MeSH
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Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide

MeSH ID: T114

Related Concepts:

  • 15S RNA [M0019173]
  • 2',3'-Dideoxynucleosides [M0023388]
  • 2'-CMP [M0005573]
  • 2'-Deoxythymidine [M0021447]
  • 2-Chloroadenosine [M0024149]
    2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.
  • 3' Flanking Region [M0370603]
    The region of DNA which borders the 3' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.
  • 3' Untranslated Regions [M0030068]
    The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
  • 3'-CMP [M0005574]
  • 3-Deazauridine [M0023213]
    4-Hydroxy-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyridinone. Analog of uridine lacking a ring-nitrogen in the 3-position. Functions as an antineoplastic agent.
  • 5' Flanking Region [M0370598]
    The region of DNA which borders the 5' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.
  • 5' TOP mRNA [M0416550]
  • 5' Untranslated Regions [M0029861]
    The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
  • 5'-Guanylic Acid [M0009690]
    Guanosine 5'-monophosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
  • 5-Fluorouracil-biosyn [M0478644]
  • 5-FU Lederle [M0478646]
  • 5-FU medac [M0478647]
  • 5-HU Hexal [M0478645]
  • 5-Methylcytosine [M0046609]
    A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.
  • 5-Methylcytosine Monohydrochloride [M0308961]
  • 6-Mercaptopurine [M0023263]
    An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
  • 6-Mercaptopurine Monohydrate [M0329507]
  • 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate [M0023265]
    A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
  • 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, Monosodium Salt [M0329509]
  • 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, Sodium Salt [M0329508]
  • AAUAAA RNA Sequence [M0418372]
    A hexanucleotide sequence found 10-30 nucleotides upstream of the site of polyandenylation of MRNA.
  • Acetyl Coenzyme A [M0000158]
    Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
  • Aci-Sanorania [M0448396]
  • Acic [M0448395]
  • Aciclobeta [M0448401]
  • Aciclostad [M0448402]
  • Aciclovir Alonga [M0474669]
  • Acifur [M0448592]
  • Acipen Solutab [M0448595]
  • Acivir [M0451637]
  • Activir [M0448596]
  • Acyclo-V [M0449386]
  • Acyclovir [M0000326]
    A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
  • Acyclovir Sodium [M0000327]
  • Acyl Coenzyme A [M0000332]
    S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
  • Adenine [M0000347]
    A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
  • Adenine Nucleotides [M0000352]
  • Adenine Polynucleotides [M0017137]
  • Adenocard [M0372279]
  • Adenosine [M0000377]
    A nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
  • Adenosine 2'-Phosphate [M0000386]
  • Adenosine 3'-Phosphate [M0000387]
  • Adenosine 5'-Phosphate [M0392623]
  • Adenosine Diphosphate [M0000380]
    Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
  • Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose [M0000382]
    Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.
  • Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose [M0000383]
    An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
  • Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars [M0000384]
    Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.
  • Adenosine Monophosphate [M0000389]
    Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
  • Adenosine Phosphosulfate [M0000390]
    5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.
  • Adenosine Triphosphate [M0000395]
    An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
  • Adenosine Triphosphate, Calcium Salt [M0000402]
  • Adenosine Triphosphate, Chromium Ammonium Salt [M0000400]
  • Adenosine Triphosphate, Chromium Salt [M0000401]
  • Adenosine Triphosphate, Magnesium Chloride [M0000396]
  • Adenosine Triphosphate, Magnesium Salt [M0000398]
  • Adenosine Triphosphate, Manganese Salt [M0167313]
  • Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide) [M0029430]
    A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.
  • Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate [M0000416]
    5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.
  • Adrucil [M0008633]
  • Allergan 211 [M0010992]
  • Allouridine [M0022343]
  • Alternative Splice Sites [M0495714]
  • Alu Elements [M0029813]
    The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.
  • Alu-Like Repetitive Sequence [M0029814]
  • Aminonucleoside [M0018176]
  • Anchored Genomic Islands [M0444989]
  • Ancobon [M0376290]
  • Anticodon [M0001381]
    The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.
  • Antiherpes Creme [M0448594]
  • Antisense Elements (Genetics) [M0025053]
    Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.
  • Antisense Probes [M0025054]
  • Aptamers, Nucleotide [M0483498]
    Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
  • Apurinic Acid [M0001634]
    Hydrolysate of DNA in which purine bases have been removed.
  • Ara-C [M0369310]
  • Arabinofuranosylcytosine Triphosphate [M0001640]
    A triphosphate nucleotide analog which is the biologically active form of CYTARABINE. It inhibits nuclear DNA synthesis.
  • Arabinofuranosyluracil [M0001641]
    A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.
  • Arabinonucleosides [M0001642]
    Nucleosides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.
  • Arabinonucleotides [M0001643]
    Nucleotides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.
  • Aracytine [M0369309]
  • AT Rich Sequence [M0328004]
    A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of ADENINE and THYMINE bases.
  • Atriphos [M0372280]
  • Attachment Sites, Microbiological [M0001937]
    Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
  • Avirax [M0449387]
  • Azacitidine [M0002060]
    A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.
  • Azauridine [M0002068]
    A triazine nucleoside used as an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with pyrimidine biosynthesis thereby preventing formation of cellular nucleic acids. As the triacetate, it is also effective as an antipsoriatic.
  • Bacterial Attachment Sites [M0001938]
  • Bacteriocin Plasmids [M0004743]
    Plasmids encoding bacterial exotoxins (BACTERIOCINS).
  • Base Pairing [M0029736]
    Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by hydrogen bonding in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
  • Base Sequence [M0002204]
    The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
  • BCH-189 [M0028683]
  • beta-Ara C [M0369308]
  • BI-RG-587 [M0373316]
  • BIOLF-62 [M0372694]
  • Bis(5'-Nucleosidyl)Phosphates [M0023391]
  • BMY-27857 [M0372423]
  • Boundary Elements [M0414406]
  • Bromodeoxycytidine [M0002950]
    5-Bromo-2'-deoxycytidine. Can be incorporated into DNA in the presence of DNA polymerase, replacing dCTP.
  • Bromodeoxyuridine [M0002951]
    A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
  • Bromouracil [M0002954]
    5-Bromo-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Brominated derivative of uracil that acts as an antimetabolite, substituting for thymine in DNA. It is used mainly as an experimental mutagen, but its deoxyriboside (BROMODEOXYURIDINE) is used to treat neoplasms.
  • Bucladesine [M0006259]
    A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • Bucladesine, Barium (1:1) Salt [M0330529]
  • Bucladesine, Disodium Salt [M0330530]
  • Bucladesine, Monosodium Salt [M0330527]
  • Bucladesine, Sodium Salt [M0330528]
  • BW 57-323H [M0352354]
  • BW A509U [M0373894]
  • BW-759 [M0372693]
  • Carac [M0478643]
  • cDNA Library [M0332453]
  • cDNA Probes [M0027269]
  • Chromatin-Associated RNA [M0019192]
  • Chromosomal Probes [M0023615]
  • CI-825 [M0333704]
  • Cicloferon [M0450120]
  • CL-13900 [M0369375]
  • Cladribine [M0026332]
    An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.
  • Cloning Vectors [M0009135]
  • Clonorax [M0450121]
  • Co-vidarabine [M0333702]
  • CoASH [M0004711]
  • Codon [M0004703]
    A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
  • Codon, Initiator [M0027614]
    A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
  • Codon, Nonsense [M0027616]
    A codon that has been converted to the same sequence as a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by a nonsense mutation. It is different from a stop codon in that it occurs abnormally and causes premature termination of protein translation resulting in the production of truncated proteins which may be non-functional.
  • Codon, Terminator [M0027615]
    Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.
  • Codon, Unassigned [M0360670]
    A codon that is not assigned to an amino acid and is not a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR). Although they may lead to premature termination of translation, unassigned codons do not bind translation release factors (PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS), as do stop codons.
  • Coenzyme A [M0004712]
  • Coformycin [M0004720]
    A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.
  • Colicin Plasmids [M0445086]
    Plasmids encoding COLICINS.
  • Conserved Gene Probes [M0023616]
  • Cosmids [M0005231]
    Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
  • CpG Clusters [M0331726]
  • CpG Islands [M0028259]
    Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.
  • cRNA Probes [M0027267]
  • Cryptic Splice Sites [M0495715]
  • Cucumber Mosaic Virus Satellite [M0028869]
    A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.
  • Cusiviral [M0450122]
  • Cyclic ADP-Ribose [M0162860]
    A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.
  • Cyclic AMP [M0000378]
    An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
  • Cyclic AMP, (R)-Isomer [M0330722]
  • Cyclic AMP, Disodium Salt [M0330720]
  • Cyclic AMP, Monoammonium Salt [M0330721]
  • Cyclic AMP, Monopotassium Salt [M0330719]
  • Cyclic AMP, Monosodium Salt [M0330718]
  • Cyclic AMP, Sodium Salt [M0330717]
  • Cyclic CMP [M0005568]
    A cyclic nucleotide formed from CYTIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE by the action of cytidylate cyclase. It is a potential cyclic nucleotide intracellular mediator of signal transductions.
  • Cyclic CMP, Monosodium Salt [M0330602]
  • Cyclic GMP [M0009685]
    Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
  • Cyclic IMP [M0011367]
    Inosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). An inosine nucleotide which acts as a mild inhibitor of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP and as an inhibitor of cat heart cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
  • Cytarabine [M0005564]
    A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
  • Cytarabine Hydrochloride [M0005565]
  • Cytidine [M0005567]
    A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
  • Cytidine Diphosphate [M0005570]
    Cytidine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonyms: CRPP; cytidine pyrophosphate.
  • Cytidine Diphosphate Choline [M0005571]
    Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.
  • Cytidine Diphosphate Diglycerides [M0005572]
    The ester of diacylglycerol with the terminal phosphate of cytidine diphosphate. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine in bacteria.
  • Cytidine Monophosphate [M0005575]
    Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
  • Cytidine Monophosphate N-Acetylneuraminic Acid [M0005576]
    A nucleoside monophosphate sugar which donates N-acetylneuraminic acid to the terminal sugar of a ganglioside or glycoprotein.
  • Cytidine Triphosphate [M0005577]
    Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
  • Cytosar [M0005566]
  • Cytosine Nucleotides [M0005619]
  • Cytosine-Thymine Dimers [M0018255]
  • Cytovene [M0372692]
  • d(A(5)T(5))2 [M0017144]
  • Delta Elements [M0029795]
  • Deoxyadenine Nucleotides [M0005989]
    Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
  • Deoxyadenosine [M0005991]
  • Deoxyadenosines [M0005990]
    Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
  • Deoxycytidine [M0005997]
  • Deoxycytidine Monophosphate [M0005999]
    Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.
  • Deoxycytidylic Acids [M0006000]
  • Deoxycytosine Nucleotides [M0006002]
    Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
  • Deoxydinucleoside Phosphates [M0023392]
  • Deoxyguanine Nucleotides [M0006005]
    Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
  • Deoxyguanosine [M0006006]
    A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
  • Deoxyribonucleoproteins [M0006015]
    Proteins conjugated with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or specific DNA.
  • Deoxyribonucleosides [M0006016]
    A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.
  • Deoxyribonucleotides [M0006017]
    A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
  • Deoxythymidylate [M0021449]
  • Deoxyuracil Nucleotides [M0006019]
    Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
  • Deoxyuridine [M0006020]
    2'-Deoxyuridine. An antimetabolite that is converted to deoxyuridine triphosphate during DNA synthesis. Laboratory suppression of deoxyuridine is used to diagnose megaloblastic anemias due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies.
  • Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP [M0006260]
    N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.
  • Dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole [M0006279]
    An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.
  • Didanosine [M0024535]
    A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
  • Dideoxyadenosine [M0024534]
    A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.
  • Dideoxynucleosides [M0023387]
    Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.
  • Dideoxyribonucleosides [M0023389]
  • Dinucleoside Diphosphates [M0023393]
  • Dinucleoside Monophosphates [M0023394]
  • Dinucleoside Oligophosphates [M0023395]
  • Dinucleoside Phosphates [M0023396]
    A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
  • Dinucleoside Polyphosphates [M0023397]
  • Dinucleoside Tetraphosphates [M0023398]
  • Dinucleoside Triphosphates [M0023399]
  • Dinucleotide Repeats [M0028260]
    The most common of the microsatellite tandem repeats (MICROSATELLITE REPEATS) dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes. They consist of two nucleotides repeated in tandem; guanine and thymine, (GT)n, is the most frequently seen.
  • DNA [M0006644]
    A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
  • DNA Adducts [M0028067]
    Covalent adducts between chemical mutagens and DNA. Such couplings activate DNA repair processes and, unless repaired prior to DNA replication, may lead to nucleotide substitutions, deletions, and chromosome rearrangements. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
  • DNA Aptamers [M0483499]
  • DNA Insertion Elements [M0006654]
  • DNA Library [M0332450]
  • DNA Primers [M0027090]
    Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
  • DNA Probes [M0023617]
    Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
  • DNA Probes, HLA [M0023621]
    DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).
  • DNA Probes, HPV [M0023628]
    DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.
  • DNA Sequence [M0002207]
  • DNA Transposable Elements [M0006651]
    Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
  • DNA Transposons [M0006655]
  • DNA, A-Form [M0006643]
    An isoform of DNA that occurs in an environment rich in SODIUM and POTASSIUM ions. It is a right-handed helix with 11 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.256 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 2.3 nm.
  • DNA, Algal [M0460491]
    Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of ALGAE.
  • DNA, Antisense [M0025051]
    DNA that is complementary to the sense strand. (The sense strand has the same sequence as the mRNA transcript. The antisense strand is the template for mRNA synthesis.) Synthetic antisense DNAs are used to hybridize to complementary sequences in target RNAs or DNAs to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
  • DNA, Archaeal [M0029142]
    Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
  • DNA, B-Form [M0392703]
    The most common isoform of DNA found in nature. It is a right-handed helix with 10 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.338 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 1.9 nm.
  • DNA, Bacterial [M0006681]
    Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
  • DNA, C-Form [M0006647]
    An isoform of DNA that occurs under experimental conditions. It is a right-handed helix that is less compact than the B-form of DNA.
  • DNA, Catalytic [M0277614]
    Molecules of DNA that possess enzymatic activity.
  • DNA, Catenated [M0443670]
    CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.
  • DNA, Chloroplast [M0028077]
    Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
  • DNA, Circular [M0006682]
    Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
  • DNA, Complementary [M0027268]
    Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
  • DNA, Concatenated [M0445986]
    Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.
  • DNA, Double-Stranded [M0392704]
  • DNA, Fungal [M0006683]
    Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
  • DNA, Helminth [M0027756]
    Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
  • DNA, Intergenic [M0355765]
    Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
  • DNA, Junk [M0355766]
  • DNA, Kinetoplast [M0027301]
    DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.
  • DNA, Mitochondrial [M0006684]
    Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
  • DNA, Neoplasm [M0006685]
    DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
  • DNA, Plant [M0028079]
    Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
  • DNA, Protozoan [M0024539]
    Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
  • DNA, Recombinant [M0006686]
    Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
  • DNA, Ribosomal [M0006690]
    DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
  • DNA, Ribosomal Spacer [M0355783]
    The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
  • DNA, Satellite [M0006691]
    Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
  • DNA, Single-Stranded [M0006693]
    A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
  • DNA, Superhelical [M0006694]
    Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.
  • DNA, Viral [M0006695]
    Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
  • DNA, Z-Form [M0006646]
    A left-handed double helix of DNA. Its name derives from its narrow zigzag structure that is the least twisted and thinnest form of DNA. Z-DNA forming regions within the GENOME may play an important role in GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION.
  • E-Box Elements [M0371558]
    DNA locations with the consensus sequence CANNTG. ENHANCER ELEMENTS (GENETICS) may contain multiple copies of this element. E-boxes play a regulatory role in the control of transcription. They bind with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. Binding specificity is determined by the specific bHLH heterodimer or homodimer combination and by the specific nucleotides at the 3rd and 4th position of the E-box sequence.
  • Early Promoters [M0017723]
  • Efudix [M0008632]
  • Endogenous Retroviruses [M0029793]
    Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
  • Enhancer [M0007453]
  • Enhancer Elements (Genetics) [M0007452]
    Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
  • Episomes [M0016987]
  • Epivir [M0028684]
  • epsilon-ATP [M0007825]
  • Ethenoadenosine Triphosphate [M0007826]
    1,N-6-Ethenoadenosine triphosphate. A fluorescent analog of adenosine triphosphate.
  • Exons [M0008026]
    The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or structural RNA.
  • Expressed Sequence Tags [M0029900]
    Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
  • F Factor [M0008108]
    A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
  • Flavin Mononucleotide [M0008652]
    A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
  • Flavin Mononucleotide Disodium Salt [M0330282]
  • Flavin Mononucleotide Monosodium Salt [M0330280]
  • Flavin Mononucleotide Monosodium Salt, Dihydrate [M0330283]
  • Flavin Mononucleotide Sodium Salt [M0330281]
  • Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide [M0008169]
    A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
  • Flavitan [M0372893]
  • Florafur [M0372974]
  • Floxuridine [M0008626]
    An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Flucytosine [M0008576]
    A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
  • Fluorodeoxyuridylate [M0008627]
    5-Fluoro-2'-deoxyuridylate. An inhibitor of thymidylate synthetase. Formed from 5-fluorouracil or 5-fluorodeoxyuridine.
  • Fluoroplex [M0008634]
  • Fluorouracil [M0008631]
    A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
  • Fluorouracil Mononitrate [M0330274]
  • Fluorouracil Monopotassium Salt [M0330275]
  • Fluorouracil Monosodium Salt [M0330271]
  • Fluorouracil Potassium Salt [M0330273]
  • Fluorouracil-GRY [M0478648]
  • Fluorouracile Dakota [M0478650]
  • Fluorouracilo Ferrer Far [M0478649]
  • Fluracedyl [M0478655]
  • Formycins [M0008773]
    Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.
  • FT-207 [M0372973]
  • Ftorafur [M0372972]
  • Futraful [M0372976]
  • Ganciclovir [M0024168]
    An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
  • Ganciclovir Sodium [M0024169]
  • Ganciclovir, Monosodium Salt [M0331407]
  • GC Rich Sequence [M0328023]
    A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of GUANINE and CYTOSINE bases.
  • Gene Library [M0024110]
    A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
  • Gene Probes, DNA [M0023618]
  • Genes, Jumping [M0445118]
  • Genetic Vectors [M0009134]
    DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
  • Genomic Islands [M0444985]
    Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
  • Genomic Islets [M0444987]
  • Genomic Library [M0024081]
    A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
  • Genvir [M0421529]
  • GMP [M0009691]
  • GR-109714X [M0372433]
  • Guanine [M0009679]
  • Guanine Nucleotides [M0009683]
  • Guanosine [M0009684]
    A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate) [M0024807]
    Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
  • Guanosine Diphosphate [M0009686]
    A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
  • Guanosine Diphosphate Fucose [M0009687]
    A nucleoside diphosphate sugar formed from GDPmannose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls, and for blood group substances and other glycoproteins.
  • Guanosine Diphosphate Mannose [M0009688]
    A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.
  • Guanosine Diphosphate Sugars [M0009689]
    Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of guanosine diphosphate.
  • Guanosine Pentaphosphate [M0009692]
    Guanosine 5'-triphosphate 2'(3')-diphosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing five phosphate groups. Three phosphate groups are esterified to the sugar moiety in the 5' position and the other two in the 2' or 3' position. This nucleotide serves as a messenger to turn off the synthesis of ribosomal RNA when amino acids are not available for protein synthesis. Synonym: magic spot II.
  • Guanosine Tetraphosphate [M0009693]
    Guanosine 5'-diphosphate 2'(3')-diphosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing four phosphate groups. Two phosphate groups are esterified to the sugar moiety in the 5' position and the other two in the 2' or 3' position. This nucleotide serves as a messenger to turn off the synthesis of ribosomal RNA when amino acids are not available for protein synthesis. Synonym: magic spot I.
  • Guanosine Triphosphate [M0009694]
    Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
  • Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate [M0009703]
    A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of adenylate cyclase.
  • Haemato-fu [M0478651]
  • Heavy-Chain Mu Switch Region [M0011114]
  • Hemolysin Factors [M0010140]
    Plasmids controlling the synthesis of hemolysin by bacteria.
  • Herpetad [M0450317]
  • Herplex Liquifilm [M0010991]
  • Herpofug [M0450318]
  • Herpotern [M0450325]
  • Herpoviric [M0450426]
  • Heterochromatin [M0010289]
    The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
  • Heteroduplex DNA [M0015050]
  • Hinge Exons [M0008027]
    Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene exons coding for the hinge region of the heavy chains between the first constant region (on the FAB FRAGMENTS) and the second constant region (on the FC FRAGMENTS).
  • HIV Enhancer [M0024943]
    Cis-acting regulatory sequences in the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) which play a major role in induction or augmentation of HIV gene expression in response to environmental stimuli such as mitogens, phorbol esters, or other viruses. The HIV enhancer is the binding site for many cellular transcription factors including the nuclear factor NF-kappa B.
  • HIV Long Terminal Repeat [M0024948]
    Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.
  • HIV-1 Enhancer [M0024945]
  • HIV-1 LTR [M0024952]
  • Hivid [M0024533]
  • HLA-A DNA Probes [M0023622]
  • HLA-B DNA Probes [M0023623]
  • HLA-C DNA Probes [M0023624]
  • HLA-D DNA Probes [M0023625]
  • HLA-DR DNA Probes [M0023626]
  • HLA-Dw DNA Probes [M0023627]
  • Homeo Box Sequence [M0009092]
  • Human Endogenous Retroviruses [M0029792]
  • Hydroxyphenylazouracil [M0010774]
    Inhibitor of DNA replication in gram-positive bacteria.
  • ICN-1229 [M0373211]
  • Idoxuridine [M0010989]
    An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
  • Idoxuridine, 123I-Labeled [M0331421]
  • Idoxuridine, 125I-Labeled [M0331418]
  • Idoxuridine, 131I-Labeled [M0331419]
  • Idoxuridine, 3H-Labeled [M0331420]
  • Idoxuridine, Radical Ion (+1) [M0331423]
  • Idoxuridine, Radical Ion (1-) [M0331422]
  • Immunoglobulin Switch Region [M0011115]
    A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.
  • Imunovir [M0011779]
  • Inosine [M0011366]
    A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Inosine Diphosphate [M0011368]
    An inosine nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
  • Inosine Monophosphate [M0011369]
    Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
  • Inosine Nucleotides [M0011372]
  • Inosine Pranobex [M0011778]
    An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.
  • Inosine Triphosphate [M0011373]
    Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An inosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonym: IRPPP.
  • Inosinic Acid [M0011370]
  • Insertion Sequence Elements [M0006652]
  • Insulator Elements [M0414405]
    Nucleic acid regulatory sequences that limit or oppose the action of ENHANCER ELEMENTS and define the boundary between differentially regulated gene loci.
  • Integrons [M0399675]
    DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
  • Intergenic Region [M0355769]
  • Intergenic Sequence [M0355767]
  • Interspersed Repetitive Sequences [M0029779]
    Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
  • Intracisternal A-Particle Elements [M0011591]
  • Introns [M0011612]
    Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
  • Inverted Terminal Repeat [M0029796]
  • Isavir [M0451649]
  • Iso-tRNA(Gly) [M0019205]
  • Iso-tRNA(Pro) [M0019217]
  • Isochores [M0399885]
    Large regions of the GENOME that contain local similarities in BASE COMPOSITION.
  • Isopentenyladenosine [M0011777]
    N(6)-[delta(3)-isopentenyl]adenosine. Isopentenyl derivative of adenosine which is a member of the cytokinin family of plant growth regulators.
  • Isoprinosin [M0331926]
  • Jockey Elements [M0029805]
  • jun Oncogene [M0025539]
  • jun Proto-Oncogene [M0025540]
  • Kerecide [M0010993]
  • Kinetin [M0047855]
    A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
  • Kinetoplast DNA Maxicircles [M0027302]
  • Kinetoplast DNA Minicircles [M0027303]
  • Laciken [M0450427]
  • Lactose Factors [M0012179]
    Plasmids which determine the ability of a bacterium to ferment lactose.
  • Lamivudine [M0028682]
    A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
  • Lamivudine, (2S-cis)-Isomer [M0329185]
  • Late Promoters [M0017724]
  • Leupurin [M0352353]
  • Leustatin [M0373300]
  • LINE-1 Elements [M0029806]
  • Locus Control Region [M0029559]
    A regulatory region first identified in the human beta-globin locus but subsequently found in other loci. The region is believed to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION by opening and remodeling CHROMATIN structure. It may also have ENHANCER activity.
  • Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements [M0029807]
    Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.
  • Long Terminal Repeat [M0029797]
  • Magnesium ADP [M0000381]
  • Magnesium CTP [M0005578]
  • Malonyl Coenzyme A [M0012951]
    A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
  • Mapox [M0450428]
  • MAR/SAR Recognition Signature Sequence [M0448643]
  • Matrix Attachment Regions [M0447380]
    Regions of the CHROMATIN or DNA that bind to the NUCLEAR MATRIX. They are found in INTERGENIC DNA, especially flanking the 5' ends of genes or clusters of genes. Many of the regions that have been isolated contain a bipartite sequence motif called the MAR/SAR recognition signature sequence that binds to MATRIX ATTACHMENT REGION BINDING PROTEINS.
  • Maynar [M0450429]
  • MDG1 Retrotransposons [M0027916]
  • Mercaptopurina Wellcome [M0474764]
  • Metacil [M0373101]
  • Methylthioinosine [M0013668]
    6-(Methylthio)-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine. An analog of inosine with a methylthio group replacing the hydroxyl group in the 6-position.
  • Methylthiouracil [M0013669]
    A thiourea antithyroid agent that inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormone. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
  • Mg CTP [M0005579]
  • Mg-5'-Adenylylimidodiphosphate [M0000417]
  • Mg-UTP [M0022360]
  • MicroRNAs [M0407989]
    Small regulatory, ANTISENSE RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length that repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of homologous target RNA. The process by which they are generated is related to the process that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans are a class of miRNAs
  • Microsatellite Repeats [M0028258]
    A variety of simple di- (DINUCLEOTIDE REPEATS), tri- (TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEATS), tetra-, and pentanucleotide tandem repeats (usually less than 100 bases long). They are dispersed in the euchromatic arms of most chromosomes. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
  • Middle Promoters [M0017725]
  • Milavir [M0450430]
  • Mini-Exon [M0008029]
  • Minisatellite Repeats [M0027878]
    Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive (5-50 repeats) short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences found dispersed throughout the genome and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit. Minisatellite repeats are often called variable number of tandem repeats.
  • Mobile Dispersed Genetic Elements [M0027917]
  • Mobile Genetic Elements [M0445119]
  • mRNA, Non-Polyadenylated [M0019168]
  • mRNA, Polyadenylated [M0019169]
  • NAD [M0014403]
    A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
  • NADH [M0014404]
  • NADP [M0014413]
    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Negative Regulatory Element, HIV [M0024949]
  • Neofluor [M0478652]
  • Nested Transcripts [M0411969]
    Alternatively spliced RNA transcripts that are derived from a set of exons that are located in the middle of the primary transcript (RNA PRECURSORS), between unused exons.
  • Nevirapine [M0029429]
    A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV infection and AIDS.
  • NF-kappa B-Binding Site, HIV [M0024944]
  • Nicotinamide Mononucleotide [M0014835]
    3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.
  • Nipent [M0474210]
  • NPT-10381 [M0331928]
  • NSC 68928 [M0373516]
  • NSC-102816 [M0351376]
  • NSC-112907 [M0373892]
  • NSC-218321 [M0333703]
  • NSC-38297 [M0373518]
  • NSC-39661 [M0373537]
  • NSC-4911 [M0373893]
  • NSC-606170 [M0332662]
  • NSC-612049 [M0328965]
  • Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes [M0015051]
    Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
  • Nucleic Acid Precursors [M0015054]
    Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.
  • Nucleic Acid Probes [M0023614]
    Nucleic acid which complements a specific mRNA or DNA molecule, or fragment thereof; used for hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms and for genetic studies.
  • Nucleic Acid Vaccines [M0028928]
  • Nucleic Acids [M0015056]
    High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
  • Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides [M0015067]
    Complex compounds of high molecular weight occurring in living cells. These are basically of two types, ribonucleic (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic (DNA) acids, both of which consist of nucleotides (nucleoside phosphates linked together by phosphate bridges).
  • Nucleocapsid [M0028665]
    A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
  • Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars [M0015063]
  • Nucleoside Q [M0015065]
    A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.
  • Nucleoside Q* [M0329993]
  • Nucleosides [M0015066]
    Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
  • Nucleotides [M0015075]
    The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
  • Nucleotides, Cyclic [M0015076]
  • O-Acetyl-ADP-Ribose [M0384443]
    An acetyl ester of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE formed during NAD-dependent deacetylation of proteins by SIRTUINS. The acetate group resides on the ribose ring where nicotinamide was cleaved from NAD during the reaction. Several isomers of O-acetyl-ADP-ribose have been isolated from the reaction.
  • Oftan-IDU [M0010994]
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotide Probes [M0023629]
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides [M0015275]
    A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense [M0029969]
    Short fragments of DNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
  • Oligonucleotide Primers [M0027089]
  • Oligonucleotide Probes [M0023630]
    Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
  • Oligonucleotides [M0015278]
    Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense [M0025055]
    Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
  • Oligoribonucleotide Probes [M0023631]
  • Oligoribonucleotides [M0015280]
    A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
  • Oligoribonucleotides, Antisense [M0029970]
    Short fragments of RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
  • Onkofluor [M0478653]
  • Operator (Genetics) [M0015318]
  • Operator Regions (Genetics) [M0015317]
    The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
  • Opthavir [M0450442]
  • P-638 [M0369376]
  • Palmitoyl Coenzyme A [M0015782]
    A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
  • Pathogenicity Islands [M0444986]
  • Pathogenicity Islets [M0444988]
  • Pentanucleotide Repeats [M0028256]
  • Pentostatin [M0023987]
    A potent inhibitor of adenosine deaminase. The drug is effective in the treatment of many lymphoproliferative malignancies, particularly hairy-cell leukemia. It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity.
  • Pentoxyl [M0016202]
    5-Hydroxymethyl-6-methyl- 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Uracil derivative used in combination with toxic antibiotics to lessen their toxicity; also to stimulate leukopoiesis and immunity. Synonyms: pentoksil; hydroxymethylmethyluracil.
  • Peptide Nucleic Acids [M0029874]
    DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
  • Phage Attachment Sites [M0001939]
  • Phenylisopropyladenosine [M0016566]
    N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.
  • Phosphaden [M0000388]
  • Phosphoadenosine Phosphosulfate [M0016656]
    3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.
  • Pinacidil [M0029848]
    A potassium-channel opener that produces direct peripheral vasodilatation of the arterioles. It reduces blood pressure and peripheral resistance and produces fluid retention. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
  • Pinacidil Anhydrous [M0329070]
  • Pindac [M0350968]
  • Plant Tumor-Inducing Plasmids [M0410871]
    Plasmids coding for proteins which induce PLANT TUMORS. The most notable example of a plant tumor inducing plasmid is the Ti plasmid found associated with AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS.
  • Plasmids [M0016988]
    Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
  • Polaron [M0009063]
  • Poly A [M0017136]
    A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
  • Poly A-U [M0017139]
    A double-stranded polyribonucleotide comprising polyadenylic and polyuridylic acids.
  • Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose [M0017140]
    A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.
  • Poly C [M0017143]
    A group of cytosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each cytosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
  • Poly dA-dT [M0017145]
    Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.
  • Poly G [M0017146]
    A group of guanine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each guanine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
  • Poly I [M0017147]
    A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
  • Poly I-C [M0017148]
    Interferon inducer consisting of a synthetic, mismatched double-stranded RNA. The polymer is made of one strand each of polyinosinic acid and polycytidylic acid.
  • Poly T [M0017149]
    A group of thymine nucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each thymine nucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
  • Poly U [M0017150]
    A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
  • Poly(A) Tail [M0019171]
  • Polydeoxyribonucleotides [M0017171]
    A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
  • Polynucleotide Vaccines [M0028929]
  • Polynucleotides [M0017232]
  • Polyribonucleotides [M0017246]
    A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
  • Primary RNA Transcript [M0411952]
    The product of RNA polymerase prior to any post-transcriptional modifications (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL), i.e. RNA copies from DNA that exactly represent the genome sequence.
  • Promoter (Genetics) [M0017730]
  • Promoter Regions (Genetics) [M0017727]
    DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
  • Propylthiouracil [M0017784]
    A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)
  • Pseudopromoter (Genetics) [M0017728]
  • Pseudouridine [M0017967]
  • Purimethol [M0352352]
  • Purine Nucleosides [M0018166]
    Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.
  • Purine Nucleotides [M0018167]
    Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
  • Purinethol [M0352351]
  • Puromycin [M0018173]
    A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
  • Puromycin Aminonucleoside [M0018175]
    PUROMYCIN derivative that lacks the methoxyphenylalanyl group on the amine of the sugar ring. It is an antibiotic with antineoplastic properties and can cause nephrosis.
  • Puromycin Dihydrochloride [M0331274]
  • Puromycin Hydrochloride [M0018174]
  • Pyrimidine Dimers [M0018256]
    Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.
  • Pyrimidine Nucleosides [M0018258]
    Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES.
  • Pyrimidine Nucleotides [M0018259]
    Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
  • R Factors [M0018363]
    A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
  • R Repetitive Sequence [M0029798]
  • Rebetol [M0475034]
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid [M0018727]
    Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
  • Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid [M0416510]
    Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid [M0018798]
    Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted.
  • Replication Origin [M0028076]
    A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
  • Replicon [M0018801]
    Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
  • Response Elements [M0029897]
    Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
  • Retroelements [M0027915]
    Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
  • Retroposons [M0027918]
  • Retrotransposons [M0027920]
  • Retrovir [M0023378]
  • Retrovirus-like Elements [M0027919]
  • Ribamide [M0373210]
  • Ribasphere [M0476301]
  • Ribavirin [M0019062]
    A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
  • Ribofluor [M0478654]
  • Ribonuclease P, RNA Catalytic Subunit [M0445435]
  • Ribonucleosides [M0019074]
    Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Ribonucleotides [M0019076]
    Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • RNA [M0019139]
    A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
  • RNA 3' Polyadenylation Signals [M0418357]
    Sequences found near the 3' end of MESSENGER RNA that direct the cleavage and addition of multiple ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES to the 3' end of mRNA.
  • RNA 5' Terminal Oligopyrimidine Sequence [M0416549]
    A regulatory sequence found in the 5' terminal regions of a variety of RNA species. The sequence starts with a CYTIDINE, which is followed by a stretch of 5 to 15 PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES. Messenger RNA that contains the 5' Terminal Oligo Pyrimidine tract is often referred to as 5' TOP mRNA. The sequence acts as a translational regulator and has been found in mRNAs for PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS and RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
  • RNA Aptamers [M0483500]
  • RNA Cap Analogs [M0019140]
    Analogs of RNA cap compounds which do not have a positive charge. These compounds inhibit the initiation of translation of both capped and uncapped messenger RNA.
  • RNA Caps [M0019141]
    Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
  • RNA Precursor [M0019155]
  • RNA Precursors [M0019151]
    RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
  • RNA Probes [M0023632]
    RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
  • RNA Sequence [M0002208]
  • RNA Splice Sites [M0359363]
    Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICESOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
  • RNA, Algal [M0460492]
    Ribonucleic acid in ALGAE having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Antisense [M0025050]
    RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
  • RNA, Archaeal [M0029143]
    Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Bacterial [M0019163]
    Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Catalytic [M0024970]
    RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
  • RNA, Chloroplast [M0028082]
    Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Chromosomal [M0023272]
  • RNA, Complementary [M0027266]
    Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
  • RNA, Double-Stranded [M0019164]
    RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
  • RNA, Fungal [M0019165]
    Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Guide [M0026408]
    Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
  • RNA, Helminth [M0027757]
    Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Heterogeneous Nuclear [M0019166]
    Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
  • RNA, Messenger [M0019167]
    RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
  • RNA, Messenger, Maternal [M0360517]
    Messenger RNA derived from the maternal genome during oogenesis. It is stored in a masked state for translation in the early stages of embryogenesis.
  • RNA, Messenger, Paternal [M0361416]
    Messenger RNA derived from the paternal genome during spermatogenesis. It is stored in a masked state for translation in the early stages of embryogenesis.
  • RNA, Messenger, Precursors [M0019150]
  • RNA, Messenger, Stored [M0361415]
    Messenger RNA that is stored in a masked state for translation at a later time. Distinguish from RNA, UNTRANSLATED which refers to non-messenger RNA, i.e. RNA that does not code for protein.
  • RNA, Neoplasm [M0019172]
    RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
  • RNA, Nuclear [M0023273]
    RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
  • RNA, Plant [M0028083]
    Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Polyadenylated [M0019170]
  • RNA, Protozoan [M0024538]
    Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Ribosomal [M0019174]
    The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S [M0019175]
    Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 18S [M0019176]
    Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 23S [M0019177]
    Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 28S [M0019178]
    Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S [M0019179]
    Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 5S [M0019180]
    Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
  • RNA, Ribosomal, Precursors [M0019152]
  • RNA, Ribosomal, Self-Splicing [M0445391]
    Components of ribosomal RNA that undergo auto-catalyzed molecular rearrangements of their RNA sequence.
  • RNA, Satellite [M0028657]
    Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
  • RNA, Small Cytoplasmic [M0121410]
    Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
  • RNA, Small Interfering [M0406100]
    Small ANTISENSE RNAs (20 -25 nucleotides) that are generated from specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) which trigger targeted mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) degradation (RNA INTERFERENCE). They serve as guides for the cleavage of homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. The same ribonuclease, Dicer, that is required for processing of the dsRNAs to siRNA is also involved in processing MICRORNAS (miRNAs) from their precursor RNAs.
  • RNA, Small Nuclear [M0019184]
    Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
  • RNA, Small Nuclear, Precursors [M0019153]
  • RNA, Small Nucleolar [M0328073]
    Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
  • RNA, Small Temporal [M0408369]
    A class of microRNAs that regulate developmental timing.
  • RNA, Spliced Leader [M0029752]
    The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
  • RNA, Transfer [M0019194]
    The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
  • RNA, Transfer, Ala [M0019196]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Amino Acid-Specific [M0019197]
    A group of transfer RNAs which are specific for carrying each one of the 20 amino acids to the ribosome in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl [M0019198]
    Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
  • RNA, Transfer, Arg [M0019199]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Asn [M0019200]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying asparagine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Asp [M0019201]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Cys [M0019202]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying cysteine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Gln [M0019203]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Glu [M0019204]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Gly [M0019206]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, His [M0019207]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Ile [M0019208]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying isoleucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Initiator [M0363870]
  • RNA, Transfer, Leu [M0019209]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Lys [M0019210]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Met [M0019212]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).
  • RNA, Transfer, Phe [M0019216]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Precursors [M0019154]
  • RNA, Transfer, Pro [M0019218]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying proline to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Ser [M0019219]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying serine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Suppressor [M0019195]
  • RNA, Transfer, Thr [M0019220]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying threonine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Trp [M0019221]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tryptophan to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Tyr [M0019222]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Transfer, Val [M0019223]
    A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying valine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
  • RNA, Untranslated [M0358789]
    RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA; (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated they are not included here.
  • RNA, Viral [M0019224]
    Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
  • RNA-Induced Silencing Complex [M0406104]
    A multicomponent, ribonucleoprotein complex that cleaves specific mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER) which are targeted for degradation by homologous dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) during the process of RNA INTERFERENCE. It includes siRNA (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING) that is generated from the specific dsRNA.
  • rRNA Promoter [M0017729]
  • RS-21592 [M0372691]
  • Satellite I DNA [M0006692]
  • Selfish DNA [M0006645]
    DNA whose role appears to be its own replication, e.g., transposable elements and some SATELLITE DNA.
  • Sense Codon [M0360528]
    Any of the codons of an organism's GENETIC CODE that specify an amino acid.
  • Sequence Tagged Sites [M0024947]
    Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
  • Serum Response Element [M0380375]
    A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of many growth-related genes. The regulatory transcription factor SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
  • Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements [M0029812]
    Highly repeated sequences, 100-300 bases long, which contain RNA polymerase III promoters. The primate Alu (ALU ELEMENTS) and the rodent B1 SINEs are derived from 7SL RNA, the RNA component of the signal recognition particle. Most other SINEs are derived from tRNAs including the MIRs (mammalian-wide interspersed repeats).
  • Showdomycin [M0019804]
    3-beta-D-Ribofuranosylmaleimide. Antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces showdoensis. It is possibly active also as a sulfhydryl reagent.
  • Shuttle Vectors [M0009136]
  • Silencer Elements, Transcriptional [M0413889]
    Nucleic acid sequences that are involved in the negative regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION by chromatin silencing.
  • SK&F-14287 [M0373538]
  • Sodium Inosinate [M0011371]
  • Sp1-Binding Site, HIV [M0024950]
  • Spacer DNA [M0355768]
  • Splice Acceptor Site [M0359365]
  • Splice Donor Site [M0359364]
  • Stavudine [M0027323]
    A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.
  • Stavudine, Monosodium Salt [M0329156]
  • Stoxil [M0010990]
  • Striadyne [M0372281]
  • Stylomycin [M0369374]
  • Sunfural S [M0372975]
  • Supraviran [M0450123]
  • Symbiosis Islands [M0444990]
  • Symbiosis Islets [M0447314]
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences [M0029800]
    Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (inverted tandem repeats).
  • TATA Box [M0025063]
    A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
  • Tegafur [M0008871]
    Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.
  • Terminal Repeat Sequences [M0029799]
    Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
  • Terminator Regions (Genetics) [M0021181]
    DNA sequences which signal the termination of transcription.
  • Tetrahydrouridine [M0021239]
    An inhibitor of nucleotide metabolism.
  • Tetranucleotide Repeats [M0028257]
  • TFT Ophtiole [M0476897]
  • Thimecil [M0474837]
  • Thioinosine [M0021358]
    Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)
  • Thionucleosides [M0021362]
    Nucleosides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
  • Thionucleotides [M0021363]
    Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
  • Thiouridine [M0021387]
    A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.
  • Thymidine [M0021446]
  • Thymidine Monophosphate [M0021450]
    5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.
  • Thymidylic Acids [M0021451]
  • Thymine [M0021455]
  • Thymine Nucleotides [M0021456]
    Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
  • Thymine-Cyclobutane Dimer [M0018257]
  • Ti Plasmid, Agrobacterium tumefaciens [M0410872]
  • Tn Elements [M0006653]
  • Toyocamycin [M0021736]
    4-Amino-5-cyano-7-(D-ribofuranosyl)-7H- pyrrolo(2,3-d)pyrimidine. Antibiotic antimetabolite isolated from Streptomyces toyocaensis cultures. It is an analog of adenosine, blocks RNA synthesis and ribosome function, and is used mainly as a tool in biochemistry.
  • Trans-Acting Responsive Region, HIV [M0024951]
  • Transcription Initiation Site [M0370147]
    The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
  • Triflumann [M0476898]
  • Trifluridine [M0021960]
    An antiviral derivative of THYMIDINE used mainly in the treatment of primary keratoconjunctivitis and recurrent epithelial keratitis due to HERPES SIMPLEX virus. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p557)
  • Trinucleotide Repeats [M0028278]
    Microsatellite repeats consisting of three nucleotides dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes.
  • tRNA(f)Met [M0019213]
  • tRNA(i)Met [M0019214]
  • tRNA(m)Met [M0019211]
  • Tubercidin [M0022097]
    An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.
  • Ty1 Transposon [M0027914]
  • Uftoral [M0476059]
  • Untranslated Regions [M0030178]
    The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.
  • Uracil [M0022302]
  • Uracil Mustard [M0022303]
    Nitrogen mustard derivative of URACIL. It is a alkylating antineoplastic agent that is used in lymphatic malignancies, and causes mainly gastrointestinal and bone marrow damage.
  • Uracil Nucleotides [M0022304]
  • Uridine [M0022344]
  • Uridine Diphosphate [M0022345]
    A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.
  • Uridine Diphosphate Galactose [M0022346]
    A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be epimerized into UDPglucose for entry into the mainstream of carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a source of galactose in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, cerebrosides, and lactose.
  • Uridine Diphosphate Glucose [M0022347]
    A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
  • Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronic Acid [M0022350]
    A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of glucuronic acid for polysaccharide biosynthesis. It may also be epimerized to UDP iduronic acid, which donates iduronic acid to polysaccharides. In animals, UDP glucuronic acid is used for formation of many glucosiduronides with various aglycones.
  • Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylgalactosamine [M0022351]
    A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of N-acetylgalactosamine for glycoproteins, sulfatides and cerebrosides.
  • Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine [M0022352]
    Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
  • Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylmuramic Acid [M0022353]
    A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which is formed from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and phosphoenolpyruvate. It serves as the building block upon which peptidoglycan is formed.
  • Uridine Diphosphate Sugars [M0022354]
  • Uridine Diphosphate Xylose [M0022355]
    The decarboxylation product of UDPglucuronic acid, which is used for formation of the xylosides of seryl hydroxyl groups in mucoprotein synthesis. Also forms plant xylans.
  • Uridine Monophosphate [M0022357]
    5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
  • Uridine Triphosphate [M0022361]
    Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
  • Utefos [M0476060]
  • Vaccines, DNA [M0028927]
    Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
  • Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles [M0030039]
    Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that have an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structure giving the appearance of an octagonal dome. (The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 2nd ed.)
  • Viclovir [M0450443]
  • Vidarabine [M0022659]
    A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
  • Vidarabine Phosphate [M0001639]
    An adenosine monophosphate analog in which ribose is replaced by an arabinose moiety. It is the monophosphate ester of VIDARABINE with antiviral and possibly antineoplastic properties.
  • Vidaza [M0473506]
  • Videx [M0024536]
  • Vipral [M0450910]
  • Vira-A [M0022660]
  • Viramide [M0373209]
  • Viramune [M0373315]
  • Virax-Puren [M0450911]
  • Virazide [M0475035]
  • Virazole [M0475033]
  • Virherpes [M0451622]
  • Virmen [M0451623]
  • Virolex [M0000329]
  • Viromidin [M0476899]
  • Virophta [M0476900]
  • Viroptic [M0373255]
  • Virupos [M0450912]
  • Virzin [M0451636]
  • Vitamin D Response Element [M0386282]
    A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
  • Wellcome-248U [M0353794]
  • Whole Chromosomal Probes [M0023619]
  • Whole Genomic DNA Probes [M0023620]
  • Xanthine [M0029424]
    A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Zalcitabine [M0024532]
    A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.
  • Zerit [M0372424]
  • Zidovudine [M0023377]
    A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
  • Zoliparin [M0451635]
  • Zovirax [M0000328]
  • Zyclir [M0450454]