MeSH
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Research Activity

MeSH ID: T062

Related Concepts:

  • Abortion Surveys [M0009917]
  • Action Research [M0009909]
  • Analysis, Cohort [M0023605]
  • Analysis, Event History [M0012497]
  • Animal Experimentation [M0001231]
    The use of animals as investigational subjects.
  • Animal Experiments [M0001221]
  • Animal Testing Alternatives [M0001229]
    Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
  • Anonymous Testing [M0004999]
    Testing in which the source of the specimen or the person being tested is not individually identified.
  • Anterior Temporal Lobectomy [M0416070]
    A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).
  • Anthropometry [M0001322]
    The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
  • Autoexperimentation [M0010648]
    Intentionally using oneself as a research subject.
  • Autonomic Denervation [M0026849]
    The removal or interruption of some part of the autonomic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
  • Axotomy [M0029338]
    Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
  • Baseline Survey [M0005676]
  • Behavioral Research [M0018823]
    Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
  • Benefit-Risk Assessment [M0027835]
  • Bibliometrics [M0024090]
    The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
  • Biomedical Research [M0018824]
    Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
  • Biometry [M0002547]
    The use of statistical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
  • Blastocyst Culture Techniques [M0459939]
  • Brain Electrical Activity Mapping [M0002882]
  • Brain Mapping [M0002883]
  • Brain Tissue Transplantation [M0025059]
    Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
  • Brass Technique [M0005807]
  • Carcinogenicity Tests [M0023352]
    Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
  • Case-Control Studies [M0024494]
    Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
  • Cell Culture Techniques [M0028299]
    A technique for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro. Cultures of dispersed cells derived directly from fresh TISSUES are called primary cell cultures. Cultures may also derive from established CELL LINE usually stored frozen.
  • Cell Fusion [M0003756]
    Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
  • Census Methods [M0028806]
  • Cerebral Decortication [M0003880]
    Partial or total removal, ablation, or destruction of the cerebral cortex; may be chemical. It is not used with animals that do not possess a cortex, i.e., it is used only with mammals.
  • Chromatography, Agarose [M0004374]
    A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
  • Clinical Methodology Research, Nursing [M0023736]
  • Clinical Nursing Research [M0023732]
    Research carried out by nurses in the clinical setting and designed to provide information that will help improve patient care. Other professional staff may also participate in the research.
  • Clinical Protocols [M0004569]
    Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
  • Clinical Research [M0018825]
  • Clinical Research Protocol [M0004571]
  • Clinical Trial [Publication Type] [M0025119]
    Work that is the report of a pre-planned clinical study of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in humans selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. While most clinical trials concern humans, this publication type may be used for clinical veterinary articles meeting the requisites for humans. Specific headings for specific types and phases of clinical trials are also available.
  • Clinical Trial, Phase I [Publication Type] [M0026440]
    Work that is the report of a pre-planned, usually controlled, clinical study of the safety and efficacy of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques based on a small number of healthy persons and conducted over the period of about a year in either the United States or a foreign country.
  • Clinical Trial, Phase II [Publication Type] [M0026441]
    Work that is a report of a pre-planned, usually controlled, clinical study of the safety and efficacy of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques based on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients, and conducted over a period of about two years in either the United States or a foreign country.
  • Clinical Trial, Phase III [Publication Type] [M0026442]
    Work that is a report of a pre-planned, usually controlled, clinical study of the safety and efficacy of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques after phase II trials. A large enough group of patients is studied and closely monitored by physicians for adverse response to long-term exposure, over a period of about three years in either the United States or a foreign country.
  • Clinical Trial, Phase IV [Publication Type] [M0026443]
    Work that is a report of a planned post-marketing study of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale after clinical trials, phases I, II, and III. These studies, conducted in the United States or a foreign country, often garner additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product.
  • Clinical Trials [M0004572]
    Pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
  • Clinical Trials, Phase I [M0026303]
    Studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
  • Clinical Trials, Phase II [M0026306]
    Studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
  • Clinical Trials, Phase III [M0026312]
    Comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
  • Clinical Trials, Phase IV [M0026314]
    Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
  • Clinical Trials, Randomized [M0024509]
  • Cloning [M0029674]
  • Cloning, Organism [M0029677]
    The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
  • Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques [M0328010]
    A chemistry-based technology in which sets of reactions, for solution or solid-phase synthesis, are used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
  • Community Surveys [M0005664]
  • Comparative Study [M0004908]
  • Conductometry [M0004993]
    Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
  • Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys [M0005665]
  • Controlled Clinical Trial [Publication Type] [M0028202]
    Work consisting of a clinical trial involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicine, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trial is characterized as a RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL [PUBLICATION TYPE].
  • Controlled Clinical Trials [M0028203]
    Clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS.
  • Controlled Clinical Trials, Randomized [M0024510]
  • Correlation Study [M0020453]
  • Critique [M0007973]
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison [M0005347]
    Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.
  • Cross-Over Design [M0027869]
  • Cross-Over Studies [M0027868]
    Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
  • Cross-Sectional Studies [M0005345]
    Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
  • Cryonic Suspension [M0024370]
  • Cryopreservation [M0024369]
    Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
  • Culture Techniques [M0454589]
    Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or EMBRYO in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
  • Data Adjustment [M0018842]
  • Data Collection [M0005667]
    Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
  • Data Reporting [M0018843]
  • Delphi Studies [M0005787]
  • Delphi Technique [M0005786]
    An iterative questionnaire designed to measure consensus among individual responses. In the classic Delphi approach, there is no interaction between responder and interviewer.
  • Demographic Accounting [M0005809]
  • Demographic Analysis [M0005810]
  • Demographic and Health Surveys [M0005822]
  • Dental Health Surveys [M0005884]
    A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
  • Dental Research [M0028219]
    The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)
  • Directed Molecular Evolution [M0028399]
    The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
  • Discriminant Analysis [M0024463]
    A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.
  • DNA Shuffling [M0401104]
    The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
  • Double-Blind Method [M0006775]
    A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
  • Drug Evaluation [M0006828]
    Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
  • Drug Evaluation, FDA Phase I [M0026301]
  • Drug Evaluation, FDA Phase II [M0026304]
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical [M0006843]
    Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
  • Drug Formulation [M0004018]
  • Drug Prospecting [M0359440]
  • Drug Therapy, Computer-Assisted [M0006852]
    Adjunctive computer programs in providing drug treatment to patients.
  • Dual Data Collection [M0005669]
  • Electrophoresis, Microchip [M0453448]
    A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel [M0007214]
    Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
  • Electroporation [M0027505]
    A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
  • Electroshock [M0007221]
    Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
  • Embryo Cell Research [M0423329]
  • Embryo Cloning [M0029675]
  • Embryo Culture Techniques [M0452903]
    The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS
  • Embryo Disposition [M0029599]
    Process for deciding utilization or disposal of an embryo that is fertilized but not immediately transplanted and resulting course of action.
  • Embryo Research [M0018836]
    Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.
  • Embryo Transfer [M0007257]
    The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
  • Empirical Research [M0018839]
    The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.
  • ENDOR [M0007196]
  • Endpoint Assay [M0361891]
  • Endpoint Determination [M0361890]
    Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.
  • Epidemiologic Methods [M0007544]
  • Epidemiologic Research Design [M0023613]
    The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.
  • Epidemiologic Studies [M0024493]
    Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
  • Epididymal Sperm Aspiration [M0495043]
  • Ethical Review [M0007844]
    A formal process of examination of patient care or research proposals for conformity with ethical standards. The review is usually conducted by an organized clinical or research ethics committee (CLINICAL ETHICS COMMITTEES or RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES), sometimes by a subset of such a committee, an ad hoc group, or an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS).
  • Evaluation [M0007983]
  • Evaluation Indexes [M0007974]
  • Evaluation Report [M0007984]
  • Evaluation Research [M0007976]
  • Evaluation Studies [M0007977]
    Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
  • Evaluation Studies, FDA Phase I [M0026302]
  • Evaluation Studies, FDA Phase II [M0026305]
  • Evaluation Studies, FDA Phase III [M0026311]
  • Evaluation Studies, FDA Phase IV [M0026313]
  • Exon Shuffling, In Vitro [M0402898]
  • Experimental Design [M0018844]
  • Family Life Surveys [M0008191]
  • Family Reconstitution [M0005823]
  • Family Research [M0008182]
  • Feasibility Studies [M0008279]
    Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
  • Fertilization in Vitro [M0008382]
    An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
  • Fetal Cell Research [M0423314]
  • Fetal Research [M0018837]
    Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, this corresponds to the period from the third month after fertilization until birth.
  • Fetal Tissue Research [M0018831]
  • Flow Injection Analysis [M0025863]
    The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
  • Follow-Up Studies [M0008670]
    Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
  • Fractional Precipitation [M0008799]
  • Freeze Etching [M0008835]
    A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
  • Freeze Substitution [M0025993]
    A modification of the freeze-drying method in which the ice within the frozen tissue is replaced by alcohol or other solvent at a very low temperature.
  • Ganglionectomy [M0023321]
    Removal of an autonomic or sensory ganglion by any means.
  • Gene Therapy, Somatic [M0023584]
  • Gene Transfer Techniques [M0027195]
    The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
  • Genetic Research [M0009139]
    Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.
  • Genetic Screening [M0009131]
    Searching a population or individuals for persons possessing certain genotypes or karyotypes that: (1) are already associated with disease or predispose to disease; (2) may lead to disease in their descendants; or (3) produce other variations not known to be associated with disease. Genetic screening may be directed toward identifying phenotypic expression of genetic traits. It includes prenatal genetic screening.
  • Genetic Techniques [M0009133]
    Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
  • Genome Mapping [M0024531]
  • Glucose Clamp Technique [M0023569]
    Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
  • Glucose Clamping [M0023568]
  • Graft Enhancement [M0009573]
  • Group Interviews [M0011563]
  • Health Care Surveys [M0029023]
    Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
  • Health Services Research [M0009910]
    The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
  • Health Surveys [M0009918]
    A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
  • Hemispherectomy [M0415993]
    A neurosurgical procedure that removes or disconnects the epileptogenic CEREBRAL CORTEX of a hemisphere. Hemispherectomy is usually performed for patients with intractable unilateral EPILEPSY due to malformations of cortical development or brain lesions. Depending on the epileptogenic area in the hemisphere, cortical removal can be total or partial.
  • Hemocompatibility Testing [M0472510]
    The testing of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS, especially those used for EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION; STENTS; or ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, for properties that allow contact with flowing BLOOD without causing adverse reactions such as THROMBOSIS; HEMOLYSIS; COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION; or INFLAMMATION.
  • Hindlimb Suspension [M0028892]
    Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
  • Human Cloning [M0029676]
  • Human Experimentation [M0010644]
    The use of humans as investigational subjects.
  • Human Genome Diversity Project [M0372650]
    A coordinated effort to document the genetic variation of the human species worldwide.
  • Human Genome Project [M0024530]
    A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
  • Husband-Wife Comparisons [M0013054]
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted [M0011043]
    Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional [M0352826]
    The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional, Computer Assisted [M0352825]
    The generation of three dimensional images with the aid of computers.
  • Immunomagnetic Separation [M0027418]
    A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.
  • In Vitro Molecular Evolution [M0401246]
  • Intervention Studies [M0024512]
    Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.
  • Interview [Publication Type] [M0026105]
    Work consisting of a conversation with an individual regarding his or her background and other personal and professional details, opinions on specific subjects posed by the interviewer, etc.
  • Interviews [M0011565]
    Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
  • Interviews, Telephone [M0011566]
  • Investigative Report [M0018833]
  • Iontophoresis [M0011679]
    Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
  • isolation [M0030501]
  • isolation & purification [M0030500]
    Used with bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and helminths for the obtaining of pure strains or for the demonstration of the presence of or identification of organisms by DNA analyses, immunologic, or other methods, including culture techniques. It is used also with biological substances and chemicals for the isolation and purification of the constituents.
  • Isotope Labeling [M0011805]
    Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
  • Isotope Labeling, Stable [M0446246]
  • Isotope-Coded Affinity Tagging [M0446245]
    Abbreviated as ICAT.
  • Laboratory Research [M0018826]
  • Logistic Regression [M0024483]
  • Longitudinal Studies [M0012689]
    Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
  • Lower Body Negative Pressure [M0012709]
    External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
  • Mass Screening [M0013083]
    Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
  • Matched Case-Control Studies [M0024495]
  • Measurement [M0018854]
  • Medical Record Linkage [M0013225]
    The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.
  • Medical Research [M0018829]
  • Medicinal Plants Testing, Preclinical [M0359441]
  • MEDLARS [M0013277]
    A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.
  • Methodology, Evaluation [M0007975]
  • Microarray Analysis [M0453446]
    The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
  • Microchip Analytical Procedures [M0453442]
    The preparation and analysis of samples on miniaturized devices.
  • Microdialysis [M0026612]
    A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
  • Microdissection [M0440795]
    The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
  • Microdosing Trials, Human [M0487906]
    Use of doses at only 1% of the pharmacological dose in humans in order to evaluate the pharmacokinetics. Such trials are sometimes referred to as phase zero trials.
  • Microfluidic Analytical Techniques [M0453447]
    Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
  • Microspectrophotometry [M0023935]
    Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.
  • Models, Educational [M0026042]
    Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.
  • Models, Organizational [M0026043]
    Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.
  • Multicenter Studies [M0023612]
    Controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.
  • Multicenter Study [Publication Type] [M0025138]
    Work consisting of a controlled study executed by several cooperating institutions.
  • Multicenter Trials [M0023611]
  • Multiphasic Screening [M0014191]
    The simultaneous use of multiple laboratory procedures for the detection of various diseases. These are usually performed on groups of people.
  • Multiregional Analysis [M0005816]
  • National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [M0015123]
  • Neoplasm Transplantation [M0014583]
    Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
  • Nested Case-Control Studies [M0024496]
  • Neuromuscular Blockade [M0028548]
    The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
  • Neutron Diffraction [M0402384]
    The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.
  • Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation [M0010647]
    Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.
  • Nuclear Reprogramming [M0495486]
    The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
  • Nuclear Transfer Techniques [M0495263]
    Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell. Often the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred into a recipient OVUM or stem cell (STEM CELLS) with the nucleus removed. This technology may provide means to generate autologous diploid pluripotent cell for therapeutic cloning, and a model for studying NUCLEAR REPROGRAMMING in embryonic stem cells. Nuclear transfer was first accomplished with frog eggs (RANA PIPIENS) and reported in 1952.
  • Nursing Administration Research [M0023733]
    Research concerned with establishing costs of nursing care, examining the relationships between nursing services and quality patient care, and viewing problems of nursing service delivery within the broader context of policy analysis and delivery of health services (from a national study, presented at the 1985 Council on Graduate Education for Administration in Nursing (CGEAN) meeting).
  • Nursing Education Research [M0023734]
    Investigations into the problems of integrating research findings into nursing curricula, developing problem solving skills, finding approaches to clinical teaching, determining the level of practice by graduates from different basic preparations, etc.
  • Nursing Evaluation Research [M0023735]
    Research carried out by nurses that uses interviews, data collection, observation, surveys, etc., to evaluate nursing, health, clinical, and nursing education programs and curricula, and which also demonstrates the value of such evaluation.
  • Nursing Methodological Issues Research [M0023738]
  • Nursing Methodology Research [M0023737]
    Research carried out by nurses concerning techniques and methods to implement projects and to document information, including methods of interviewing patients, collecting data, and forming inferences. The concept includes exploration of methodological issues such as human subjectivity and human experience.
  • Nursing Research [M0023731]
    Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.
  • Nutrition Surveys [M0015122]
    A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
  • Observation [M0028825]
    The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.
  • Operations Research [M0015316]
    A group of techniques developed to apply scientific methods and tools to solve the problems of DECISION MAKING in complex organizations and systems. Operations research searches for optimal solutions in situations of conflicting GOALS and makes use of mathematical models from which solutions for actual problems may be derived. (From Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)
  • Orbital Simulation [M0027822]
  • Organ Culture Techniques [M0015390]
    A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
  • Organ Harvesting [M0454399]
  • Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care) [M0015583]
    Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOME ASSESSMENT (HEALTH CARE);) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (PROCESS ASSESSMENT (HEALTH CARE);) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
  • Outcome Studies [M0025937]
  • Outcomes Research [M0025936]
  • Ovarian Stimulation [M0380950]
    Use of gonadotropins to stimulate follicular growth, oocyte maturation, and the release of an ovum or ova (SUPEROVULATION).
  • Parabiosis [M0015858]
    The experimental joining of two individuals for the purpose of studying the effects of one on the other.
  • Parasympathectomy [M0026850]
    The removal or interruption of some part of the parasympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
  • Partial Hemispherectomy [M0415995]
    The procedure consists of removing frontal and temporal lobes, and complete disconnection of the remaining cortex and CORPUS CALLOSUM.
  • Patch-Clamp Techniques [M0027637]
    An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
  • Patient Recruitment [M0027847]
  • Patient Selection [M0027849]
    Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
  • Period Analysis [M0005821]
  • Pharmacoepidemiology [M0027034]
    The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))
  • Pilot Projects [M0016865]
    Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
  • Population Growth Estimation [M0017325]
  • Population Surveillance [M0017328]
    Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
  • Powder Diffraction [M0402383]
    Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.
  • Primary Cell Culture [M0452904]
  • Product Surveillance, Postmarketing [M0017647]
    Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.
  • Prospective Studies [M0017797]
    Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
  • Protocol Drug Therapy, Computer-Assisted [M0006853]
  • Proton Induced X Ray Emission Spectrometry [M0455691]
  • Psychical Research [M0015914]
  • Public Health Administration [M0018090]
    Management of public health organizations or agencies.
  • purification [M0030502]
  • Qualitative Research [M0390026]
    Research that derives data from observation, interviews, or verbal interactions and focuses on the meanings and interpretations of the participants (From Holloway and Wheeler, "Ethical issues in qualitative nursing research," Nursing Ethics, 1995 Sep; 2(3): 223-232).
  • Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted [M0018413]
    Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
  • Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted [M0018445]
    Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
  • Random Allocation [M0018466]
    A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
  • Randomized Controlled Trial [Publication Type] [M0025139]
    Work consisting of a clinical trial that involves at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
  • Randomized Controlled Trials [M0024511]
    Clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
  • Recombinant DNA Research [M0006688]
  • Reinforcement Schedule [M0018740]
    A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
  • Repeated Rounds of Survey [M0005671]
  • Reproductive Techniques [M0018814]
    Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
  • Reproductive Technology [M0018815]
  • Reproductive Technology, Assisted [M0380939]
  • Research [M0018827]
    Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
  • Research Activities [M0018834]
  • Research and Development [M0018828]
  • Research Design [M0018847]
    A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
  • Research Methodology [M0018830]
  • Research Priorities [M0018840]
  • Research Subject Recruitment [M0027850]
  • Research Subject Selection [M0383293]
    Criteria or standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of subjects in clinical trials and other research protocols.
  • Research Techniques [M0018849]
  • Reversal Learning [M0018987]
    Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).
  • Reverse Survival Method [M0005818]
  • Risk Assessment [M0027834]
    The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
  • Rotarod Performance Test [M0448235]
    A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.
  • Sampling Studies [M0019410]
    Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.
  • Scoring Methods [M0018850]
  • SDS-PAGE [M0007215]
  • Selection of Subjects [M0383294]
  • SELEX Aptamer Technique [M0483479]
    A method of generating a large library of randomized nucleotides and selecting NUCLEOTIDE APTAMERS by iterative rounds of in vitro selection. A modified procedure substitutes AMINO ACIDS in place of NUCLEOTIDES to make PEPTIDE APTAMERS.
  • Serial Passage [M0019673]
    Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
  • Seroepidemiologic Studies [M0024514]
    EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
  • Seroprevalence [M0024515]
  • Sex Preselection [M0019749]
    Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring. It may include SEX DETERMINATION (GENETICS) and other means.
  • Single-Blind Method [M0024516]
    A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
  • Single-Blind Study [M0024517]
  • Single-Masked Study [M0024518]
  • Skeletal Unloading [M0361013]
    This refers to skeletal muscle usually related to the hindlimb.
  • Small-Area Analysis [M0025930]
    A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.
  • Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Technique [M0495717]
  • Sonication [M0020165]
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment [M0024972]
    A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization [M0028408]
    A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
  • Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission [M0020233]
    The analysis of the spectrum of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. The identification and quantitation of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the fact that the wavelength and intensity of the fluorescent X-rays are characteristic of specific elements and the concentration of the elements in the matter being analyzed.
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared [M0026611]
    A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
  • Sperm Retrieval [M0495041]
    Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.
  • Split-Brain Procedure [M0478025]
    Complete severing of the CORPUS CALLOSUM. In humans it is usually performed to treat medically intractable, multifocal EPILEPSY. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS of split brain preparations are used in research.
  • Standardization [M0018674]
  • Statistics [M0020458]
    The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
  • Summary Report [M0018835]
  • Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry [M0471101]
    A technique incorporating MALDI that uses ultraviolet absorbing organic molecules (matrix) to transfer energy from a LASERS to an analyte for desorption and ionization. It is useful for PROTEIN ARRAY ANALYSIS.
  • Survey Methods [M0005672]
  • Surveys [M0005673]
  • Surveys, Demographic [M0005813]
  • Sympathectomy, Chemical [M0020943]
    Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
  • Tail Suspension [M0028891]
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry [M0495818]
    A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
  • Testicular Sperm Aspiration [M0495042]
  • Testing [M0018851]
  • Testing, Biocompatible Materials [M0013106]
  • Theoretical Study [M0013978]
  • Therapeutic Human Experimentation [M0018838]
    Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.
  • Tissue and Organ Harvesting [M0328079]
    The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
  • Tissue Culture Techniques [M0021577]
    A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
  • Tissue Harvesting [M0454398]
  • Topographic Brain Mapping [M0002884]
  • Total Hemispherectomy [M0415994]
    Removal of the entire cortex, sparing the BASAL GANGLIA.
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Paired Pulse [M0477821]
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Repetitive [M0477822]
    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation with a set of pulses that is experimentally being used as a therapy for DEPRESSION. Abbreviated as rTMS.
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Single Pulse [M0477823]
  • Transcultural Studies [M0005348]
  • Treatment Protocols [M0004570]
  • Unified Medical Language System [M0026446]
    A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.
  • Vagotomy [M0022489]
    The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
  • Vagotomy, Proximal Gastric [M0022490]
    Vagal denervation of that part of the STOMACH lined with acid-secreting mucosa (GASTRIC MUCOSA) containing the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Since the procedure leaves the vagal branches to the antrum and PYLORUS intact, it circumvents gastric drainage required with truncal vagotomy techniques.
  • Vagotomy, Selective Proximal [M0022492]
  • Vagotomy, Truncal [M0023308]
    Bilateral dissection of the abdominal branches of the vagus nerve. It is used frequently in the surgical management of duodenal and gastric ulcers, as well as in physiologic studies of gastrointestinal secretion and motility.
  • Vasal Sperm Aspiration [M0495044]
  • Virus Cultivation [M0022757]
  • Vivisection [M0022822]
    The cutting of or surgical operation on a living animal, usually for physiological or pathological investigation. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dict, 10th ed)
  • Voltage-Clamp Techniques [M0027635]
  • Whole-Cell Recording [M0027636]
  • World Fertility Survey [M0008366]
  • X-Ray Diffraction [M0023036]
    The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
  • X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy [M0020235]