MeSH
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Organ or Tissue Function

MeSH ID: T042

Related Concepts:

  • Accommodation, Lens [M0471007]
    Adjustment of lens to distance.
  • Accommodation, Ocular [M0000093]
    The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
  • Acid-Base Equilibrium [M0000210]
    The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
  • Adaptation, Ocular [M0000339]
    The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
  • Afterimage [M0000550]
    Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.
  • Airway Resistance [M0000612]
    Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
  • Alpha Rhythm [M0000776]
    One of four types of brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
  • Amelogenesis [M0000885]
    The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
  • Antibiotic Resistance, Neoplasm [M0377179]
  • Atrial Function [M0024874]
    The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
  • Atrial Function, Left [M0024878]
    The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.
  • Atrial Function, Right [M0024879]
    The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.
  • Auditory Brainstem Responses [M0024544]
  • Autotrophic Growth [M0489675]
  • Autotrophic Processes [M0489595]
    The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
  • Autotrophy [M0489596]
  • Baroreflex [M0026768]
    A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
  • Bereitschaftspotential [M0492872]
  • Beta Rhythm [M0002410]
    Brain waves with frequency greater than 13 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness.
  • Bleeding Time [M0002649]
    Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.
  • Blink Reflexes [M0002667]
  • Blinking [M0002665]
    Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
  • Blood Bactericidal Activity [M0002672]
    The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
  • Blood Coagulation [M0002681]
    The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
  • Blood Physiologic Phenomena [M0447192]
    Observable or measurable characteristics of the BLOOD.
  • Blood Physiologic Processes [M0447196]
    Biological actions and events that support the functions of the BLOOD.
  • Blood Physiology [M0002702]
    Observable characteristics of blood activities and functions, such as BLOOD GROUPS, coagulation processes, etc.
  • blood supply [M0030289]
    Used for arterial, capillary, and venous systems of an organ or region whenever the specific heading for the vessel does not exist. It includes blood flow through the organ.
  • Blood-Aqueous Barrier [M0028285]
    The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
  • Blood-Brain Barrier [M0002730]
    Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
  • Blood-Retinal Barrier [M0002731]
    A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
  • Blood-Testis Barrier [M0002732]
    A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
  • Bone Conduction [M0002771]
    The transmission of sound waves through the bones of the SKULL (not through the EAR OSSICLES) to the INNER EAR. Application of vibration to the skull bones allows measurement of the hearing sensitivity of the COCHLEA while bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities.
  • Bone Conduction Hearing [M0494622]
  • Bone Development [M0002775]
    The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
  • Bone Growth [M0375992]
  • Bone Regeneration [M0002794]
    Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
  • Bone Remodeling [M0025466]
    The continuous turnover of bone matrix and mineral that involves first, an increase in resorption (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive bone formation (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium homeostasis. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
  • Bone Resorption [M0002795]
    Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
  • Bronchoconstriction [M0024568]
    Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
  • Calcification, Physiologic [M0003142]
    Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
  • Canine Guidance [M0005901]
  • Capillary Fragility [M0003291]
    The susceptibility of CAPILLARIES, under conditions of increased stress, to leakage.
  • Capillary Permeability [M0003292]
    The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
  • Capillary Resistance [M0003295]
    The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.
  • Cardiovascular Physiologic Phenomena [M0447201]
    Observable or measurable characteristics of CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
  • Cardiovascular Physiologic Processes [M0447202]
    Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
  • Cardiovascular Physiology [M0003476]
    Functions and activities of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
  • Cementogenesis [M0373110]
    The formation of DENTAL CEMENTUM, a bone-like material that covers the root of the tooth.
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation [M0003912]
    The circulation of blood through the vessels of the BRAIN.
  • Cervical Dilatation [M0012111]
  • Cervical Ripening [M0029778]
    A change in the CERVIX UTERI with respect to its readiness to relax. The cervix normally becomes softer, more flexible, more distensible, and shorter in the final weeks of PREGNANCY. These cervical changes can also be chemically induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
  • Chondrogenesis [M0029898]
    The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
  • Chronaxy [M0004446]
    The shortest duration of an electrical stimulus where the threshold amplitude is twice the rheobase - the minimum required for eliciting an ACTION POTENTIAL at any time period. It is a measure of the excitability of nerve or muscle tissue, and is characteristic of types and/or condition of the nerve or muscle cells in the tissue.
  • Clonal Abortion [M0026705]
  • Clonal Anergy [M0026702]
    Functional inactivation of T- or B-lymphocytes rendering them incapable of eliciting an immune response to antigen. This occurs through different mechanisms in the two kinds of lymphocytes and can contribute to SELF TOLERANCE.
  • Clonal Deletion [M0026706]
    Removal, via CELL DEATH, of immature lymphocytes that interact with antigens during maturation. For T-lymphocytes this occurs in the thymus and ensures that mature T-lymphocytes are self tolerant. B-lymphocytes may also undergo clonal deletion.
  • Closing Volume [M0004632]
    The lung volume at which the dependent lung zones cease to ventilate presumably as a result of airway closure.
  • Cochlear Microphonic Potentials [M0004687]
    The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.
  • Contingent Negative Variation [M0005073]
    A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.
  • Contrast Sensitivity [M0023635]
    The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
  • Convergence, Ocular [M0005132]
    The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
  • Corneal Reflexes [M0393764]
  • Coronary Circulation [M0005190]
    The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
  • Corpus Luteum Maintenance [M0005209]
    Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.
  • Dark Adaptation [M0005662]
    Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
  • Delta Rhythm [M0005792]
    One of the four types of brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.
  • Dental Enamel Permeability [M0005876]
    The property of dental enamel to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, mineral ions and other substances. It does not include the penetration of the dental enamel by microorganisms.
  • Dental Enamel Solubility [M0005878]
  • Dental Occlusion [M0005900]
    The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
  • Dental Physiology [M0014134]
    Functions and activities of dentition as a whole.
  • Dentin Permeability [M0005953]
    The property of dentin that permits passage of light, heat, cold, and chemical substances. It does not include penetration by microorganisms.
  • Dentin Solubility [M0005955]
  • Dentinogenesis [M0005957]
    The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
  • Depotentiation [M0411350]
    Long-term depression resulting from repeated low-frequency stimulation in only the pathway receiving the induction protocol. It follows induction of LONG-TERM POTENTIATION and reverses it.
  • Diastole [M0006217]
    Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
  • Digestion [M0006370]
    The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
  • Digestive Physiology [M0006376]
    Functions and activities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
  • Digestive System Phenomena [M0489507]
    Observable or measurable characteristics of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
  • Digestive System Processes [M0489504]
    Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
  • Diuresis [M0006623]
  • Dominance, Cerebral [M0006749]
    Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
  • Dominance, Ocular [M0368451]
    The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm [M0028386]
    Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
  • Embryo Implantation, Delayed [M0015612]
    Delay in the attachment and implantation of BLASTOCYST to the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The blastocyst remains unattached beyond the normal duration thus delaying embryonic development.
  • Enterohepatic Circulation [M0007483]
    Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.
  • Erythropoiesis [M0007725]
    The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
  • Event-Related Potentials, P300 [M0028282]
    A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)
  • Evoked Potentials [M0007987]
    The recorded electrical responses from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported. Often used synonymously to event-related potentials which are associated with higher level cognitive processes.
  • Evoked Potentials, Auditory [M0007989]
    The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
  • Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem [M0024543]
    Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
  • Evoked Potentials, Motor [M0028444]
    The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
  • Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory [M0007990]
    The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.
  • Evoked Potentials, Visual [M0007991]
    The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
  • Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials [M0029261]
    The depolarization of the membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons by transmission of NERVE IMPULSES which have an excitatory influence. They are local changes which can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
  • Exhalation [M0449496]
    The act of BREATHING out.
  • Expiratory Reserve Volume [M0008052]
    The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.
  • Eye Movements [M0008093]
    Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
  • Fetoplacental Circulation [M0351056]
    The circulation of blood through the fetus, umbilical cord and placenta on the fetal side.
  • Fibrinolysis [M0008433]
    The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.
  • Fixation, Ocular [M0008527]
    The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
  • Follicular Atresia [M0008665]
    The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.
  • Forced Expiratory Flow Rates [M0008731]
    The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
  • Forced Expiratory Volume [M0008732]
    Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
  • Foreign-Body Migration [M0008742]
    Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
  • Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial [M0496636]
    The ratio of maximum blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM with CORONARY STENOSIS present, to the maximum equivalent blood flow without stenosis. The measurement is commonly used to verify borderline stenosis of CORONARY ARTERIES.
  • Fracture Healing [M0025984]
    The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
  • Functional Residual Capacity [M0008882]
    The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
  • Gagging [M0008931]
    Clinical manifestation of the digestive system consisting of contraction of the muscle of the pharynx caused by stimulation of sensory receptors on the soft palate, by psychic stimuli, or systemically by drugs.
  • Gallbladder Emptying [M0025159]
    A process whereby bile is delivered from the gallbladder into the duodenum. The emptying is caused by both contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter mechanism at the choledochal terminus.
  • Galvanic Skin Response [M0008965]
    A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
  • Gametogenesis [M0008972]
    The process of germ cell development from the primordial germ cells to the mature haploid gametes: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).
  • Gastric Emptying [M0009002]
    The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
  • Gastrointestinal Motility [M0009036]
  • Gastrointestinal Transit [M0009041]
    Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate [M0009298]
    The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
  • Graft Rejection [M0009576]
    An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
  • Graft Survival [M0009577]
    The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
  • Graft vs Leukemia Effect [M0328028]
    Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.
  • Graft vs Tumor Effect [M0029986]
    Immunological rejection of tumor tissue/cells following bone marrow transplantation.
  • H-Reflex [M0009730]
    A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
  • Hematopoiesis [M0010052]
    The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
  • Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary [M0010054]
    The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.
  • Hematopoiesis, Medullary [M0010053]
  • Hemispheric Specialization [M0492903]
  • Hemochorial Placentation [M0455953]
  • Hemodynamic Processes [M0010106]
    Biological actions and events that support the functions involved in systemic or regional BLOOD CIRCULATION.
  • Hemostasis [M0010180]
    The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.
  • Heterotrophic Growth [M0489676]
  • Heterotrophic Processes [M0489659]
    The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
  • Heterotrophy [M0489660]
  • Higher Nervous Activity [M0010358]
    A term used in Eastern European research literature on brain and behavior physiology for cortical functions. It refers to the highest level of integrative function of the brain, centered in the CEREBRAL CORTEX, regulating language, thought, and behavior via sensory, motor, and cognitive processes.
  • Immune Response, Mucosal [M0028297]
  • Immunity, Active [M0011073]
    Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
  • Immunity, Mucosal [M0028298]
    Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
  • Immunologic Memory [M0011158]
    The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
  • Inhalation [M0001861]
    The act of BREATHING in.
  • Inhibition, Wedensky [M0014678]
  • Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials [M0493123]
    The hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons by transmission of NERVE IMPULSES which have an inhibitory influence. They are local changes which result in diminishing the responsiveness to excitatory signals.
  • innervation [M0030488]
    Used with organs, regions, or tissues for their nerve supply.
  • Insemination [M0011397]
    The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
  • Inspiratory Capacity [M0011404]
    The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.
  • Inspiratory Reserve Volume [M0011405]
    The extra volume of air that can be inspired with maximal effort after reaching the end of a normal, quiet inspiration. Common abbreviation is IRV.
  • Intestinal Absorption [M0011567]
    Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
  • Intestinal Motility [M0009037]
  • Intracerebral Pressure [M0011593]
  • Intracranial Pressure [M0011592]
    Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
  • Intraocular Pressure [M0011596]
  • Isometric Contraction [M0011771]
    Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
  • Isotonic Contraction [M0011803]
    Muscle contraction with negligible change in the force of contraction but shortening of the distance between the origin and insertion.
  • Kidney Concentrating Ability [M0012011]
    The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.
  • Kinesthesis [M0012043]
    The sense by which muscular motion, weight, position, etc., are perceived.
  • Lactation [M0012156]
    The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
  • Lactation, Prolonged [M0012157]
  • Left Ventricle Remodeling [M0029923]
  • Leukopoiesis [M0029533]
    The process of generating white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS of the BONE MARROW. There are two significant pathways to generate various types of leukocytes: MYELOPOIESIS, in which leukocytes in the blood are derived from MYELOID STEM CELLS, and LYMPHOPOIESIS, in which leukocytes of the lymphatic system (LYMPHOCYTES) are generated from lymphoid stem cells.
  • Light Adaptation [M0000340]
  • Lipid Mobilization [M0012550]
    LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
  • Liver Circulation [M0012635]
    The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
  • Liver Regeneration [M0012657]
    Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
  • Long-Term Depression (Physiology) [M0411349]
    A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.
  • Long-Term Potentiation [M0026865]
    A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
  • Lung Capacities [M0012752]
  • Lung Compliance [M0012743]
    The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
  • Lung Volume Measurements [M0012751]
    Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
  • Luteolysis [M0005210]
    Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
  • Lymphopoiesis [M0413834]
    Formation of LYMPHOCYTES and PLASMA CELLS from the lymphoid stem cells which develop from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW. These lymphoid stem cells differentiate into T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; or NK-cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) depending on the organ or tissues (LYMPHOID TISSUE) to which they migrate.
  • Mastication [M0013091]
    The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
  • Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate [M0013143]
    The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.
  • Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate [M0013145]
    Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.
  • Maximal Voluntary Ventilation [M0013146]
    Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.
  • Megakaryocytopoiesis [M0404603]
    A complex process that involves the proliferation of MEGAKARYOCYTES in BONE MARROW, their differentiation in size and ploidy, and maturation before the release of functional BLOOD PLATELETS.
  • Mesial Movement of Teeth [M0013468]
  • Microcirculation [M0013771]
    The circulation of the BLOOD through the microvascular network lying between the ARTERIOLES and VENULES. This network includes CAPILLARIES, metarterioles, and ARTERIOVENOUS ANASTOMOSES; and the flow of blood through this network.
  • microvasculature [M0030290]
  • Milk Ejection [M0013889]
    Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.
  • Mucociliary Clearance [M0014161]
    A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.
  • Muscle Contraction [M0014232]
    A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
  • Muscle Development [M0370604]
    Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
  • Muscle Fatigue [M0028097]
    A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
  • Muscle Relaxation [M0014241]
    That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
  • Muscle Tonus [M0014244]
    The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Musculoskeletal Development [M0438805]
    The morphologic and physiological changes of the MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body, i.e., MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, during the prenatal and postnatal stages of development.
  • Musculoskeletal Physiology [M0014261]
    Functions, activities, and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
  • Myelopoiesis [M0029532]
    Formation of MYELOID CELLS from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via MYELOID STEM CELLS. Myelopoiesis generally refers to the production of leukocytes in blood, such as MONOCYTES and GRANULOCYTES. This process also produces precursor cells for MACROPHAGE and DENDRITIC CELLS found in the lymphoid tissue.
  • Myocardial Contraction [M0014335]
    Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
  • Myoelectric Complex, Migrating [M0024553]
    A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.
  • Myogenesis [M0370697]
    The developmental sequence of events in the formation of adult muscle tissue, including fusion of myoblasts to form myotubes, the formation of MYOFIBRILS within their cytoplasm, and the establishment of functional neuromuscular junctions (NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION) with MOTOR NEURONS.
  • Natriuresis [M0014511]
  • Nervous System Physiologic Phenomena [M0489342]
    Observable or measurable characteristics of the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
  • Nervous System Physiologic Processes [M0489350]
    Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
  • Nervous System Physiology [M0014669]
    Functions and activities of the nervous system as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the central nervous system.
  • Neural Conduction [M0014677]
    The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
  • Neural Inhibition [M0014680]
    The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
  • Neuronal Plasticity [M0014735]
    The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
  • Neurosecretion [M0014764]
    The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.
  • Nocturnal Penile Tumescence [M0457931]
  • Nutrition Phenomena [M0489435]
    Observable or measurable characteristics of nutrition.
  • Nutrition Processes [M0489433]
    Biological actions and events that constitute the steps by which living organisms take in and assimilate NUTRIENTS.
  • Nystagmus, Physiologic [M0015139]
    Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.
  • Occlusal Guidance [M0005902]
  • Occlusal Plane [M0005903]
  • Ocular Physiology [M0015214]
    Functions, activities, and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
  • Odontogenesis [M0015220]
    The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
  • Oogenesis [M0015308]
    The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
  • Organ Specificity [M0015399]
    Restriction of a characteristic or response to a particular organ of the body; it usually refers to that property of the immune response which differentiates one organ from another on the basis of antigen recognition, but the concept is not limited to immunology.
  • Organ Survival [M0021590]
  • Organ Viability [M0463094]
  • Osseointegration [M0024991]
    The growth action of bone tissue, as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
  • Osteoconduction [M0495104]
    A physiological phenomenon of BONE TRANSPLANTATION, whereby the new graft matrix configures a scaffold on which cells in the recipient form new bone.
  • Osteogenesis [M0015531]
    The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
  • Osteolysis [M0015536]
    Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
  • Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous [M0025957]
    Sinusoidal tones originating in the cochlea. These faint sounds, with levels between 10-30 decibels, are usually not recognized by the persons having them. However, the emissions can be recorded using sensitive microphones placed in the ear canals. The clinical significance of having or not having spontaneous otoacoustic emissions is unclear; however, some association between tinnitus and the spontaneous emissions has been reported.
  • Oviparity [M0484041]
    The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
  • Oviposition [M0015600]
    The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
  • Ovoviviparity [M0484036]
    The capability of producing yolk-filled eggs that hatch within the body, so that the young are born alive, but without placental attachment. This applies to certain species of REPTILES and FISHES.
  • Ovulation [M0015602]
    The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
  • Oxygen Consumption [M0015672]
    The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
  • P3a Event-Related Potentials [M0492855]
  • P3b Event-Related Potentials [M0492856]
  • Passive Range of Motion [M0024546]
  • Peak Expiratory Flow Rate [M0016077]
    Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
  • Penile Erection [M0016157]
    The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.
  • Penile Tumescence [M0016158]
  • Peristalsis [M0016356]
    A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.
  • Permeability, Microvascular [M0003293]
  • Phonation [M0016624]
    The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
  • Phosphenes [M0016651]
    Visual sensations arising from mechanical or electrical stimulation of the eyeball.
  • Phototrophic Growth [M0489677]
  • Phototrophic Processes [M0489559]
    Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all green plants, GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA, and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
  • Phototrophy [M0489563]
  • Physiologic Ossification [M0015532]
  • Piloerection [M0016863]
    Involuntary erection or bristling of hairs.
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System [M0016924]
    The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
  • Placental Circulation [M0351041]
    The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.
  • Placentation [M0016944]
    The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.
  • Plasma Protein Binding Capacity [M0017850]
  • Platelet Activation [M0023905]
    A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
  • Posture [M0017373]
    The position of the limbs or the carriage of the body as a whole. (Stedman, 25th ed.)
  • Potentials, Event-Related [M0007988]
  • Pulmonary Circulation [M0018123]
    The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
  • Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity [M0018124]
    The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
  • Pulmonary Gas Exchange [M0018136]
    The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
  • Pulmonary Ventilation [M0018884]
    The total volume of gas, inspired or expired, measured in liters per minute.
  • Pulse [M0018154]
    The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
  • Pursuit, Smooth [M0018189]
    Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
  • Rapid Eye Movements [M0019971]
  • Recruitment, Motor Unit [M0493682]
  • Recruitment, Neurophysiological [M0018649]
    The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
  • Reductive Pentose Phosphate Cycle [M0489554]
  • Reflex [M0018684]
    An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
  • Reflex, Abdominal [M0018687]
    Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)
  • Reflex, Acoustic [M0018692]
    Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.
  • Reflex, Monosynaptic [M0018693]
    A reflex in which the AFFERENT NEURONS synapse directly on the EFFERENT NEURONS, without any INTERCALATED NEURONS. (Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)
  • Reflex, Orbicularis Oculi [M0002664]
  • Reflex, Pupillary [M0018695]
    Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
  • Reflex, Stretch [M0018696]
    Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
  • Reflex, Tendon [M0018697]
  • Refraction, Ocular [M0018700]
    Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
  • Regional Blood Flow [M0018715]
    The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
  • Renal Blood Flow, Effective [M0026663]
    The amount of the RENAL BLOOD FLOW that is going to the functional renal tissue, i.e., parts of the KIDNEY that are involved in production of URINE.
  • Renal Circulation [M0018772]
    The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
  • Renal Plasma Flow, Effective [M0026662]
    The amount of PLASMA flowing to the parts of the KIDNEY that function in the production of urine. It is the amount of plasma perfusing the KIDNEY TUBULES per unit time, generally measured by P-AMINOHIPPURATE clearance. It should be differentiated from RENAL PLASMA FLOW which is approximately 10% greater than the effective renal plasma flow.
  • Residual Volume [M0018874]
    The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.
  • Respiratory Airflow [M0018886]
  • Respiratory Aspiration [M0487803]
    Breathing in liquid or solids, such as stomach contents, into the RESPIRATORY TRACT. When this causes severe lung damage, it is called ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.
  • Respiratory Dead Space [M0018889]
    That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
  • Respiratory Mechanics [M0023995]
    The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
  • Respiratory Physiologic Phenomena [M0445975]
    Observable or measurable characteristics of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
  • Respiratory Physiologic Processes [M0445976]
    Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
  • Respiratory Physiology [M0018922]
    Functions, activities, and phenomena of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
  • Respiratory Transport [M0023996]
    The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.
  • Resting Potentials [M0490546]
  • Saccades [M0019326]
    An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
  • Salivation [M0019381]
    The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
  • Self Tolerance [M0026701]
    The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.
  • Sensation [M0019650]
    Transduction of physical or chemical changes in the external or internal environment into nerve impulses by specialized receptors, transmission of these impulses by afferent neurons to the effectors, either directly or through the CNS.
  • Sex Differentiation [M0019734]
    Differentiation of male and female tissues and organs during embryogenesis, but after sex determination (SEX DETERMINATION (GENETICS);).
  • Sex Reversal, Gonadal [M0019751]
    Complete or partial change from one sex to another with regard to gonadal development. Gonadal sex reversal may occur naturally or be induced by factors such as steroids, temperature, and autosomal abnormalities during the critical period of gonadal differentiation (SEX DIFFERENTIATION) in some species.
  • Skin Absorption [M0019927]
    Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
  • Skin Aging [M0023939]
    The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
  • Skin Physiology [M0019940]
    The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin and its appendages.
  • Skin Pigmentation [M0019941]
    Coloration of the skin.
  • Skin Wrinkling [M0023940]
  • Sperm Capacitation [M0020262]
    The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.
  • Sperm Maturation [M0020267]
    The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.
  • Sperm Transport [M0020270]
    Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.
  • Sperm-Ovum Interactions [M0020273]
    Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.
  • Splanchnic Circulation [M0020362]
    The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
  • Spreading Cortical Depression [M0020396]
    The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
  • Superovulation [M0020824]
    Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
  • Synaptic Potentials [M0014684]
  • Synaptic Transmission [M0014683]
    The communication from a neuron to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a synapse. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a neurotransmitter that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors. These activated receptors modulate ion channels and/or second-messenger systems to influence the postsynaptic cell. Electrical transmission is less common in the nervous system, and, as in other tissues, is mediated by gap junctions.
  • Teething [M0021676]
  • Temperature Sense [M0021144]
    The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth.
  • Theta Rhythm [M0021311]
    One of four types of brain waves, characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
  • Thrombopoiesis [M0404604]
    The process of generating thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS) from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via the MEGAKARYOCYTES. The humoral factor with thrombopoiesis-stimulating activity is designated THROMBOPOIETIN.
  • Tidal Volume [M0021528]
    The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
  • Tissue Survival [M0021591]
    The span of viability of a tissue or an organ.
  • Tissue Viability [M0463093]
  • Tooth Calcification [M0021672]
    The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
  • Tooth Eruption [M0021677]
  • Tooth Exfoliation [M0021679]
    Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
  • Tooth Mobility [M0021686]
    Horizontal and, to a lesser degree, axial movement of a tooth in response to normal forces, as in occlusion. It refers also to the movability of a tooth resulting from loss of all or a portion of its attachment and supportive apparatus, as seen in periodontitis, occlusal trauma, and periodontosis. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p507 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p313)
  • Tooth Permeability [M0021693]
  • Total Lung Capacity [M0021716]
    The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
  • Ultrafiltration [M0022232]
    The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
  • Urinary Tract Physiology [M0022374]
    Functions and activities of the urinary tract as a whole or of any of its parts.
  • Urodynamics [M0022389]
    The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.
  • Uterine Contraction [M0022425]
    Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.
  • Uteroplacental Circulation [M0027632]
    The circulation of blood through the uterus and placenta on the maternal side.
  • Valsalva Maneuver [M0022506]
    Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.
  • Vascular Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation [M0448316]
    VASODILATION that is mediated via the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS or their processes.
  • Vascular Patency [M0022537]
    The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
  • Vascular Permeability [M0003294]
  • Vasoconstriction [M0022550]
    The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
  • Vasodilation [M0022556]
    The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
  • Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio [M0022594]
    The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Ventricular End-Diastolic Volume [M0020610]
  • Ventricular End-Systolic Volume [M0020611]
  • Ventricular Function [M0024875]
    The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
  • Ventricular Function, Left [M0024876]
    The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
  • Ventricular Function, Right [M0024877]
    The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
  • Ventricular Pressure [M0026790]
    The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
  • Ventricular Remodeling [M0029922]
    The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
  • Vision [M0022769]
    The sensation of sight.
  • Vital Capacity [M0022782]
    The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
  • Vitellogenesis [M0022814]
    The active production and accumulation of VITELLINS (egg yolk proteins) in the non-mammalian OOCYTES from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellogenesis usually begins after the first MEIOSIS and is regulated by estrogenic hormones.
  • Viviparity, Nonmammalian [M0484039]
    The capability of bearing live young (rather than eggs) in nonmammalian species. Some species of REPTILES and FISHES exhibit this.
  • Weight-Bearing [M0025160]
    The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
  • Winking [M0002666]
  • Work of Breathing [M0023009]
    RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)