Quantitative Concept

MeSH ID: T081

Related Concepts:

  • 3D-QSAR [M0352431]
  • Abbreviated Injury Scale [M0024458]
    Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
  • Abortion Rate [M0000035]
  • Accounts Payable [M0000095]
  • Accounts Payable and Receivable [M0000096]
    Short-term debt obligations and assets occurring in the regular course of operational transactions.
  • administration & dosage [M0030212]
    Used with drugs for dosage forms, routes of administration, frequency and duration of administration, quantity of medication, and the effects of these factors.
  • Age Distribution [M0026734]
    The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
  • Age of Onset [M0026723]
    The age or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
  • Age-Specific Birth Rate [M0013108]
  • Age-Specific Death Rate [M0014073]
  • Age-Specific Fertility Rate [M0013109]
  • Allostatic Load [M0488606]
    The amount of adaptive work involved in allostasis.
  • Altitude [M0000818]
  • Amniotic Fluid Index [M0331853]
  • Anaerobic Threshold [M0023567]
    The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.
  • Analogue Pain Scale [M0015744]
  • Analysis of Variance [M0001072]
    A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
  • Analysis, Cohort [M0023605]
  • Analysis, Factor [M0008140]
  • Antibody Affinity [M0001362]
    A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
  • Antibody Avidity [M0001363]
  • APACHE [M0028159]
    An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.
  • APACHE I [M0028156]
  • APACHE II [M0028157]
  • APACHE III [M0028158]
  • Area Analysis [M0020451]
  • Area Under Curve [M0029025]
    A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
  • Arthrometry, Articular [M0494854]
    Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.
  • Auditory Threshold [M0001970]
    The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
  • Availability Equivalency [M0002521]
  • Baryons [M0007225]
  • Base Composition [M0002201]
    The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
  • Base Ratio [M0002202]
  • Basic Reproduction Number [M0478684]
    The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.
  • Bayes Theorem [M0002234]
    A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihoods of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
  • Bayesian Analysis [M0002235]
  • Bayesian Forecast [M0002236]
  • Bayesian Method [M0002237]
  • Bayesian Prediction [M0002238]
  • Bed Occupancy [M0002265]
    A measure of inpatient health facility use based upon the average number or proportion of beds occupied for a given period of time.
  • Bed Size [M0010560]
  • Benchmarking [M0029693]
    Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.
  • Benchmarking, Health Care [M0029692]
  • Bernoulli Distribution [M0024472]
  • Binomial Distribution [M0024473]
    The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.
  • Biological Availability [M0002522]
    The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
  • Biomass [M0027784]
    Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
  • Birth Order [M0002589]
    The sequence in which children are born into the family.
  • Birth Rate [M0002592]
    The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
  • Blood Cell Count [M0002674]
    The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
  • Body Burden [M0002740]
    The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
  • Body Constitution [M0002742]
    The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
  • Body Fat Distribution [M0473319]
    Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
  • Body Height [M0002747]
    The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
  • Body Size [M0002743]
    The physical measurements of a body.
  • Body Surface Area [M0002750]
  • Body Weight [M0002758]
    The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
  • Body Weights and Measures [M0002760]
    Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
  • Boiling Point Temperature [M0444940]
  • Bond Issues, Construction [M0008488]
  • Bone Mineral Content [M0023879]
  • Book Prices [M0002806]
  • Calibration [M0003196]
    Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
  • Caloric Restriction [M0396850]
    Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
  • Capital [M0006998]
  • Capitation Fee [M0003300]
    A method of payment for health services in which an individual or institutional provider is paid a fixed, per capita amount without regard to the actual number or nature of services provided to each patient.
  • Carrying Capacity [M0005035]
  • Case Fatality Rate [M0014079]
  • Case Mix [M0006193]
  • Case-Mix Adjustment [M0030020]
  • CD4-CD8 Ratio [M0025210]
    Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
  • Cell Density [M0003745]
  • Cell Nucleus Size [M0491596]
    The quantity of volume or surface area of a CELL NUCLEUS.
  • Cell Nucleus Volume [M0491597]
  • Cell Size [M0026138]
    The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
  • Cell Volume [M0026139]
  • Censuses [M0028805]
    Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)
  • Cephalopelvic Proportion [M0016103]
  • Cephalopelvimetry [M0016104]
  • Certification Level [M0003924]
  • Charges [M0008290]
  • Chemiluminescent Measurements [M0464477]
    Measurement of light resulting from PHYSICAL CHEMILUMINESCENCE such as from LUMINESCENT PROTEINS and LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
  • Chi-Square Distribution [M0024470]
    A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
  • Chi-Square Test [M0024471]
  • Child Mortality [M0011271]
    Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
  • Client-Staff Ratio [M0016401]
  • Closed Cohort Studies [M0023601]
  • Cluster Analysis [M0024460]
    A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
  • Clutch Size [M0484032]
    The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.
  • Cohort Effect [M0024441]
    Variation in health status arising from different causal factors to which each birth cohort in a population is exposed as environment and society change.
  • Cohort Studies [M0023602]
    Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
  • Coital Frequency [M0004727]
  • Compensation [M0007018]
  • Compensation and Redress [M0408395]
    Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.
  • Compliance [M0004942]
    Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
  • Compressive Strength [M0028658]
    The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
  • Confidence Intervals [M0024462]
    A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
  • Consanguinity [M0005028]
    The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.
  • Construction Loans [M0008489]
  • Consumer Price Index [M0006999]
  • Contraceptive History [M0026647]
  • Correlation of Data [M0020452]
  • Corrositex [M0361996]
  • Cost [M0005243]
  • cost [M0030376]
  • Cost Benefit [M0005234]
  • Cost Effectiveness [M0005236]
  • Cost Measures [M0005242]
  • Cost of Illness [M0026234]
    The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, QUALITY OF LIFE, etc. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
  • Cost of Living [M0007001]
  • Cost Savings [M0025901]
    Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.
  • Cost Sharing [M0025903]
    Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
  • Cost-Benefit Data [M0005238]
  • Cox Models [M0024485]
  • Cox Proportional Hazards Models [M0024486]
  • Cumulative Survival Rate [M0024453]
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical [M0005680]
    Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
  • Data Sources [M0005668]
  • Death Rate [M0014078]
  • death rate [M0030611]
  • Decline, Mortality [M0014080]
  • Deductibles [M0005741]
  • delta pH [M0417149]
    Change in HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION across a membrane. The pH gradient together with the voltage gradient constitute an electrochemical proton gradient which exerts the PROTON-MOTIVE FORCE.
  • Demographic Aging [M0017304]
  • Demographic Transition [M0017305]
  • Dental Plaque Index [M0005911]
    An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.
  • Depreciation [M0006027]
    Decline in value of capital assets of a permanent or fixed nature over time with use.
  • Dietary Requirements [M0491408]
  • Differential Threshold [M0006360]
    The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
  • Direct Service Costs [M0006550]
    Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.
  • Discretionary Adjustment Factor [M0017794]
  • Discriminant Analysis [M0024463]
    A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.
  • Disease Clustering [M0024461]
  • Disease-Free Survival [M0027839]
    Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
  • Distance [M0009896]
  • DMF Index [M0006640]
    "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug [M0006767]
    The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic [M0006768]
    A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation [M0006769]
    The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
  • Drug Costs [M0025228]
    The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
  • Drug Utilization [M0006856]
    The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.
  • Easterlin Hypothesis [M0007019]
  • Economic Conditions [M0007003]
  • Economic Development [M0007004]
  • Economic Value of Life [M0006997]
    The evaluation of the monetary value of a life lost or a life saved.
  • Economics [M0007005]
    The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.
  • economics [M0030375]
    Used for the economic aspects of any subject, as well as for all aspects of financial management. It includes the raising or providing of funds.
  • Economics, Pharmaceutical [M0026973]
    Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))
  • Educational Grants [M0021763]
  • Efficiency [M0007119]
    Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.
  • Electric Capacitance [M0007158]
    The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.
  • Electric Conductivity [M0007157]
    The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
  • Electrons [M0007202]
    Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS or BETA RAYS, the latter being a high-energy biproduct of nuclear decay.
  • Elementary Particles [M0007226]
    Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.
  • Employee Workload [M0025226]
  • Employer Health Costs [M0025907]
    That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.
  • Endowments [M0008481]
  • Energy Intake [M0003220]
    Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
  • Epidemiologic Measurements [M0024444]
    Statistical calculations on the occurrence of disease or other health-related conditions in defined populations.
  • Episkin [M0361994]
  • Error Sources [M0018853]
  • Erythrocyte Count [M0007697]
    The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
  • Erythrocyte Diameter [M0450399]
  • Erythrocyte Survival [M0007696]
  • Erythrocyte Thickness [M0450398]
  • Estimation Techniques [M0020459]
  • Exercise Tolerance [M0025953]
    The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
  • Expenditures [M0008044]
  • Expenditures, Direct [M0008045]
  • Expenditures, Indirect [M0008047]
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical [M0008139]
    A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
  • Factors, Economic [M0007017]
  • Family Size [M0008192]
  • Family Size, Average [M0008193]
  • Family Size, Completed [M0008194]
  • Family Size, Desired [M0008195]
  • Family Size, Expected [M0008196]
  • Family Size, Ideal [M0008197]
  • Fast Electrons [M0007203]
  • Fast Neutrons [M0008247]
    Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.
  • Fee Schedules [M0008285]
    A listing of established professional service charges, for specified dental and medical procedures.
  • Fee-for-Service Plans [M0027864]
    Method of charging whereby a physician or other practitioner bills for each encounter or service rendered. In addition to physicians, other health care professionals are reimbursed via this mechanism. Fee-for-service plans contrast with salary, per capita, and prepayment systems, where the payment does not change with the number of services actually used or if none are used. (From Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
  • Fee-for-Service, Medical [M0027862]
  • Fees [M0008291]
  • fees [M0030377]
  • Fees and Charges [M0008292]
    Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.
  • Fees, Dental [M0008294]
    Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.
  • Fees, Medical [M0008295]
    Amounts charged to the patient as payer for medical services.
  • Fees, Pharmaceutical [M0008296]
    Amounts charged to the patient or third-party payer for medication. It includes the pharmacist's professional fee and cost of ingredients, containers, etc.
  • Fertility Rate [M0445298]
    Births in 1 year x 1,000/number of women aged 15-44 at midyear.
  • Fetal Mortality [M0455146]
    Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.
  • Fetal Weight [M0328468]
    The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
  • finances [M0030381]
  • Financial Audit [M0008480]
    An examination, review and verification of all financial accounts.
  • financial management [M0030378]
  • financing [M0030380]
  • Food Supply [M0008704]
  • Fourier Analysis [M0008789]
    Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
  • Fourier Series [M0008790]
  • Fourier Transform [M0008791]
  • Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial [M0496636]
    The ratio of maximum blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM with CORONARY STENOSIS present, to the maximum equivalent blood flow without stenosis. The measurement is commonly used to verify borderline stenosis of CORONARY ARTERIES.
  • Freezing Point Temperature [M0452362]
  • frequency [M0030657]
  • Fringe Benefits [M0019355]
  • funding [M0030382]
  • Funds [M0008484]
  • G+C Composition [M0399901]
  • Gene Dosage [M0027921]
    The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
  • Gene Frequency [M0009067]
    The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
  • Genetic Load [M0009149]
    The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
  • Glasgow Coma Scale [M0023945]
    A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
  • Glasgow Outcome Scale [M0361011]
    A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.
  • Glycemic Index [M0415929]
    A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation by a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings. These numbers do not correspond to calories or amounts of food intake but rather, depend on the rates of digestion and absorption of these food items.
  • Grants [M0008497]
  • Grants and Subsidies, Government [M0008492]
  • Grants and Subsidies, Health Planning [M0009879]
  • Grants and Subsidies, Research [M0018858]
  • Gravidity [M0029781]
    The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Gross National Product [M0007006]
  • Hand Strength [M0028069]
    Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
  • Haploidy [M0009795]
    The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
  • Hazards Models [M0024487]
  • Health Benefits [M0011447]
  • Health Care Costs [M0025904]
    The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
  • Health Care Market [M0029682]
  • Health Expenditures [M0008046]
    The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
  • Health Facility Size [M0009848]
    The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.
  • Health Manpower [M0009854]
    The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
  • Health Status Indicators [M0009916]
    The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
  • Healthy Worker Effect [M0024442]
    Phenomenon of workers' usually exhibiting overall death rates lower than those of the general population due to the fact that the severely ill and disabled are ordinarily excluded from employment.
  • Historical Cohort Studies [M0023603]
  • Home Economics [M0007020]
  • Hospital Bed Capacity [M0010559]
    The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.
  • Hospital Bed Capacity, 100 to 299 [M0010562]
  • Hospital Bed Capacity, 300 to 499 [M0010563]
  • Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and over [M0010564]
  • Hospital Bed Capacity, under 100 [M0010561]
  • Hospital Charges [M0026788]
    The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.
  • Hospital Costs [M0026787]
    The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).
  • Hospital Size [M0009849]
  • Household Consumption [M0007007]
  • Human Reproductive Indexes [M0018811]
  • Human Resources [M0009856]
  • Hybrid Vigor [M0010668]
    The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration [M0010722]
  • Incidence [M0024451]
    The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
  • Incidence Studies [M0023604]
  • Income [M0011195]
    Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
  • Income Distribution [M0011196]
  • Indirect Estimation Techniques [M0020460]
  • Infant Mortality [M0011273]
    Postneonatal deaths between 28 days and 365 days after BIRTH in a given population (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Perinatal mortality represents deaths from 28th week of GESTATION to 7th day after birth. Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
  • Inflation, Economic [M0011308]
    An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level.
  • Inheritance [M0022979]
  • Inhibitory Concentration 50 [M0029868]
    The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
  • Injury Severity Score [M0023946]
    An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
  • Institutional Tax [M0021077]
  • instrumentation [M0030489]
    Used with diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, analytic techniques, and specialties or disciplines, for the development or modification of apparatus, instruments, or equipment.
  • Insurance Benefits [M0011446]
    Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.
  • Insurance, Health, Reimbursement [M0011459]
    Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
  • Intermediate Variables [M0017306]
  • International Normalized Ratio [M0029608]
    System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.
  • International System of Units [M0011530]
    A system of physical units in which the fundamental quantities are length, time, mass, electric current, temperature, luminous intensity, and amount of substance, and the corresponding units are the meter, second, kilogram, ampere, kelvin, candela, and mole. The system has been given official status and recommended for universal use by the General Conference on Weights and Measures.
  • Interobserver Variation [M0023931]
  • Intraobserver Variation [M0023932]
  • Inventories, Hospital [M0011619]
    Materials and equipment in stock; includes drugs in pharmacies, blood in blood banks, etc.
  • Isoelectric Point [M0011757]
    The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
  • Just-Noticeable Difference [M0006362]
  • Kaplan-Meier Survival Curves [M0491961]
  • Kaplan-Meiers Estimate [M0491960]
    A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
  • Katz Adjustment Scales [M0017982]
  • Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test [M0028025]
  • Kruskal-Wallis H Statistic [M0028026]
  • Land Holding [M0015615]
  • Land Supply [M0000585]
  • Late Fetal Mortality [M0455147]
  • Least-Squares Analysis [M0024490]
    A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
  • Length of Stay [M0012343]
    The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
  • Lethal Dose 50 [M0012370]
    The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
  • Leukocyte Count [M0012405]
    The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
  • Life Table Estimates [M0024447]
  • Life Table Methods [M0024448]
  • Life Table Models [M0024449]
  • Life Tables [M0024450]
    Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
  • Life Valuation, Economic [M0006996]
  • Likelihood Functions [M0024477]
    Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
  • Linear Models [M0024479]
    Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
  • Linear Regression [M0024480]
  • Linkage Disequilibrium [M0024211]
    Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
  • Litter Size [M0012630]
    The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
  • Local Lymph Node Assay [M0361995]
    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an alternative method for the identification of chemicals that have the ability to cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Endpoints have been established so fewer animals are required and less painful procedures are used.
  • Lod Score [M0012671]
    The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
  • Log-Linear Models [M0024481]
  • Logistic Models [M0024482]
    Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
  • Logit Models [M0024484]
  • Longitudinal Studies [M0012689]
    Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
  • Longitudinal Survey [M0012690]
  • Luminescent Measurements [M0464536]
    Techniques using light resulting from PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE emitted by LUMINESCENT PROTEINS and LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
  • Lymphocyte Count [M0027952]
    The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
  • Macroeconomic Factors [M0007009]
  • Mann-Whitney U Test [M0028027]
  • Manpower Needs [M0009855]
  • margin of safety [M0030826]
  • Markov Chains [M0013045]
    A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
  • Marriage Age [M0013057]
  • Matched-Pair Analysis [M0025256]
    A type of analysis in which subjects in a study group and a comparison group are made comparable with respect to extraneous factors by individually pairing study subjects with the comparison group subjects (e.g., age-matched controls).
  • Maternal Health [M0013117]
  • Maternal Mortality [M0013116]
    Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
  • Maternal Welfare [M0013118]
    Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
  • Maximum Allowable Concentration [M0013147]
    The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
  • Maximum Likelihood Estimates [M0024478]
  • Maximum Tolerated Dose [M0328199]
    The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
  • McGill Pain Questionnaire [M0015746]
  • Mean Survival Time [M0024456]
  • Measurement [M0018854]
  • Measures [M0022915]
  • Medical Care Costs [M0025905]
  • Melting Point Temperature [M0444939]
  • Membrane Potentials [M0013339]
    The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES' membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
  • Mesons [M0013479]
    Short-lived elementary particles found in cosmic radiation or produced from nuclear disintegration. Their mass is between that of protons and electrons and they can be negative, positive, or neutral. pi-Mesons (pions) are heavier than mu-mesons (muons) and are proposed for cancer radiotherapy because their capture and disintegration by matter produces powerful, but short-lived, secondary radiation.
  • Metric System [M0013689]
  • Microcensus [M0028807]
  • Microeconomic Factors [M0007011]
  • Mitochondrial Size [M0491593]
    The quantity of volume or surface area of MITOCHONDRIA.
  • Mitochondrial Volume [M0491594]
  • Models, Binomial [M0023409]
  • Models, Econometric [M0025926]
    The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
  • Models, Economic [M0028153]
    Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
  • Models, Polynomial [M0023410]
  • Models, Statistical [M0023411]
    Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
  • Molecular Weight [M0013987]
  • Monte Carlo Method [M0014048]
    In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
  • Morbidity [M0014060]
    The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
  • Mortality [M0014075]
    All deaths reported in a given population.
  • mortality [M0030609]
    Used with human and veterinary diseases for mortality statistics. For deaths resulting from various procedures statistically but for a death resulting in a specific case, use FATAL OUTCOME, not /mortality.
  • Mortality Determinants [M0014077]
  • Mortality, Differential [M0014074]
  • Mortality, Excess [M0014076]
  • Mortality, Premature [M0011277]
  • MRI Scans [M0012896]
  • mu-Mesons [M0013480]
  • Multigravidity [M0029782]
  • Multiparity [M0015957]
  • Multiple Classification Analysis [M0020455]
  • Multivariate Analysis [M0024459]
    A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
  • Muscle Strength [M0494823]
    The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
  • Natural Increase [M0017320]
  • Needs Assessment [M0030023]
    Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
  • Negative Binomial Distribution [M0024474]
  • Neonatal Mortality [M0011274]
  • Neutrons [M0014781]
    Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
  • Nomograms [M0464563]
    Graphical representation of a statistical model containing scales for calculating the prognostic weight of a value for each individual variable. Nomograms are instruments that can be used to predict outcomes using specific clinical parameters. They use ALGORITHMS that incorporate several variables to calculate the predicted probability that a patient will achieve a particular clinical endpoint.
  • Normal Distribution [M0024475]
    Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
  • Normal Range [M0018677]
  • Nulligravidity [M0029783]
  • Nulliparity [M0015958]
  • numerical data [M0030892]
  • Nutrition Indexes [M0015119]
    Indexes used in evaluating NUTRITIONAL STATUS.
  • Nutritional Requirements [M0015125]
    The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
  • Nutritive Value [M0015127]
    An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
  • Observer Variation [M0023933]
    The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
  • occurrence [M0030656]
  • Odds Ratio [M0024489]
    The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
  • Odontometry [M0015229]
  • Optimum Population [M0017309]
  • Oral Hygiene Index [M0015369]
    A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.
  • Organelle Size [M0491590]
    The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.
  • Organelle Volume [M0491591]
  • Outcome Measures [M0025935]
  • Overpopulation [M0017300]
  • Ownership [M0015616]
    The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.
  • Pain Threshold [M0026242]
    Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
  • Paired Comparisons [M0025257]
  • Parish Registers [M0018722]
  • Parity [M0015959]
    The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
  • Parity Progression Ratio [M0015960]
  • Particle Size [M0015988]
    Relating to the size of solids.
  • Paternity Benefits [M0019359]
  • Patient Participation Rates [M0016062]
  • Pay Equity [M0019358]
  • Pelvimetry [M0016105]
    Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.
  • Penetrance [M0029217]
    The percent frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene or gene combination manifests itself in the phenotype of the carriers. (From Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed)
  • Pensions [M0016163]
    Fixed sums paid regularly to individuals.
  • Perimetry [M0016312]
    Determination of the extent of the visual field for various types and intensities of stimuli.
  • Perinatal Mortality [M0011275]
  • Personal Expenditures [M0008499]
  • Personal Identification Systems [M0018645]
  • Personnel Turnover [M0016411]
    A change or shift in personnel due to reorganization, resignation, or discharge.
  • Phosphorescent Measurements [M0464540]
  • Photometry [M0016751]
  • pi-Mesons [M0013481]
  • Pinch Strength [M0487896]
    Force exerted when using the index finger and the thumb. It is a test for determining maximum voluntary contraction force.
  • Platelet Count [M0017016]
    The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
  • Ploidies [M0017050]
    The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
  • Poisson Distribution [M0024476]
    A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
  • Population [M0017287]
    The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.
  • Population Decrease [M0017310]
  • Population Density [M0017301]
    Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
  • Population Distribution [M0005817]
  • Population Dynamics [M0017311]
    The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
  • Population Growth [M0017323]
    Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
  • Population Pressure [M0017312]
  • Population Register [M0018723]
  • Population Replacement [M0017313]
  • Population Size [M0017302]
  • Population Size and Growth [M0017326]
  • Population Statistics [M0017293]
  • Positrons [M0007204]
  • Potentiometry [M0017388]
    Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
  • Practice Valuation and Purchase [M0030103]
    Determination of economic value of an established health care provider practice including value of patient lists, equipment, and other assets, and process of buying or selling rights to said practice.
  • Predictive Value of Tests [M0017458]
    In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
  • Pregnancy History [M0026648]
  • Pregnancy Rate [M0028224]
    The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
  • Pregnancy Rate, Live-Birth [M0028225]
  • Prescription Fees [M0017557]
    The charge levied on the consumer for drugs or therapy prescribed under written order of a physician or other health professional.
  • Pressure [M0017564]
  • Prevalence [M0024452]
    The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
  • prevalence [M0030653]
  • Prevalence Studies [M0005346]
  • Prices [M0004851]
  • Pricing [M0005245]
  • Primiparity [M0015961]
  • Principal Component Analysis [M0374291]
    Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
  • Probability [M0017597]
    The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
  • Probability Sample [M0019409]
  • Procedures [M0013588]
  • Process Measures [M0025939]
  • Production [M0007012]
  • Productivity [M0007120]
  • Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) [M0023942]
  • Progression-Free Survival [M0027838]
  • Proportional Hazards Models [M0024488]
    Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
  • Prospective Studies [M0017797]
    Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
  • Public Opinion [M0018096]
    The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
  • Public Opinion Polls [M0018097]
  • Purchase, Dental Practice [M0030101]
  • Purchase, Medical Practice [M0030102]
  • Quality Indicators [M0029690]
  • Quality Indicators, Health Care [M0029691]
    Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.
  • Quantitative Evaluation [M0007980]
  • Quantitative Structure Property Relationship [M0475585]
  • Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship [M0352430]
    A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
  • Radiation Dosage [M0018377]
  • Radiotherapy Dosage [M0018444]
    The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
  • Randomized Response Technique [M0005670]
  • Range of Motion, Articular [M0024547]
    The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
  • Rank-Sum Tests [M0028028]
  • Receiver Operating Characteristic [M0019233]
  • Recession, Economic [M0007014]
  • Reference Standards [M0018672]
    A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
  • Reference Values [M0018676]
    The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
  • Refractive Index [M0018703]
  • Registries [M0018724]
    The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
  • Regression Analysis [M0018726]
    Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
  • Reimbursement, Fee-for-Service [M0027863]
  • Relative Biological Effectiveness [M0018747]
    The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
  • Relative Risk [M0019128]
  • Relative Value Scales [M0024326]
    Coded listings of physician or other professional services using units that indicate the relative value of the various services they perform. They take into account time, skill, and overhead cost required for each service, but generally do not consider the relative cost-effectiveness. Appropriate conversion factors can be used to translate the abstract units of the relative value scales into dollar fees for each service based on work expended, practice costs, and training costs.
  • Remittances [M0007013]
  • Remuneration [M0008293]
    Payment for a service or for a commodity such as a body part.
  • Repression-Sensitization Scales [M0018807]
  • Reproducibility of Results [M0023362]
    The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
  • Reproductive History [M0026649]
    An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
  • Research Support [M0018859]
    Financial support of research activities.
  • Residence Characteristics [M0018865]
    Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
  • Resource Allocation [M0023517]
    Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.
  • Resource Based Relative Value Scale [M0024327]
  • Reticulocyte Count [M0026766]
    The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.
  • Retrospective Studies [M0018978]
    Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
  • Rietveld Refinement [M0402364]
    A least squares analysis that minimizes the differences between the calculated and measured values by adjusting the parameters needed to describe the model. It is used for POWDER DIFFRACTION crystallography.
  • Risk [M0019126]
    The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
  • Risk Adjustment [M0030021]
    The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)
  • Risk Factors [M0019129]
    An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
  • ROC Curve [M0019234]
    A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
  • Salaries and Fringe Benefits [M0019357]
    The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.
  • Saline Fragility [M0015498]
  • Sample Size [M0027628]
    The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
  • Sampling Bias [M0024425]
  • Sampling Error [M0024426]
  • Savings [M0011197]
  • School Enrollment [M0020633]
  • Scintillation Counting [M0019529]
    Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
  • Secretory Rate [M0019593]
    The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
  • Selection Bias [M0024427]
    The introduction of error due to systematic differences in the characteristics between those selected and those not selected for a given study. In sampling bias, error is the result of failure to ensure that all members of the reference population have a known chance of selection in the sample.
  • Sensitivity [M0019654]
  • Sensitivity and Specificity [M0019655]
    Measures for assessing the results of diagnostic and screening tests. Sensitivity represents the proportion of truly diseased persons in a screened population who are identified as being diseased by the test. It is a measure of the probability of correctly diagnosing a condition. Specificity is the proportion of truly nondiseased persons who are so identified by the screening test. It is a measure of the probability of correctly identifying a nondiseased person. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
  • Sensory Thresholds [M0019661]
    The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
  • Sentinel Health Event [M0027836]
  • Sentinel Surveillance [M0027837]
    Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort, geographic area, population subgroup, etc. to estimate trends in larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
  • Sequence Homology [M0026400]
    The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid [M0026402]
    The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid [M0019668]
    The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
  • Serum Total Iron-Binding Capacity [M0011720]
  • Severity of Illness Index [M0019706]
    Levels of severity of illness within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria.
  • Sex Distribution [M0026735]
    The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
  • Sex Ratio [M0019750]
    The number of males per 100 females.
  • Short Increment Sensitivity Index [M0018652]
  • Skin Irritancy Tests [M0361990]
    Tests or bioassays that measure the skin sensitization potential of various chemicals.
  • Small-Area Studies [M0025931]
  • Small-Area Variation [M0025932]
  • Sociometric Techniques [M0020090]
    Methods for quantitatively assessing and measuring interpersonal and group relationships.
  • Solubility [M0020139]
  • Space-Time Clustering [M0020193]
    A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.
  • Spatial Distribution [M0005824]
  • Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient [M0028029]
  • Specific Gravity [M0020222]
  • Specificity [M0019656]
  • Speech Acoustics [M0020245]
    The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.
  • Sperm Number [M0020264]
  • Stable Population [M0017315]
  • Staff Workload [M0025227]
  • Standard of Living [M0020083]
  • Stationary Population [M0017316]
  • Statistical Distributions [M0024469]
    The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.
  • statistics & numerical data [M0030890]
    Used with non-disease headings for the expression of numerical values which describe particular sets or groups of data. It excludes manpower distribution for which "manpower" is used and excludes supply or demand for which "supply & distribution" is used.
  • Statistics, Nonparametric [M0028032]
    A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
  • Statistics, Service [M0020456]
  • Stochastic Processes [M0020539]
    Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
  • Structural Homology, Protein [M0422490]
    The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
  • Subsidies, Government [M0008494]
  • Substrate Specificity [M0020684]
    A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
  • Survey Methods [M0005672]
  • survival [M0030612]
  • Survival Analysis [M0024491]
    A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
  • Survival Rate [M0024454]
    The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
  • Tables and Charts [M0020461]
  • Taste Threshold [M0021063]
    The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
  • Taxes [M0021079]
    Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
  • Temperature [M0021143]
  • Tensile Strength [M0021167]
    The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
  • Thermal Conductivity [M0021299]
  • Tissue Distribution [M0021578]
    Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
  • toxic potential [M0030827]
  • toxicity [M0030825]
    Used with drugs and chemicals for experimental human and animal studies of their ill effects. It includes studies to determine the margin of safety or the reactions accompanying administration at various dose levels. It is used also for exposure to environmental agents. Poisoning should be considered for life-threatening exposure to environmental agents.
  • Transition Temperature [M0444938]
    The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
  • Trauma Severity Indices [M0023944]
    Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.
  • Treatment Costs [M0025906]
  • Tumor Burden [M0457407]
    The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
  • Tumor Volume [M0457409]
  • Tumor Weight [M0457408]
  • Turbidimetry [M0014624]
  • Two-Parameter Models [M0023412]
  • Underpopulation [M0017303]
  • Utility Theory [M0007016]
  • utilization [M0030854]
    Used with equipment, facilities, programs, services, and health personnel for discussions, usually with data, of how much they are used. It includes discussions of overuse and underuse.
  • Viral Load [M0029051]
    The quantity of measurable virus in the blood. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is used as a surrogate marker in HIV disease progression.
  • Virulence [M0022753]
    The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
  • Vision Disparity [M0023644]
    The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
  • Visual Acuity [M0022776]
    Acuteness or clearness of vision, especially of form vision, which is dependent mainly on the sharpness of the retinal focus.
  • Visual Analog Scale [M0015749]
  • Vital Statistics [M0022784]
    Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.
  • Wages [M0019356]
  • Waist-Hip Ratio [M0002744]
    The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
  • Water Supply [M0022897]
    Source, means, or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
  • Weber-Fechner Law [M0006361]
  • Weights [M0022913]
  • Weights and Measures [M0022914]
    A unit or standard of measurement. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
  • Whole-Body Counting [M0022975]
    Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
  • Wilcox Test [M0028030]
  • Wilcoxon Rank Test [M0028031]
  • Workload [M0025225]
    The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.
  • Zero Population Growth [M0017327]