Molecular Biology Research Technique

MeSH ID: T063

Related Concepts:

  • Alkaline Comet Assay [M0331454]
  • Amino Acid Substitution [M0029617]
    The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more amino acids in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
  • Anchored PCR [M0024635]
  • Artificial Gene Fusion [M0029209]
    The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.
  • Biolistics [M0028962]
    Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.
  • Blotting, Far-Western [M0378333]
    A method that is derived from western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) and is used to detect protein-protein interactions. The blotted proteins are probed with a non-antibody protein which can then be tagged with a labeled antibody.
  • Blotting, Northern [M0023295]
    Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
  • Blotting, Southern [M0023274]
    A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
  • Blotting, Southwestern [M0378350]
    A method that is used to detect DNA-protein interactions. Proteins are separated by electrophoresis and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane similar to Western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) but the proteins are identified when they bind labeled DNA PROBES (as with Southern blotting (BLOTTING, SOUTHERN)) instead of antibodies.
  • Blotting, Western [M0023296]
    Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
  • Branched DNA Signal Amplification Assay [M0351590]
    A molecular probe technique that utilizes branched DNA (bDNA) as a means to amplify the hybridization signal. One end of the bDNA molecule is designed to bind a specific target, while the other end of the bDNA molecule contains many branches of DNA that are designed to bind a probe used for signal detection.
  • Capillary Electrochromatography [M0496569]
    A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.
  • Chip Electrochromatography [M0496570]
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation [M0457418]
    A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
  • Chromosome Banding [M0004409]
    Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
  • Chromosome Mapping [M0004413]
    Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
  • Chromosome Painting [M0029899]
    A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.
  • Chromosome Walking [M0025064]
    A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
  • Cis Test [M0009123]
  • Cis-Trans Test [M0009124]
  • Cloning, Molecular [M0004616]
    The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
  • Comet Assay [M0328445]
    A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
  • Contig Mapping [M0030117]
    Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
  • Crosses, Genetic [M0005350]
  • Cytogenetic Analysis [M0328449]
    Examination of chromosomes to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.
  • Determination, Sequence Homology [M0025102]
  • DNA Amplification Techniques [M0351720]
  • DNA Fingerprinting [M0024686]
    A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
  • DNA Footprinting [M0028354]
    A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
  • DNA Mutational Analysis [M0006656]
    Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
  • Epitope Mapping [M0027884]
    Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
  • Gene Expression Profiling [M0328024]
    The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
  • Gene Fusion Technology [M0478676]
  • Gene Targeting [M0027617]
    The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
  • Gene Therapy [M0023583]
    The introduction of new genes into cells for the purpose of treating disease by restoring or adding gene expression. Techniques include insertion of retroviral vectors, transfection, homologous recombination, and injection of new genes into the nuclei of single cell embryos. The entire gene therapy process may consist of multiple steps. The new genes may be introduced into proliferating cells in vivo (e.g., bone marrow) or in vitro (e.g., fibroblast cultures) and the modified cells transferred to the site where the gene expression is required. Gene therapy may be particularly useful for treating enzyme deficiency diseases, hemoglobinopathies, and leukemias and may also prove useful in restoring drug sensitivity, particularly for leukemia.
  • Genetic Complementation Test [M0009122]
    A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
  • Genetic Engineering [M0009126]
    Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
  • Genetic Enhancement [M0009127]
    The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.
  • Genetic Fingerprinting [M0024688]
  • Heteroduplex Analysis [M0029895]
    A method of detecting gene mutation by mixing PCR-amplified mutant and wild-type DNA followed by denaturation and reannealing. The resultant products are resolved by gel electrophoresis, with single base substitutions detectable under optimal electrophoretic conditions and gel formulations. Large base pair mismatches may also be analyzed by using electron microscopy to visualize heteroduplex regions.
  • Heterozygote Detection [M0010304]
    Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.
  • In Situ Hybridization [M0026417]
    A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence [M0026418]
    A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
  • In Situ Nick-End Labeling [M0029936]
    An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
  • Insertional Activation [M0024824]
  • Inverse PCR [M0024636]
  • Karyotyping [M0011931]
    Mapping of the full chromosome set of the nucleus of a cell. The chromosome characteristics of an individual or a cell line are usually presented as a systematized array of metaphase chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single cell nucleus arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the centromere. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Ligase Chain Reaction [M0358403]
    A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.
  • Linker-Insertion Mutagenesis [M0024825]
  • Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression [M0351377]
  • Micronucleus Tests [M0023303]
    Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.
  • Molecular Diagnostic Techniques [M0373927]
    MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease. Included are such techniques as IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION of chromosomes for CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS; OLIGONUCLEOTIDE ARRAY SEQUENCE ANALYSIS of gene expression patterns in disease states; identification of pathogenic organisms by analysis of species specific DNA sequences; and detection of mutations with POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION.
  • Molecular Diagnostic Testing [M0331484]
  • mRNA Differential Display [M0352576]
    Analysis of differentially expressed RNA transcripts from different tissues, cells, strains, or conditions.
  • Mutagenesis, Cassette [M0024826]
  • Mutagenesis, Insertional [M0024827]
    Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA can be inserted into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene. Insertion of the provirus can cause mutations by interrupting coding sequences or regulatory elements, or cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
  • Mutagenicity Tests [M0014272]
    Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
  • NASBA [M0373317]
  • Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction [M0024637]
  • NMR, Multinuclear [M0029569]
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular [M0029570]
    NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Heteronuclear [M0029567]
  • Nuclease Protection Assays [M0361086]
    Techniques for measuring specific nucleic acid interaction with another nucleic acid or with a protein by digestion of the non-interacting nucleic acid by various nucleases. After all non-interacting regions are eliminated by nuclease digestion, the protected nucleic acid that remains is analyzed. DNA FOOTPRINTING utilizes this technique to analyze the DNA contact sites of DNA-BINDING PROTEINS.
  • Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques [M0351699]
    Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis [M0030063]
    Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of oligonucleotide probes, which are attached to a solid support, to determine sequence or to detect variations in a gene sequence or expression or for gene mapping.
  • Oligonucleotide-Directed Gene Repair [M0486849]
  • Oligonucleotide-Directed Mutagenesis [M0024905]
  • One-Hybrid System Techniques [M0331623]
  • Physical Chromosome Mapping [M0029888]
    Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction [M0024634]
    In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
  • Primed In Situ Labeling [M0030049]
    A technique that labels specific sequences in whole chromosomes by in situ DNA chain elongation or PCR (polymerase chain reaction).
  • Protein Array Analysis [M0420089]
    Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
  • Protein Engineering [M0023358]
    Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
  • Protein Footprinting [M0361105]
    A method for determining points of contact between interacting proteins or binding sites of proteins to nucleic acids. Protein footprinting utilizes a protein cutting reagent or protease. Protein cleavage is inhibited where the proteins, or nucleic acids and protein, contact each other. After completion of the cutting reaction, the remaining peptide fragments are analyzed by electrophoresis.
  • Protein Interaction Mapping [M0376540]
    Methods for determining interaction between proteins.
  • Protein Microarray Analysis [M0420109]
  • Protein NMR Spectroscopy [M0029568]
  • Radiation Hybrid Mapping [M0351523]
    A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
  • Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique [M0028511]
    Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
  • Research Embryo Creation [M0007255]
    The creation of embryos specifically for research purposes.
  • Restriction Mapping [M0023338]
    Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
  • Reverse One-Hybrid System Techniques [M0331625]
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction [M0029872]
    A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
  • Reverse Two-Hybrid System Techniques [M0331624]
  • Ribotyping [M0353903]
    RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
  • RNA Amplification Techniques [M0351721]
  • Self-Sustained Sequence Replication [M0351785]
    An isothermal in-vitro nucleotide amplification process. The process involves the concomitant action of a RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE, a ribonuclease (RIBONUCLEASES), and DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASES to synthesize large quantities of sequence-specific RNA and DNA molecules.
  • Sequence Alignment [M0025101]
    The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
  • Sequence Analysis [M0026437]
    A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA [M0026438]
    A multistage process that includes DNA cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis.
  • Sequence Analysis, Protein [M0328074]
    A process that includes the determination of an amino acid sequence of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA [M0026439]
    A multistage process that includes RNA cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis.
  • Sequence Determination, Protein [M0331632]
  • Sequence Determinations [M0333395]
  • Sequence Determinations, DNA [M0333399]
  • Sequence Determinations, RNA [M0333402]
  • Sequencing By Hybridization [M0030066]
  • Sex Determination (Analysis) [M0019733]
    Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
  • Spectral Karyotyping [M0401303]
    The simultaneous identification of all chromosomes from a cell by fluorescence in situ hybridization (IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION, FLUORESCENCE) with chromosome-specific florescent probes that are discerned by their different emission spectra.
  • Surface Plasmon Resonance [M0029983]
    A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
  • Targeted Gene Repair [M0486848]
    A technique which uses synthetic oligonucleotides to direct the cell's inherent DNA repair system to correct a mutation at a specific site in an episome or chromosome.
  • Three-Hybrid System Techniques [M0331626]
  • Transduction, Genetic [M0021795]
    The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
  • Transfection [M0021796]
    The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
  • Transformation, Bacterial [M0021812]
    The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques [M0328080]
    Screening techniques used to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate complex interplay between proteins and other molecules.
  • Viral Insertional Mutagenesis [M0024828]