIES, usually Photinus, that oxidizes FIREFLY LUCIFERIN to cause emission of PHOTONS.
  • Luciferases, Photobacterium [M0464575]
  • Luciferases, Photorhabdus [M0464577]
  • Luciferases, Renilla [M0464339]
    Luciferases from RENILLA that oxidizes certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to cause emission of PHOTONS.
  • Luciferases, Vibrio [M0464576]
  • Luminescent Agents [M0464330]
    Compound such as LUMINESCENT PROTEINS that cause or emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE).
  • Luminol [M0012737]
    5-Amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione. Substance that emits light on oxidation. It is used in chemical determinations.
  • Lymphoszint [M0373248]
  • Magnesium Disodium EDTA [M0362591]
  • Magnesium-EGTA [M0007134]
  • Magnetite [M0364521]
    Mineral form of iron oxide and a member of the spinel group, whose members are characterized by high hardness and high density.
  • Magnevist [M0351277]
  • Magnograf [M0482973]
  • Maiodil [M0351853]
  • Maleic Anhydride [M0012925]
  • Maleic Anhydrides [M0012926]
    Used in copolymerization reactions, in the Diels-Alder(diene)synthesis, in the preparation of resins, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. It is a powerful irritant and causes burns.
  • Mannich Bases [M0012994]
    Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.
  • Mercuribenzoates [M0013446]
    Mercury-containing benzoic acid derivatives.
  • Mercuval [M0485229]
  • Methacholine [M0024755]
  • Methacholine Chloride [M0024753]
    A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
  • Methocel [M0013621]
  • Methyl Green [M0013612]
    A tri-benzene-ammonium usually compounded with zinc chloride. It is used as a biological stain and for the dyeing and printing of textiles.
  • Methylcellulose [M0013620]
    Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
  • Methylene Blue [M0013629]
    A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
  • Methylphenazonium Methosulfate [M0013659]
    Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.
  • Metopirone [M0013713]
  • Metrizamide [M0013690]
    A solute for density gradient centrifugation offering higher maximum solution density without the problems of increased viscosity. It is also used as a resorbable, non-ionic contrast medium.
  • Metrizoate [M0013692]
    A diagnostic radiopaque that usually occurs as the sodium salt.
  • Metrizoate Sodium [M0013694]
  • Metyrapone [M0013712]
    An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.
  • Micropaque Oral [M0002182]
  • Minims Fluorescein Sodium [M0478619]
  • Minims Stains [M0478620]
  • Mn-Dtpa [M0006868]
  • Molecular Probes [M0023609]
    A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
  • Monomethylhydrazine [M0014034]
    Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.
  • Murexide [M0014215]
    5,5'-Nitrilodibarbituric acid ammonium derivative. Used as an indicator for complexometric titrations.
  • Mykocert [M0432589]
  • N-alpha-Benzoyl-DL-arginine-4-nitroanilide [M0002378]
  • Naniprus [M0014917]
  • NCL-6 [M0351200]
  • Nephrotest [M0015717]
  • Neutral Red [M0014778]
    A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.
  • Ninhydrin [M0014862]
    2,2-Dihydroxy-1H-indene-1,3-(2H)-dione. Reagent toxic to skin and mucus membranes. It is used in chemical assay for peptide bonds, i.e., protein determinations and has radiosensitizing properties.
  • Niopam [M0353499]
  • Nipruton [M0369486]
  • Nitrilotriacetic Acid [M0014881]
    A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)
  • Nitroblue Tetrazolium [M0014891]
    Colorless to yellow dye that is reducible to blue or black formazan crystals by certain cells; formerly used to distinguish between nonbacterial and bacterial diseases, the latter causing neutrophils to reduce the dye; used to confirm diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.
  • Nitroprusside [M0014916]
    A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
  • Nitroprusside, Disodium Salt, Dihydrate [M0329966]
  • Norleucine [M0014987]
    An unnatural amino acid that is used experimentally to study protein structure and function. It is structurally similar to METHIONINE, however it does not contain SULFUR.
  • Norleucine, L-Isomer [M0329988]
  • Novaruca [M0483116]
  • NP-59 [M0351201]
  • NSC-322921 [M0353557]
  • Nucleic Acid Probes [M0023614]
    Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
  • Nycodenz [M0351688]
  • o-Phthalaldehyde [M0015158]
    A reagent that forms fluorescent conjugation products with primary amines. It is used for the detection of many biogenic amines, peptides, and proteins in nanogram quantities in body fluids.
  • Odiston [M0351683]
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotide Probes [M0023629]
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense [M0029969]
    Short fragments of DNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
  • Oligonucleotide Probes [M0023630]
    Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense [M0025055]
    Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
  • Oligoribonucleotide Probes [M0023631]
  • Oligoribonucleotides, Antisense [M0029970]
    Short fragments of RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
  • Olivomycins [M0015286]
    A mixture of several closely related glycosidic antibiotics obtained from Actinomyces (or Streptomyces) olivoreticuli. They are used as fluorescent dyes that bind to DNA and prevent both RNA and protein synthesis and are also used as antineoplastic agents.
  • Omnipaque [M0351687]
  • Optifluor Diba [M0478621]
  • Oxalic Acid [M0029413]
    A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.
  • Oxydol [M0384294]
  • Oxyquinoline [M0023266]
    An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.
  • Oxyquinoline Potassium Sulfate (2:1) [M0329510]
  • Oxyquinoline Sulfate [M0329511]
  • P-286 (Contrast Media) [M0351941]
  • p-Aminoazobenzene [M0015713]
    Used in the form of its salts as a dye and as an intermediate in manufacture of Acid Yellow, diazo dyes, and indulines.
  • p-Aminohippurate [M0015719]
  • p-Aminohippuric Acid [M0015718]
    The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.
  • p-Chloromercuribenzoic Acid [M0029907]
    An organic mercurial used as a sulfhydryl reagent.
  • Panthopaque [M0351852]
  • Peanut Agglutinin [M0029528]
    Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
  • Pentacine [M0006864]
  • Pentetic Acid [M0006866]
    An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
  • Peptide Library [M0028555]
    A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
  • Peptones [M0016245]
    Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Perchloric Acid [M0016261]
    An oxidizing agent that is used in analytical chemistry for separation of potassium from sodium. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • Perhydrol [M0010719]
  • Periodic Acid [M0016317]
    A strong oxidizing agent.
  • Pertechnetate Sodium [M0418362]
  • Phage Display Peptide Library [M0335875]
  • Phenolphthalein [M0029852]
    An acid-base indicator which is colorless in acid solution, but turns pink to red as the solution becomes alkaline. It is used medicinally as a cathartic.
  • Phenolphthaleins [M0016519]
    A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
  • Phenolsulfonphthalein [M0016521]
    Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.
  • Phenylglyoxal [M0016564]
    A reagent that is highly selective for the modification of arginyl residues. It is used to selectively inhibit various enzymes and acts as an energy transfer inhibitor in photophosphorylation.
  • Phenylmethylamine [M0002393]
  • Phenylthiourea [M0016577]
  • Phloroglucinol [M0016616]
    1,3,5-Benzenetriol. A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.
  • Phosphorescent Agents [M0464331]
  • Phosphoserine [M0016735]
    The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
  • Phosphothreonine [M0016736]
    The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
  • Phosphotungstic Acid [M0016739]
    Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • Photoaffinity Labels [M0029595]
    Biologically active molecules which are covalently bound to the enzymes or binding proteins normally acting on them. Binding occurs due to activation of the label by ultraviolet light. These labels are used primarily to identify binding sites on proteins.
  • Phytate [M0016822]
  • Phytic Acid [M0016819]
    Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
  • Phytin [M0016820]
  • Phytohemagglutinins [M0016824]
    Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
  • Pickling Agents [M0008529]
  • Picrylsulfonic Acid [M0022003]
  • Pigments, Inorganic [M0481617]
    Coloring agents that are INORGANIC CHEMICALS.
  • Plicamycin [M0013935]
    A tricyclic pentaglycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces strains that inhibits RNA and protein synthesis by adhering to DNA. It is used as a fluorescent dye and as an antineoplastic agent, especially in bone and testicular tumors. Plicamycin is also used to reduce hypercalcemia, especially that due to malignancies.
  • Polognost [M0351849]
  • Polyanetholesulfonate [M0017153]
    A compound originally developed as an anticoagulant, but possessing anticomplement action and lowering the bactericidal action of blood. It is used in vitro to inhibit blood coagulation and as a diagnostic reagent to encourage the growth of pathogens in the blood. It is also used to stabilize colloidal solutions such as milk and gelatin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • Polyanetholesulfonate Homopolymer [M0329742]
  • Polyethyleneimine [M0017185]
    Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
  • Polymethacrylic Acids [M0017209]
    Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
  • Potassium Permanganate [M0017385]
    Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)
  • PPD-B [M0022098]
  • PPD-CG [M0022099]
  • PPD-F [M0022100]
  • PPD-L [M0022101]
  • Prodigiosin [M0017640]
    4-Methoxy-5-((5-methyl-4-pentyl-2H-pyrrol-2-ylidene)methyl)- 2,2'-bi-1H-pyrrole. A toxic, bright red tripyrrole pigment from Serratia marcescens and others. It has antibacterial, anticoccidial, antimalarial, and antifungal activities, but is used mainly as a biochemical tool.
  • Propidium [M0017755]
    Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.
  • Propidium Iodide [M0017756]
  • Propyl Gallate [M0017779]
    Antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils.
  • Propylbenzilylcholine Mustard [M0017782]
    An analog of benzilylcholine mustard. It is an alkylating nitrogen mustard analog that binds specifically and irreversibly to cholinergic muscarinic receptors and is used as an affinity label to isolate and study the receptors.
  • Propyliodone [M0017783]
    Radiopaque medium usually in oil; used in bronchography.
  • Provocholine [M0351161]
  • Pulsar [M0357370]
  • Purified Protein Derivative of Tuberculin [M0022102]
  • Pyroglutamate [M0018281]
  • Pyronine [M0018273]
    Xanthene dye used as a bacterial and biological stain. Synonyms: Pyronin; Pyronine G; Pyronine Y. Use also for Pyronine B. which is diethyl-rather than dimethylamino-.
  • Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid [M0018279]
    A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
  • Pyruvaldehyde [M0018286]
    An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.
  • Quantum Dots [M0449016]
    Nanometer sized fragments (the dots) of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They are brighter and more persistent than organic chemical INDICATORS. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY.
  • Quinacrine Mustard [M0018334]
    Nitrogen mustard analog of quinacrine used primarily as a stain in the studies of chromosomes and chromatin. Fluoresces by reaction with nucleic acids in chromosomes.
  • Quinosol [M0023267]
  • Quinuclidinyl Benzilate [M0018360]
    A high-affinity muscarinic antagonist commonly used as a tool in animal and tissue studies.
  • Radio-Hippuran [M0011663]
  • Radioactive Tracers [M0018403]
    Radioactive substances added in minute amounts to the reacting elements or compounds in a chemical process and traced through the process by appropriate detection methods, e.g., Geiger counter. Compounds containing tracers are often said to be tagged or labeled. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
  • Radiopharmaceuticals [M0028704]
    Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
  • Random Peptide Library [M0028554]
  • Reagent Kits, Diagnostic [M0018544]
    Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
  • Reagent Strips [M0018545]
    Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Reagents [M0011227]
  • Reducing Agents [M0028569]
    Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
  • Reference Standards [M0018672]
    A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
  • Reno 60 [M0350708]
  • Reno M-Dip [M0350707]
  • Renografin [M0350706]
  • Renografin M-76 [M0350705]
  • Rhodamine [M0019039]
  • Rhodamine 123 [M0029850]
    A fluorescent probe with low toxicity which is a potent substrate for P-glycoprotein and the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter. It is used to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in living cells and to measure the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein in both normal and malignant cells. (Leukemia 1997;11(7):1124-30)
  • Rhodamines [M0019038]
    A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
  • Rhodanine [M0019040]
  • RNA Probes [M0023632]
    RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
  • RNA, Antisense [M0025050]
    RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
  • RNA, Complementary [M0027266]
    Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
  • RNA, Guide [M0026408]
    Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
  • Ro-1-7977 [M0363599]
  • Rose Bengal [M0019269]
    A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.
  • Rose Bengal Sodium I 125 [M0019270]
  • Rose Bengal Sodium I 131 [M0019271]
  • Ruthenium Red [M0019315]
    An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
  • S-Butyrylthiocholine Iodide [M0003117]
  • Salpix [M0000148]
  • Santoquin [M0362111]
  • Sekumatic [M0483117]
  • Selenomethionine [M0019607]
    Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.
  • Selenomethionine Hydrochloride, (S)-Isomer [M0329716]
  • Selenomethionine Se 75 [M0019606]
  • Selenomethionine, (+,-)-Isomer [M0329714]
  • Selenomethionine, (R)-Isomer [M0329713]
  • Selenomethionine, (S)-Isomer [M0329715]
  • Semiconductor Nanocrystals [M0497540]
  • Semiconductor Nanoparticles [M0496325]
  • Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated [M0019695]
    Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • Sethotope [M0352159]
  • Sinografin [M0006225]
  • Sn-DTPA [M0006870]
  • Sodium 2,6-Dichloroindophenol [M0023205]
  • Sodium Azide [M0029403]
    A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
  • Sodium Chloride, (22)Na [M0020095]
  • Sodium Chloride, (24)NaCl [M0329727]
  • Sodium Cyanide [M0020096]
    A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
  • Sodium Diatrizoate [M0006220]
  • Sodium Iodide [M0020110]
    A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.
  • Sodium Iodohippurate [M0011664]
  • Sodium Iothalamate [M0330182]
  • Sodium Isethionate [M0011737]
  • Sodium Methoxide [M0000656]
  • Sodium Nitroprusside [M0329967]
  • Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m [M0021100]
    A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.
  • Sodium Phytate [M0016821]
  • Sodium Polyanetholesulfonate [M0017152]
  • Sodium Tyropanoate [M0353576]
  • Sodium-Magnesium Diatrizoate [M0006221]
  • Solu-Biloptin [M0011702]
  • Solutrast [M0353498]
  • Solutrast 370 [M0011682]
  • Solutrast Gastro [M0353497]
  • Solvents [M0020141]
    Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
  • Sonacide [M0350824]
  • Spin Labels [M0020307]
    Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
  • Sporicidin [M0350823]
  • SQ 13,396 [M0353496]
  • Squalene [M0020400]
  • Stains [M0006904]
  • Standard Preparations [M0018673]
  • Stannous EDTA [M0007071]
  • Stannous Polyphosphates [M0021557]
  • Stannous Pyrophosphates [M0021558]
  • Staphylococcal Protein A [M0020425]
    A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
  • Streptavidin [M0029402]
    A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
  • SU 4885 [M0373555]
  • Succicaptal [M0475787]
  • Succimer [M0006442]
    A mercaptodicarboxylic acid used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning because it forms strong chelates with them.
  • Succimer Antimony Sodium Salt, (R*,S*)-Isomer [M0330449]
  • Succimer, (R*,R*)-(+,-)-Isomer [M0330555]
  • Succimer, Dipotassium Salt [M0330452]
  • Succimer, Disodium Salt [M0330448]
  • Succimer, Monosodium Salt [M0330450]
  • Succimer, Rhenium Salt [M0330451]
  • Succimer, Tin Salt [M0330453]
  • Sulfhydryl Compound Antagonists [M0020770]
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds Inhibitors [M0020771]
  • Sulfhydryl Reagents [M0020769]
    Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.
  • Sulfobromophthalein [M0020785]
    A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
  • Sulfobromophthalein Sodium [M0361430]
  • Sulfonphthal [M0352333]
  • Sulphental [M0352332]
  • Superol [M0473946]
  • Superoxol [M0010720]
  • Synthetic Peptide Combinatorial Library [M0028552]
  • Synthetic Peptide Library [M0028553]
  • Tartrazine [M0021053]
    An anionic, hydrophilic azo dye with an orange-yellow color used in fabrics, foods and cosmetics, and as a biological stain.
  • Tartrazine Barium [M0329629]
  • Tartrazine Barium (2:3) [M0329630]
  • Tc 99m-Albumin [M0021096]
  • TechneScan MAG3 [M0352121]
  • Technetium Methylene Diphosphonate [M0021099]
  • Technetium Pentetic Acid [M0024892]
  • Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin [M0021095]
    A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.
  • Technetium Tc 99m Diethyl-iminodiacetic Acid [M0029351]
    A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.
  • Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid [M0029349]
    A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the diagnostic imaging of the renal cortex.
  • Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin [M0029352]
    A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)
  • Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime [M0029240]
    A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and myocardial imaging. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of inflammatory bowel diseases.
  • Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin [M0029344]
    A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans. (J Nucl Med 1977;18(10):997-1004)
  • Technetium Tc 99m Medronate [M0021098]
    A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
  • Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide [M0026202]
    A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.
  • Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate [M0024893]
    A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
  • Technetium Tc 99m Pertechnetate [M0021106]
  • Technetium Tc 99m Pyrophosphate [M0025434]
    A radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in scintigraphy or tomography of the heart to evaluate the extent of the necrotic myocardial process. It has also been used in noninvasive tests for the distribution of organ involvement in different types of amyloidosis and for the evaluation of muscle necrosis in the extremities.
  • Technetium Tc 99m Pyrophosphate, Tc(3+) Salt (3:4) [M0329403]
  • Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi [M0026183]
    A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.
  • Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi Chloride [M0329349]
  • Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid [M0021107]
    A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
  • Telepaque [M0351848]
  • Tempone [M0351797]
  • tert-Butylhydroperoxide [M0029862]
    A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
  • Tetrabromsulphthalein [M0020788]
  • Tetracemate [M0007076]
  • Tetraiodofluorescein [M0007728]
  • Tetramethyl Acridine Diamine [M0330707]
  • Tetramethylphenylenediamine [M0021244]
    Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in analytical chemistry.
  • Tetranitromethane [M0021247]
    Corrosive oxidant, explosive; additive to diesel and rocket fuels; causes skin and lung irritation; proposed war gas. A useful reagent for studying the modification of specific amino acids, particularly tyrosine residues in proteins. Has also been used for studying carbanion formation and for detecting the presence of double bonds in organic compounds.
  • Tetraphenylborate [M0021249]
    An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.
  • Tetraphenylborate, Ammonium Salt [M0329648]
  • Tetraphenylborate, Barium Salt (2:1) [M0329649]
  • Tetraphenylborate, Potassium Salt [M0329650]
  • Tetraphenylboron Sodium [M0021248]
  • Tetrasodium EGTA [M0007135]
  • Tetrazolium Salts [M0021254]
    Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances [M0026406]
    Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
  • Thiocholine [M0021350]
    (2-Mercaptoethyl)trimethylammonium. A reagent for the determination of cholinesterases; acts also as a highly selective nerve stain.
  • Thiourea [M0021386]
    A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
  • Thymolphthalein [M0021458]
    Used as a pH indicator and as a reagent for blood after decolorizing the alkaline solution by boiling with zinc dust.
  • Tillmans' Reagent [M0023204]
  • Tin Polyphosphates [M0021556]
    Poly or pyrophosphates of tin. In conjunction with radioactive technetium these compounds are used as bone-scanning agents and in scintigraphy to diagnose myocardial and cerebral infarction.
  • Tin Pyrophosphates [M0021559]
  • Tiron [M0021572]
    A colorimetric reagent for iron, manganese, titanium, molybdenum, and complexes of zirconium. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • Tiron, Iron(3+) Salt [M0331206]
  • Tissue Stains [M0006905]
  • Tomatine [M0021644]
    An alkaloid that occurs in the extract of leaves of wild tomato plants. It has been found to inhibit the growth of various fungi and bacteria. It is used as a precipitating agent for steroids. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • Tosylarginine Methyl Ester [M0021713]
    Arginine derivative which is a substrate for many proteolytic enzymes. As a substrate for the esterase from the first component of complement, it inhibits the action of C(l) on C(4).
  • Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl [M0021889]
    Cyclic N-oxide radical functioning as a spin label and radiation-sensitizing agent.
  • Triethylenetetramine [M0021952]
    Used as stabilizer for epoxy resins, as ampholyte for isoelectric focusing and as chelating agent for copper in hepatolenticular degeneration; may cause liver damage.
  • Trifluoroacetic Acid [M0021957]
    A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.
  • Triiotrast [M0000149]
  • Trinitrobenzene Sulfonate [M0022004]
  • Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid [M0022001]
    A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.
  • Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid, Sodium Salt [M0329561]
  • Triombrast [M0350704]
  • Triombrin [M0350703]
  • Triosil [M0013693]
  • Tris-Magnesium(II)-Potassium Chloride Buffer [M0088304]
  • Trizma [M0350690]
  • Tromethamine [M0022030]
    An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)
  • Trypan Blue [M0022059]
    An azo that that is used in protozoal infections.
  • Tuberculin [M0022103]
    A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
  • Tyropanoate [M0022199]
    A diagnostic aid as a radiopaque medium in cholecystography.
  • Ultrasound Contrast Agents, Microbubbles [M0449596]
    Used in contrast medium in ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
  • Unithiol [M0022297]
    A chelating agent used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning.
  • Urografin 76 [M0006226]
  • Uromiro [M0351682]
  • Uroporphyrins [M0022410]
    Porphyrins with four acetic acid and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
  • Urovist [M0350702]
  • Verografin [M0350701]
  • Versene [M0352532]
  • Vinegar [M0028792]
  • Viologens [M0022689]
    A group of dipyridinium chloride derivatives that are used as oxidation-reduction indicators. The general formula is 1,1'-di-R-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, where R = methyl, ethyl, benzyl or, betaine.
  • Visotrast 300 [M0000150]
  • Visotrast 400 [M0000151]
  • Wheat Germ Agglutinin Isolectin 1 [M0022966]
  • Wheat Germ Agglutinin Isolectin 2 [M0022967]
  • Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate [M0028372]
    The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.
  • Wheat Germ Agglutinins [M0022968]
    Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
  • Whole Chromosomal Probes [M0023619]
  • Whole Genomic DNA Probes [M0023620]
  • WIN-88512 [M0351856]
  • Xylene [M0023073]
  • Xylenes [M0023074]
    A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
  • Zinc-DTPA [M0006871]