MeSH
HOME · CREATIVE · WEB · TECH · BLOG

Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure

MeSH ID: T061

Related Concepts:

  • Ablation, Transvenous Electric [M0026002]
  • Abortion on Demand [M0000046]
  • Abortion Techniques [M0000043]
  • Abortion, Drug-Induced [M0000036]
  • Abortion, Eugenic [M0000030]
    Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.
  • Abortion, Induced [M0000037]
    Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
  • Abortion, Legal [M0000047]
    Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
  • Abortion, Rivanol [M0000038]
  • Abortion, Saline-Solution [M0000039]
  • Abortion, Selective [M0000031]
  • Abortion, Soap-Solution [M0000044]
  • Abortion, Therapeutic [M0000051]
    Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Accident Prevention [M0000083]
    Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.
  • Acetate-Free Biofiltration [M0026645]
  • Acid Etching, Dental [M0000206]
    Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.
  • Acoustic Stimulation [M0000243]
    Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
  • Active Stretching [M0487887]
    This is where one assumes a position and then holds it there with no assistance other than using the muscle strength.
  • Activities of Daily Living [M0000313]
    The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, eating, etc., in rehabilitation.
  • Acupressure [M0028440]
    A type of massage in which finger pressure on specific body sites is used to promote healing, relieve fatigue, etc. Although the anatomical locations are the same as the ACUPUNCTURE POINTS used in ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY (hence acu-), no needle or other acupuncture technique is employed in acupressure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed). Shiatsu is a modern outgrowth that focuses more on prevention than healing.
  • Acupuncture Analgesia [M0024021]
    Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.
  • Acupuncture Anesthesia [M0024022]
    Use of ACUPUNCTURE to block the afferent nerve impulses from reaching the brain to reduce the sensation of pain for surgery.
  • Acupuncture Therapy [M0024024]
    Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.
  • Acupuncture, Ear [M0328390]
    Acupuncture therapy by inserting needles in the ear. It is used to control pain and for treating various ailments.
  • Adenoidectomy [M0000364]
    Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Administration, Buccal [M0000433]
    Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.
  • Administration, Cutaneous [M0000434]
    The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
  • Administration, Inhalation [M0000437]
    The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
  • Administration, Intranasal [M0000440]
    The administration of drugs through the nasal passage.
  • Administration, Intravaginal [M0000441]
    The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
  • Administration, Intravesical [M0000443]
    The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.
  • Administration, Oral [M0000446]
    The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
  • Administration, Rectal [M0000447]
    The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
  • Administration, Sublingual [M0000448]
    Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
  • Administration, Topical [M0000449]
  • Administration, Transcutaneous [M0000436]
  • Adoptive Cell Transfer [M0028690]
  • Adoptive Transfer [M0028691]
    Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
  • Adrenalectomy [M0000491]
    Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Advanced Cardiac Life Support [M0358482]
    The use of sophisticated methods and equipment to treat cardiopulmonary arrest. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) includes the use of specialized equipment to maintain the airway, early defibrillation and pharmacological therapy.
  • Air Abrasion, Dental [M0328411]
    A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.
  • Airway Pressure Release Ventilation [M0448188]
    A ventilatory mode delivering CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE with a time cycled change between an upper and lower airway pressure level, allowing unrestricted spontaneous breathing throughout the ventilatory cycle.
  • Aldridge Procedure [M0020500]
  • Allergen Immunotherapy [M0006071]
  • Allograft [M0021837]
  • Alternative Therapies [M0381155]
    Therapies are termed as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
  • Alveolar Ridge Augmentation [M0000836]
    Preprosthetic surgery involving rib, cartilage, or iliac crest bone grafts, usually autologous, or synthetic implants for rebuilding the alveolar ridge.
  • Alveolectomy [M0000839]
    Subtotal or complete excision of the alveolar process of the maxilla or mandible. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Alveoloplasty [M0000841]
    Conservative contouring of the alveolar process, in preparation for immediate or future denture construction. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Ambulatory Surgical Procedures [M0000869]
    Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
  • Ammotherapy [M0000987]
    Treatment by application of hot sand.
  • Amnioscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332432]
  • Amnioscopy [M0332433]
  • Amputation [M0001033]
    The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Analgesia [M0001065]
    Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
  • Analgesia, Epidural [M0023646]
    The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
  • Analgesia, Obstetrical [M0025020]
    The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.
  • Analgesia, Patient-Controlled [M0024545]
    Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
  • Analgesic Cutaneous Electrostimulation [M0482191]
  • Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y [M0001084]
    A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.
  • Anastomosis, Surgical [M0001085]
    Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
  • Anesthesia [M0001143]
    A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
  • Anesthesia and Analgesia [M0001145]
  • Anesthesia, Caudal [M0001149]
    Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.
  • Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit [M0001150]
    Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
  • Anesthesia, Conduction [M0001151]
  • Anesthesia, Dental [M0001152]
  • Anesthesia, Epidural [M0001153]
  • Anesthesia, General [M0001154]
  • Anesthesia, Infiltration [M0001160]
  • Anesthesia, Inhalation [M0001155]
    Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
  • Anesthesia, Intratracheal [M0001157]
  • Anesthesia, Intravenous [M0001158]
  • Anesthesia, Local [M0001159]
    A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
  • Anesthesia, Obstetrical [M0001162]
  • Anesthesia, Rectal [M0001164]
  • Anesthesia, Spinal [M0001165]
  • Angioplasty [M0026024]
    Endovascular reconstruction of an artery, which may include the removal of atheromatous plaque and/or the endothelial lining as well as simple dilatation. These are procedures performed by catheterization. When reconstruction of an artery is performed surgically, it is called ENDARTERECTOMY.
  • Angioplasty, Balloon [M0001198]
    Use of a balloon catheter for dilatation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of balloon dilatation in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, TRANSLUMINAL, PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY is available.
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Laser-Assisted [M0026132]
    Techniques using laser energy in combination with a balloon catheter to perform angioplasty. These procedures can take several forms including: 1, laser fiber delivering the energy while the inflated balloon centers the fiber and occludes the blood flow; 2, balloon angioplasty immediately following laser angioplasty; or 3, laser energy transmitted through angioplasty balloons that contain an internal fiber.
  • Angioplasty, Excimer Laser [M0026133]
  • Angioplasty, Laser [M0024977]
    A technique utilizing a laser coupled to a catheter which is used in the dilatation of occluded blood vessels. This includes laser thermal angioplasty where the laser energy heats up a metal tip, and direct laser angioplasty where the laser energy directly ablates the occlusion. One form of the latter approach uses an excimer laser which creates microscopically precise cuts without thermal injury. When laser angioplasty is performed in combination with balloon angioplasty it is called laser-assisted balloon angioplasty (ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, LASER-ASSISTED).
  • Angioplasty, Transluminal, Percutaneous Coronary [M0024342]
    Dilatation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
  • Angioscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332105]
  • Angioscopy [M0026609]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.
  • Anterior Temporal Lobectomy [M0416070]
    A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).
  • Antibiotic Prophylaxis [M0028472]
    Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
  • Antineoplastic Chemotherapy Protocols [M0369990]
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols [M0001485]
    The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
  • Antineoplastic Protocols [M0369661]
    Clinical protocols used to inhibit the growth or spread of NEOPLASMS.
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active [M0360830]
    Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
  • Antisepsis [M0001500]
    The destruction of germs causing disease.
  • Apicoectomy [M0001587]
    Excision of the apical portion of a tooth through an opening made in the overlying labial, buccal, or palatal alveolar bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Appendectomy [M0001608]
    Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Aromatherapy [M0028790]
    The use of fragrances and essences from plants to affect or alter a person's mood or behavior and to facilitate physical, mental, and emotional well-being. The chemicals comprising essential oils in plants has a host of therapeutic properties and has been used historically in Africa, Asia, and India. Its greatest application is in the field of alternative medicine. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; from Dr. Atiba Vheir, Dove Center, Washington, D.C.)
  • Art Therapy [M0001728]
    The use of art as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.
  • Arteriovenous Hemofiltration [M0010107]
  • Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical [M0001739]
    Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Arthrodesis [M0001752]
    The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Arthroplasty [M0001756]
    Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement [M0029144]
    Partial or total replacement of a joint.
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Finger [M0477938]
    Partial or total replacement of one or more FINGERS, or a FINGER JOINT.
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip [M0029146]
    Replacement of the hip joint.
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee [M0029147]
    Replacement of the knee joint.
  • Arthroscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332122]
  • Arthroscopy [M0001760]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
  • Artificial Feeding [M0027777]
  • Asepsis [M0001804]
    The prevention of access by infecting organisms to the locus of potential infection.
  • Aspiration Lipectomy [M0023344]
  • Assisted Circulation [M0001879]
    Pumping that aids the natural activity of the heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Atherectomy [M0025943]
    Endovascular procedure in which atheromatous plaque is excised by a cutting or rotating catheter. It differs from balloon and laser angioplasty procedures which enlarge vessels by dilation but frequently do not remove much plaque. If the plaque is removed by surgical excision under general anesthesia rather than by an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ENDARTERECTOMY.
  • Atherectomy, Coronary [M0026136]
    Percutaneous transluminal procedure for removing atheromatous plaque from the coronary arteries. Both directional (for removing focal atheromas) and rotational (for removing concentric atheromatous plaque) atherectomy devices have been used.
  • Atkins Diet [M0476015]
  • Audioanalgesia [M0001955]
  • Auditory Brain Stem Implantation [M0415676]
    Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (AUDITORY BRAIN STEM IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than to the inner ear as in COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION.
  • Autogenic Training [M0001988]
    Technique based on muscle relaxation during self-hypnotic exercises. It is used in conjunction with psychotherapy.
  • Autonomic Denervation [M0026849]
    The removal or interruption of some part of the autonomic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
  • Autonomic Nerve Block [M0002011]
    Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
  • Aversive Therapy [M0002021]
    A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.
  • Axotomy [M0029338]
    Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
  • Balint Psychoanalytic Therapy [M0017993]
  • Ballistic Stretching [M0487894]
    This uses the momentum of a moving body or a limb in an attempt to force it beyond its normal range of motion.
  • Balloon Dilatation [M0002157]
    Nonoperative repair of occluded vessels, ducts, or valves by insertion of a balloon catheter. It is used, among other things, to treat varices, torn retinas, renal and biliary calculi, gastric, bronchial and rectal stenoses, and heart valves, and includes catheterization with Fogarty and Foley catheters.
  • Balloon Embolization [M0359410]
  • Balloon Occlusion [M0355066]
    Use of a balloon catheter to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.
  • Balloon Valvuloplasty [M0002158]
  • Balneology [M0002161]
    Therapy by various hot or warm baths in natural mineral waters, spas, or "cures". It includes not only bathing in, but also drinking the waters, but it does not include whirlpool baths (HYDROTHERAPY).
  • Balneotherapy [M0002162]
  • Bariatric Surgery [M0472653]
    Surgical procedures aimed at producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.
  • Bariatrics [M0463560]
    Activities related to WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with OBESITY. Treatment methods include DIET; EXERCISE; BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION; medications; and BARIATRIC SURGERY.
  • Basic Cardiac Life Support [M0472519]
  • Baths [M0002228]
    The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.
  • Baths, Finnish [M0002229]
    A steam bath in a small wooden room where water is thrown on a stove or rocks to create the steam. A cool bath or shower completes the treatment.
  • Baths, Sand [M0000988]
  • Bed Rest [M0002266]
    Confinement of an individual to bed for therapeutic or experimental reasons.
  • Behavior Control [M0002284]
    Manipulation of the behavior of persons or animals by biomedical, physical, psychological, or social means, including for nontherapeutic reasons.
  • Behavior Therapy [M0002286]
    The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
  • Bibliotherapy [M0002461]
    A form of supportive psychotherapy in which the patient is given carefully selected material to read.
  • Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures [M0002493]
    Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.
  • Biliopancreatic Diversion [M0024338]
    A surgical procedure which diverts pancreatobiliary secretions via the duodenum and the jejunum into the colon, the remaining small intestine being anastomosed to the stomach after antrectomy. The procedure produces less diarrhea than does jejunoileal bypass.
  • Billroth I Procedure [M0402509]
    Gastroduodenostomy or anastomosis done between the stomach and the duodenum.
  • Billroth II Procedure [M0402510]
    Gastrojejunostomy or anastomosis done between the stomach and the jejunum.
  • Biofeedback (Psychology) [M0002515]
    Process by which a person uses biofeedback information to gain voluntary control over processes or functions which are primarily under autonomic control. It is used in experimental or treatment settings with human subjects. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 8th ed)
  • Biogenic Stimulators [M0021594]
  • Biological Therapy [M0002536]
    Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
  • Biomedical Enhancement [M0371893]
    The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.
  • Blade Implantation [M0002637]
    Insertion of an endosseous implant with a narrow wedge-shaped infrastructure extending through the oral mucosa into the mouth and bearing openings or vents through which tissue grows to obtain retention.
  • Blastocyst Transfer [M0380714]
    The delayed transfer of embryos at the blastocyst stage provides a means to eliminate unhealthy embryos that do not develop normally. The selection and transfer of superior blastocysts reduces the need for multiple-embryo transfer and the risks of high-order multiple gestation.
  • Blepharoplasty [M0029521]
    Plastic surgery of the eyelid. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
  • Blood Component Removal [M0002686]
    Any procedure in which blood is withdrawn from a donor, a portion is separated and retained and the remainder is returned to the donor.
  • Blood Component Transfusion [M0025739]
    The transfer of blood components such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and plasma from a donor to a recipient or back to the donor. This process differs from the procedures undertaken in PLASMAPHERESIS and types of CYTAPHERESIS; (PLATELETPHERESIS and LEUKAPHERESIS) where, following the removal of plasma or the specific cell components, the remainder is transfused back to the donor.
  • Blood Patch, Epidural [M0026127]
    The injection of autologous blood into the epidural space either as a prophylactic treatment immediately following an epidural puncture or for treatment of headache as a result of an epidural puncture.
  • Blood Preservation [M0002705]
    The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
  • Blood Transfusion [M0002721]
    The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Blood Transfusion, Autologous [M0002722]
    Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine [M0002723]
    In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).
  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation [M0029592]
    Surgical insertion of synthetic or biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
  • Bone Lengthening [M0002782]
    Increase in the longest dimension of a bone to correct anatomical deficiencies, congenital, traumatic, or as a result of disease. The lengthening is not restricted to long bones. The usual surgical methods are internal fixation and distraction.
  • Bone Marrow Cell Transplantation [M0450351]
  • Bone Marrow Purging [M0025151]
    Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation [M0024503]
    The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
  • Bone Transplantation [M0024502]
    The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
  • Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Graft [M0474588]
    Fixation of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT, during surgical reconstruction, by the use of a bone- patellar tendon autograft.
  • Boron Neutron Capture Therapy [M0025511]
    A technique for the treatment of neoplasms, especially gliomas and melanomas in which boron-10, an isotope, is introduced into the target cells followed by irradiation with thermal neutrons.
  • Brachytherapy [M0002857]
    A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
  • Brain Tissue Transplantation [M0025059]
    Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
  • Breast Implantation [M0029603]
    Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.
  • Breast-Conserving Surgery [M0393768]
  • Breathing Exercises [M0002913]
    Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.
  • Bronchial Lavage [M0028254]
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage [M0028253]
    Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
  • Bronchoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332203]
  • Callotasis [M0029476]
  • Caloric Restriction [M0396850]
    Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
  • Cannulation [M0003665]
  • Capsulorhexis [M0029598]
    The making of a continuous circular tear in the anterior capsule during cataract surgery in order to allow expression or phacoemulsification of the nucleus of the lens. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial [M0003455]
    Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures [M0009971]
    Surgery performed on the heart.
  • Cardiomyoplasty [M0027649]
    An operation that uses stimulated latissimus dorsi muscle (SKELETAL MUSCLE VENTRICLE) to assist cardiac function. The latissimus dorsi muscle is mobilized from the chest wall and moved into the thorax through the bed of the resected 2nd or 3rd rib. The muscle is then wrapped around the left and right ventricles and stimulated to contract during cardiac systole by means of an implanted burst-stimulator. (Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass [M0003470]
    Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation [M0025694]
    The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.
  • Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures [M0020862]
    Surgery performed on the heart or blood vessels.
  • Castration [M0003605]
    Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
  • Castration, Female [M0360933]
    Surgical removal of both ovaries.
  • Castration, Male [M0015381]
  • Cataract Extraction [M0003631]
    Surgical removal of a cataractous lens. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Catheter Ablation [M0026007]
    Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
  • Catheter Ablation, Electric [M0026003]
  • Catheter Ablation, Percutaneous [M0026004]
  • Catheter Ablation, Radiofrequency [M0026005]
  • Catheter Ablation, Transvenous [M0026006]
  • Catheterization [M0003662]
    Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
  • Catheterization, Bronchial [M0003667]
  • Catheterization, Central Venous [M0003666]
    Placement of an intravenous catheter in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein for central venous pressure determination, chemotherapy, hemodialysis, or hyperalimentation.
  • Catheterization, Peripheral [M0003668]
    Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
  • Catheterization, Peripheral Arterial [M0003669]
  • Catheterization, Ureteral [M0022364]
  • Catheterization, Urethral [M0022365]
  • Cautery [M0003696]
    The application of a caustic substance, a hot instrument, an electric current, or other agent to destroy tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Cecostomy [M0003710]
    Surgical construction of an opening into the cecum with a tube through the abdominal wall (tube cecostomy) or by skin level approach, in which the cecum is sewn to the surrounding peritoneum. Its primary purpose is decompression of colonic obstruction.
  • Cell Therapy [M0021593]
  • Cell Transplantation [M0026755]
    Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
  • Cementation [M0003795]
    The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.
  • Cerclage, Cervical [M0368120]
    The surgical closure of the incompetent cervix uteri with suture material.
  • Cerebral Decortication [M0003880]
    Partial or total removal, ablation, or destruction of the cerebral cortex; may be chemical. It is not used with animals that do not possess a cortex, i.e., it is used only with mammals.
  • Cerebral Revascularization [M0003890]
    Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts [M0003909]
    Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.
  • Cervical Esophagostomy [M0007760]
  • Cervical Manipulation [M0030036]
  • Cervical Ripening [M0029778]
    A change in the CERVIX UTERI with respect to its readiness to relax. The cervix normally becomes softer, more flexible, more distensible, and shorter in the final weeks of PREGNANCY. These cervical changes can also be chemically induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
  • Cervicoplasty [M0446815]
    Reconstructive surgical procedures in the NECK region to restore or improve form and function.
  • Cesarean Section [M0003948]
    Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
  • Cesarean Section, Repeat [M0026677]
    Extraction of the fetus by abdominal hysterotomy anytime following a previous cesarean.
  • Ch'i Kung [M0002915]
  • Chelation Therapy [M0024349]
    Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.
  • Chemexfoliation [M0004004]
    Application of a cauterant to the skin for the purpose of causing a superficial destruction of the epidermis and upper layers of the dermis. After healing, the treated area has new epithelium.
  • Chemoembolization, Therapeutic [M0025147]
    Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.
  • Chemoprevention [M0028249]
    The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant [M0025865]
    Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
  • Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion [M0016277]
    Neoplasm drug therapy involving an extracorporeal circuit with temporary exclusion of the tumor-bearing area from the general circulation during which high concentrations of the drug are perfused to the isolated part.
  • Chest Wall Oscillation [M0407972]
    A respiratory support system used to remove mucus and clear airway by oscillating pressure on the chest.
  • Child Health [M0004075]
  • Cholecystectomy [M0004231]
    Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
  • Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic [M0025954]
    Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.
  • Cholecystostomy [M0004237]
    Establishment of an opening into the gallbladder either for drainage or surgical communication with another part of the digestive tract, usually the duodenum or jejunum.
  • Choledochoduodenostomy [M0004238]
  • Choledochojejunostomy [M0004239]
  • Choledochostomy [M0004240]
    Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.
  • Chronotherapy [M0028945]
    The adaptation of drug administration to the known variations in biological RHYTHMICITY, such as CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. The treatment is aimed at supporting normal rhythms, or modifying the timing of therapy to achieve maximal efficacy and minimal adverse effect.
  • Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced [M0477911]
    A technique to arrest the flow of blood by lowering BODY TEMPERATURE to about 20 degrees Centigrade, usually achieved by infusing chilled perfusate. The technique provides a bloodless surgical field for complex surgeries.
  • Circumcision [M0494007]
  • Circumcision, Male [M0004504]
    Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.
  • Clamping [M0005048]
  • Clinical Protocols [M0004569]
    Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
  • Clinical Research Protocol [M0004571]
  • Clinical Trial [Publication Type] [M0025119]
    Work that is the report of a pre-planned clinical study of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in humans selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. While most clinical trials concern humans, this publication type may be used for clinical veterinary articles meeting the requisites for humans. Specific headings for specific types and phases of clinical trials are also available.
  • Clinical Trial, Phase II [Publication Type] [M0026441]
    Work that is a report of a pre-planned, usually controlled, clinical study of the safety and efficacy of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques based on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients, and conducted over a period of about two years in either the United States or a foreign country.
  • Clinical Trial, Phase IV [Publication Type] [M0026443]
    Work that is a report of a planned post-marketing study of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale after clinical trials, phases I, II, and III. These studies, conducted in the United States or a foreign country, often garner additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product.
  • Clinical Trials [M0004572]
    Pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
  • Clinical Trials, Phase II [M0026306]
    Studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
  • Clinical Trials, Phase IV [M0026314]
    Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
  • Cochlear Implantation [M0029604]
    Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
  • Code Blue [M0025697]
  • Cognitive Therapy [M0024374]
    A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
  • Coitus Interruptus [M0004730]
    A contraceptive method whereby coitus is purposely interrupted in order to prevent EJACULATION of SEMEN into the VAGINA.
  • Colectomy [M0004737]
    Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Collapse Therapy [M0004793]
    Surgical treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis whereby the lung is totally or partially, temporarily or permanently, immobilized. The procedure was based on the popular concept that collapsing the affected portion of a tuberculous lung allowed the infected area to rest and thereby recover. At the beginning of the 20th century artificially induced pneumothorax (PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL) was popular. Later a variety of other techniques was used to encourage collapse of the infected portion of the lung: unilateral phrenic nerve division, PNEUMONOLYSIS, pneumoperitoneum (PNEUMOPERITONEUM, ARTIFICIAL), and THORACOPLASTY. Collapse therapy has declined since the advent of antitubercular chemotherapy. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Sabiston Jr, Textbook of Surgery, 14th ed, p1733-4)
  • Collis Gastroplasty [M0023715]
  • Colonoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332288]
  • Colonoscopy [M0004820]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
  • Color Therapy [M0025195]
    A form of phototherapy using color to influence health and to treat various physical or mental disorders. The color rays may be in the visible or invisible spectrum and can be administered through colored lights or applied mentally through suggestion.
  • Colostomy [M0004838]
    The surgical creation of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Colposcopic Surgical Procedures [M0332291]
  • Colposcopy [M0004840]
    The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.
  • Colpotomy [M0328009]
    An incision in the vagina.
  • Coma Therapy, Insulin [M0005140]
  • Combined Modality Therapy [M0004847]
    The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
  • Complementary Therapies [M0381156]
    Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
  • Conscious Sedation [M0024899]
    An alternative to general anesthesia in patients for whom general anesthesia is refused or considered inadvisable. It involves the administering of an antianxiety drug (minor tranquilizer) and an analgesic or local anesthetic. This renders the patient free of anxiety and pain while allowing the patient to remain in verbal contact with the physician or dentist.
  • Constriction [M0005047]
    The act of constricting.
  • Contact Laser Ablation of Prostate [M0408745]
  • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure [M0448360]
    A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)
  • Contraception [M0005076]
    Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
  • Contraception, Barrier [M0005075]
    Methods of contraception in which physical, chemical, or biological means are used to prevent the SPERM from reaching the fertilizable OVUM.
  • Contraception, Immunologic [M0005097]
    Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
  • Contraception, Postcoital [M0005082]
    Means of postcoital intervention to avoid pregnancy, such as the administration of POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTIVES to prevent FERTILIZATION of an egg or implantation of a fertilized egg (OVUM IMPLANTATION).
  • Controlled Clinical Trial [Publication Type] [M0028202]
    Work consisting of a clinical trial involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicine, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trial is characterized as a RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL [PUBLICATION TYPE].
  • Controlled Clinical Trials [M0028203]
    Clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS.
  • Convulsive Therapy [M0005139]
    Convulsions induced in order to treat MENTAL DISORDERS. It is used primarily in the treatment of severe affective disorders and SCHIZOPHRENIA.
  • Cooke Method [M0020502]
  • Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation [M0403463]
    Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
  • Cordotomy [M0004334]
    Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Corneal Transplantation [M0024520]
    Partial or total replacement of the cornea from one human or animal to another.
  • Cornual Coagulation [M0020503]
  • Coronary Artery Bypass [M0001560]
    Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
  • Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump [M0457906]
    Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).
  • Cosmetic Reconstructive Surgical Procedures [M0328962]
  • Cosmetic Techniques [M0005227]
    Procedures for the improvement or enhancement of the appearance of the visible parts of the body.
  • Counseling [M0005260]
    The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
  • Counterpulsation [M0024344]
    A technique for assisting the circulation by decreasing the afterload of the left ventricle and augmenting the diastolic pressure. It may be achieved by intra-aortic balloon, or by implanting a special pumping device in the chest, or externally by applying a negative pressure to the lower extremities during cardiac systole.
  • Counterpulsation, External [M0024345]
  • Couples Therapy [M0029031]
    Psychotherapy used specifically for unmarried couples, of mixed or same sex. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
  • Cranial Irradiation [M0025049]
    The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
  • Craniosacral Massage [M0377499]
    Cerebrospinal fluid flow stimulation by massage of the head and spine. Developed by William Sutherland in the early 1900's.
  • Craniotomy [M0005290]
    Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Crisis Intervention [M0005329]
    Brief therapeutic approach which is ameliorative rather than curative of acute psychiatric emergencies. Used in contexts such as emergency rooms of psychiatric or general hospitals, or in the home or place of crisis occurrence, this treatment approach focuses on interpersonal and intrapsychic factors and environmental modification. (APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)
  • Critical Incident Stress Debriefing [M0005330]
  • Crown Lengthening [M0025258]
    Technique combining controlled eruptive tooth movement and incision of the supracrestal gingival attachment to allow for proper restoration of a destroyed or damaged crown of a tooth. Controlled eruption of the tooth is obtained using ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES. During this eruptive phase, repeated incisions are made at the junctional epithelium of the sulcus and the supracrestal connective tissue to prevent coronal displacement of the gingiva and of the attachment apparatus.
  • Cryoanesthesia [M0010945]
    ANESTHESIA achieved by lowering either BODY TEMPERATURE (core cooling) or SKIN TEMPERATURE (external cooling).
  • Cryosurgery [M0005380]
    The use of freezing as a special surgical technique to destroy or excise tissue.
  • Cryotherapy [M0026736]
    A form of therapy consisting in the local or general use of cold. The selective destruction of tissue by extreme cold or freezing is CRYOSURGERY. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
  • Culdoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332311]
  • Curettage [M0005423]
    A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Cystectomy [M0023991]
    Used for excision of the urinary bladder.
  • Cystoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332314]
  • Cystostomy [M0005561]
    Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.
  • Cystotomy [M0495743]
    Surgical incision or puncture into a URINARY BLADDER. Cystotomy may be used to remove URINARY CALCULI, or to perform tissue repair and reconstruction.
  • Cytapheresis [M0024801]
    Separation of one or more kinds of cells from whole blood with the return of other blood cell constituents to the patient or donor. This is accomplished with an instrument that uses centrifugation to separate the cells into different layers based on the differences in cell density (displacement) or drag coefficients in a current (elutriation). The procedure is commonly used in adoptive transfer to isolate NK cells, lymphocytes, or monocytes.
  • Dacryocystorhinostomy [M0005641]
    Surgical fistulization of the lacrimal sac for external drainage of an obstructed nasolacrimal duct.
  • Dacryocystostomy [M0005642]
  • Dance Therapy [M0005651]
    The use of dancing for therapeutic purposes.
  • Debridement [M0005708]
    The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Decompression, Surgical [M0028731]
    A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Decontamination [M0005737]
    The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
  • Deep Brain Stimulation [M0455156]
    Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
  • Delivery, Obstetric [M0411274]
    Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
  • Denervation [M0005830]
    The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Dental Bonding [M0002764]
  • Dental Burnishing [M0005913]
  • Dental Care [M0005850]
    The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).
  • Dental Casting Technique [M0005860]
    The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
  • Dental Cavity Lining [M0005862]
    An inner coating, as of varnish or other protective substance, to cover the dental cavity wall. It is usually a resinous film-forming agent dissolved in a volatile solvent, or a suspension of calcium hydroxide in a solution of a synthetic resin. The lining seals the dentinal tubules and protects the pulp before a restoration is inserted. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
  • Dental Cavity Preparation [M0005864]
    An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)
  • Dental Debonding [M0025840]
    Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.
  • Dental Etching [M0000207]
    Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.
  • Dental High-Speed Technique [M0005887]
  • Dental Implantation [M0005889]
    The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous [M0005890]
    Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous, Endodontic [M0005893]
    Insertion of a tapered rod through the root canal into the periapical osseous structure to lengthen the existing root and provide individual tooth stabilization.
  • Dental Implantation, Subperiosteal [M0024912]
    The grafting or inserting of an appliance designed to fit over the surface of the mandible or the maxilla, beneath the specialized connective tissue that covers the bone (periosteum).
  • Dental Impression Technique [M0005895]
    Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
  • Dental Polishing [M0005912]
    Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.
  • Dental Prophylaxis [M0005916]
    Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.
  • Dental Prosthesis Coloring [M0026889]
  • Dental Pulp Capping [M0005925]
    Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.
  • Dental Pulp Devitalization [M0005929]
    The destruction of the vitality of the pulp of the tooth. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p243)
  • Dental Scaling [M0019460]
    Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.
  • Dental Veneers [M0005947]
    The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.
  • Dentistry, Operative [M0005962]
    That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)
  • Denture Rebasing [M0005971]
    The process of refitting a denture by replacing the denture base material without changing the occlusal relations of the teeth. Rebasing may include adding to the denture base to compensate for resorptive changes to subjacent structures.
  • Denture Relining [M0005972]
  • Denture Retention [M0005920]
    The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.
  • Dermabrasion [M0006043]
    The mechanical planing of the SKIN with sand paper, emery paper, or wire brushes, to promote reepithelialization and smoothing of skin disfigured by ACNE scars or dermal NEVI.
  • Desensitization, Immunologic [M0006070]
    Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.
  • Desensitization, Psychologic [M0006069]
    A behavior therapy technique in which deep muscle relaxation is used to inhibit the effects of graded anxiety-evoking stimuli.
  • Device Removal [M0328101]
    Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
  • Diabetic Diet [M0006159]
    A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Dialysis, Extracorporeal [M0355345]
  • Diastolic Counterpulsation [M0024346]
  • Diathermy [M0006218]
    The induction of local hyperthermia by either short radio waves or high-frequency sound waves.
  • Diet Fads [M0006325]
    Diets which become fashionable, but which are not necessarily nutritious.(Lehninger 1982, page 484)
  • Diet Therapy [M0006328]
    By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).
  • Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted [M0476014]
    A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
  • Diet, Chemically Defined [M0008707]
  • Diet, Elemental [M0008708]
  • Diet, Fat-Free [M0028086]
  • Diet, Fat-Restricted [M0028087]
    A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Diet, Formula [M0008709]
  • Diet, Protein-Free [M0028088]
  • Diet, Protein-Restricted [M0028089]
    A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
  • Diet, Reducing [M0006331]
  • Diet, Salt-Free [M0006332]
  • Diet, Sodium-Restricted [M0006333]
    A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Dietary Formulations [M0008710]
  • Dietary Modification [M0008683]
  • Dietary Supplementation [M0029087]
  • Digestive System Endoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332383]
  • Digestive System Surgical Procedures [M0020863]
    Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.
  • Dilatation [M0006427]
    The act of dilating.
  • Dilatation and Curettage [M0006428]
    Dilatation of the cervix uteri followed by a scraping of the endometrium with a curette.
  • Directed Reverie Therapy [M0028398]
  • Directional Coronary Atherectomy [M0026134]
  • Directive Counseling [M0416430]
    Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.
  • Directly Observed Therapy [M0368113]
    A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.
  • Disarticulation [M0006558]
    Amputation or separation at a joint. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Disease Notification [M0027827]
    Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
  • Disinfection [M0006573]
    Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
  • Diskectomy [M0026651]
    Excision, in part or whole, of an intervertebral disk. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.
  • Diskectomy, Percutaneous [M0026653]
    Percutaneous excision of a herniated or displaced intervertebral disk by posterolateral approach, always remaining outside the spinal canal. Percutaneous nucleotomy was first described by Hijikata in Japan in 1975. In 1985 Onik introduced automated percutaneous nucleotomy which consists in percutaneous aspiration of the nucleus pulposus. It is carried out under local anesthesia, thus reducing the surgical insult and requiring brief hospitalization, often performed on an outpatient basis. It appears to be a well-tolerated alternative to surgical diskectomy and chymopapain nucleolysis.
  • Dissection [M0006586]
    The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.
  • Dose Fractionation [M0029081]
    Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.
  • Drainage [M0006799]
    The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
  • Drainage, Postural [M0024354]
    Therapeutic drainage in bronchopulmonary diseases in which there is copious mucus secretion, such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pulmonary abscess, or cystic fibrosis. The patient is placed with head downward, so that the trachea is inclined downward and below the affected area. It may be done in 15- to 20-minute sessions or by having the patient sleep in a head-down position. The therapy may be used in conjunction with forced expiration, bronchodilator agents, or expectorants.
  • Drainage, Respiratory, Postural [M0024355]
  • Drug Aerosol Therapy [M0000438]
  • Drug Monitoring [M0025724]
    The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.
  • Drug Storage [M0006847]
  • Drug Therapy [M0006850]
  • Drug Therapy, Combination [M0006851]
    Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
  • Drug Therapy, Computer-Assisted [M0006852]
    Adjunctive computer programs in providing drug treatment to patients.
  • Duodenoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332351]
  • Duodenoscopy [M0006888]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the duodenum.
  • Duodenostomy [M0006889]
    Surgical formation of an opening into the duodenum.
  • Dye Laser Lithotripsy [M0026672]
  • Dynamic Stretching [M0487893]
    This involves moving parts of the body and gradually increasing reach, speed of movement, or both. It is a gentle and controlled stretching to the limits of one's range of motion.
  • Early Ambulation [M0006950]
    Procedure to accelerate the ability of a patient to walk or move about by reducing the time to AMBULATION. It is characterized by a shorter period of hospitalization or recumbency than is normally practiced.
  • Early Intervention (Education) [M0027716]
    Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)
  • Early Mobilization [M0006951]
  • Electric Countershock [M0007160]
    An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Electric Stimulation Therapy [M0007223]
    Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
  • Electrical Stimulation of the Brain [M0007170]
  • Electroacupuncture [M0024025]
    A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; PHYSICAL REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.
  • Electroanalgesia [M0482192]
  • Electrochemotherapy [M0495509]
    A treatment modality that uses pulsed electrical currents to permeabilize cell membranes (ELECTROPORATION) and thereby enhance the uptake of chemotherapeutic agents, vaccines, or genes into the body's cells.
  • Electrocoagulation [M0007176]
    Electrosurgical procedures used to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias.
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy [M0007177]
    Electrically induced convulsions primarily used in the treatment of severe affective disorders and schizophrenia.
  • Electrogalvanism, Intraoral [M0007185]
  • Electrolytic Depilation [M0009753]
  • Electronarcosis [M0007199]
    Profound stupor produced by passing an electric current through the brain.
  • Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac [M0356516]
    Invasive procedures whereby tachyarrhythmias (TACHYCARDIA), induced or spontaneous, are mapped via heart catheterization techniques for the investigation of electrical activities in the heart. In addition to diagnostic purposes, the techniques of intracardiac programmed electrostimulation are used therapeutically.
  • Electrosurgery [M0007222]
    Division of tissues by a high-frequency current applied locally with a metal instrument or needle. (Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Electroversion Therapy [M0007161]
  • Embolectomy [M0026022]
    Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material which has been transported from a distant vessel by the bloodstream. Removal of a clot at its original site is called THROMBECTOMY.
  • Embolization, Therapeutic [M0007253]
    A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
  • Embryo Reduction [M0027887]
  • Embryo Transfer [M0007257]
    The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
  • Embryoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332434]
  • Embryoscopy [M0332435]
  • Embryotomy [M0000041]
  • Emergency Contraception [M0487807]
  • Emergency Services, Psychiatric [M0007278]
    Organized services to provide immediate psychiatric care to patients with acute psychological disturbances.
  • Emergency Treatment [M0007279]
    First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.
  • Enamel Microabrasion [M0028656]
    Mechanical removal of a small amount of tooth structure (not more than a few tenths of a millimeter in depth) to eliminate superficial enamel discoloration defects not successfully removed by bleaching techniques. A common abrasive is a mixture of pumice and hydrochloric acid.
  • Encounter Groups [M0019657]
  • Endarterectomy [M0007384]
    Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.
  • Endarterectomy, Carotid [M0025704]
    The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
  • Endocrine Surgical Procedures [M0020866]
    Surgery performed on any endocrine gland.
  • Endoluminal Repair [M0026025]
  • Endolymphatic Shunt [M0007411]
    Surgical fistulization of the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear with mastoid, subarachnoid or cochlear shunt. This procedure is used in the treatment of Meniere's disease.
  • Endoscopy [M0007425]
    Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument along either natural body pathways such as the digestive tract, or through keyhole incisions to examine the interior parts of the body. With advances in imaging, endoscope, and miniaturization of endosurgical equipment, surgery can be performed during endoscopy.
  • Endoscopy, Digestive System [M0024660]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal [M0024594]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Enema [M0007440]
    A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.
  • Enhancement Technologies [M0382850]
  • Enteral Feeding [M0007463]
  • Enteral Nutrition [M0007461]
    Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.
  • Enterosorption [M0024549]
    Adsorption of substances from the gastrointestinal tract onto an orally administered sorbent medium like activated charcoal. This technique is used to eliminate toxic and some biologically active substances and serves to modify the lipid and amino acid spectrum of the intestinal contents.
  • Enterostomy [M0007485]
    Creation of an artificial external opening or fistula in the intestines.
  • Enzymatic Zonulolysis [M0003632]
  • Epididymal Sperm Aspiration [M0495043]
  • Epikeratophakia [M0026405]
    A procedure that modifies the refractive error of the lens by the transplantation of a donor cornea to the anterior surface of the patient's cornea. The basic indication for epikeratophakia is the incapability of correcting refractive errors with conservative methods, such as glasses, contact lenses, or intraocular lenses.
  • Episiotomy [M0007595]
    An incision of the posterior vaginal wall and a portion of the pudenda which enlarges the vaginal introitus to facilitate delivery and prevent lacerations.
  • Erythrocyte Transfusion [M0026773]
    The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
  • Esophagectomy [M0025345]
    Excision of part (partial) or all (total) of the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy [M0024661]
  • Esophagoplasty [M0007757]
    A plastic operation on the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Esophagoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332430]
  • Esophagoscopy [M0007758]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the esophagus.
  • Esophagostomy [M0007759]
    Surgical formation of an external opening (stoma) into the esophagus.
  • Estrogen Progestin Replacement Therapy [M0407953]
  • Estrogen Replacement [M0024352]
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy [M0024350]
    The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
  • Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood [M0007995]
    Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.
  • Exercise Movement Techniques [M0377279]
    Physical activities which people can do to benefit their health.
  • Exercise Therapy [M0008006]
    Motion of the body or its parts to relieve symptoms or to improve function, leading to PHYSICAL FITNESS, but not PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING.
  • Exposure Notification [M0027826]
  • Extracorporeal Circulation [M0008063]
    Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation [M0023354]
    Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.
  • Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy [M0012625]
  • Extracranial-Intracranial Arterial Bypass [M0003891]
  • Extraction, Obstetrical [M0008064]
    Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.
  • Eye Enucleation [M0023638]
    The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
  • Eye Evisceration [M0026149]
    The surgical removal of the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact. It should be differentiated from ORBIT EVISCERATION which removes the entire contents of the orbit, including eyeball, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerve supply, and periosteum.
  • Face Peeling, Chemical [M0004005]
  • Faith Healing [M0013406]
    The use of faith and spirit to cure disease.
  • Fallopian Tube Reanastomosis [M0020484]
  • Family Therapy [M0008223]
    A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.
  • Fangotherapy [M0380653]
    Fango refers to a volcanic mud in Italy.
  • Fasting [M0008248]
    Abstaining from all food.
  • Feedback [M0008286]
    A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
  • Feeding Methods [M0008289]
    Methods of giving food to humans or animals.
  • Female Contraception [M0005088]
  • Female Sterilization [M0020489]
  • Female Sterilization, Voluntary [M0020490]
  • Fenestration, Labyrinth [M0008327]
    The surgical creation of a new opening in the labyrinth of the ear for the restoration of hearing in cases of OTOSCLEROSIS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Fertility Control, Postconception [M0000042]
  • Fertilization in Vitro [M0008382]
    An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
  • Fetal Termination, Selective [M0027888]
  • Fetal Therapies [M0008398]
    Prenatal interventions to correct fetal anomalies or treat FETAL DISEASES in utero. Fetal therapies include several major areas, such as open surgery; FETOSCOPY; pharmacological therapy; INTRAUTERINE TRANSFUSION; STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and GENE THERAPY.
  • Fetal Tissue Donation [M0024964]
  • Fetal Tissue Transplantation [M0024963]
    Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
  • Fetoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332436]
  • Fetoscopy [M0008417]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.
  • Filtering Surgery [M0027699]
    A surgical procedure used in treatment of glaucoma in which an opening is created through which aqueous fluid may pass from the anterior chamber into a sac created beneath the conjunctiva, thus lowering the pressure within the eye. (Hoffman, Pocket Glossary of Ophthalmologic Terminology, 1989)
  • Fimbriectomy [M0020504]
  • Finishing, Dental [M0005914]
  • First Aid [M0008514]
  • Fluid Therapy [M0008580]
    Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to water-electrolyte balance. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by hypodermoclysis.
  • Fluorocarbon Ventilation [M0351229]
  • Fogarty Balloon Catheterization [M0002159]
  • Foley Balloon Catheterization [M0002160]
  • Folk Remedies [M0013270]
  • Fontan Procedure [M0028059]
    A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.
  • Food Supplementation [M0029086]
  • Force Feeding [M0007465]
  • Fracture Fixation [M0008801]
    The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.
  • Fracture Fixation, Internal [M0008802]
    The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.
  • Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary [M0008803]
  • Free Association [M0008826]
    Spontaneous verbalization of whatever comes to mind.
  • Freeze Substitution [M0025993]
    A modification of the freeze-drying method in which the ice within the frozen tissue is replaced by alcohol or other solvent at a very low temperature.
  • Fundoplication [M0027960]
    Mobilization of the lower end of the esophagus and plication of the fundus of the stomach around it (fundic wrapping) in the treatment of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX that may be associated with various disorders, such as hiatal hernia. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer [M0023335]
    A technique that came into use in the mid-1980's for assisted conception in infertile women with normal fallopian tubes. The protocol consists of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, followed by laparoscopic follicular aspiration of oocytes, and then the transfer of sperm and oocytes by catheterization into the fallopian tubes.
  • Gamma Knife Radiosurgery [M0025351]
  • Ganglionectomy [M0023321]
    Removal of an autonomic or sensory ganglion by any means.
  • Gastrectomy [M0008999]
    Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Gastric Bypass [M0023712]
    Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.
  • Gastric Hypothermia [M0010946]
    A method of lowering core BODY TEMPERATURE by filling the STOMACH with chilled fluids.
  • Gastric Lavage [M0009007]
  • Gastroenterostomy [M0009023]
    A variety of surgical reconstructive procedures devised to restore gastrointestinal continuity, The two major classes of reconstruction are the Billroth I (gastroduodenostomy) and Billroth II (gastrojejunostomy) procedures.
  • Gastroileal Bypass [M0023713]
  • Gastrointestinal Surgical Procedure [M0020864]
  • Gastrojejunostomy [M0498110]
  • Gastroplasty [M0023716]
    Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.
  • Gastroscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332449]
  • Gastroscopy [M0009042]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
  • Gastrostomy [M0009043]
    Creation of an artificial external opening into the stomach for nutritional support or gastrointestinal compression.
  • Gene Therapy [M0023583]
    The introduction of new genes into cells for the purpose of treating disease by restoring or adding gene expression. Techniques include insertion of retroviral vectors, transfection, homologous recombination, and injection of new genes into the nuclei of single cell embryos. The entire gene therapy process may consist of multiple steps. The new genes may be introduced into proliferating cells in vivo (e.g., bone marrow) or in vitro (e.g., fibroblast cultures) and the modified cells transferred to the site where the gene expression is required. Gene therapy may be particularly useful for treating enzyme deficiency diseases, hemoglobinopathies, and leukemias and may also prove useful in restoring drug sensitivity, particularly for leukemia.
  • Gene Therapy, Somatic [M0023584]
  • Genetic Counseling [M0009125]
    An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.
  • Genetic Counseling, Prenatal [M0442311]
  • Genetic Enhancement [M0009127]
    The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.
  • Gestalt Therapy [M0009213]
    A form of psychotherapy with emphasis on the interplay of organism and environment. Basic to this therapy is the development of awareness and maturity, as well as self-confidence.
  • Gingivectomy [M0009244]
    Surgical excision of the gingiva at the level of its attachment, thus creating new marginal gingiva. This procedure is used to eliminate gingival or periodontal pockets or to provide an approach for extensive surgical interventions, and to gain access necessary to remove calculus within the pocket. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Gingivoplasty [M0009248]
    Surgical reshaping of the gingivae and papillae for correction of deformities (particularly enlargements) and to provide the gingivae with a normal and functional form, the incision creating an external bevel. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Glossectomy [M0009308]
    Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Goniotomy [M0021739]
  • Graft Enhancement [M0009573]
  • Graft Enhancement, Immunologic [M0009574]
    The induction of prolonged survival and growth of allografts of either tumors or normal tissues which would ordinarily be rejected. It may be induced passively by introducing graft-specific antibodies from previously immunized donors, which bind to the graft's surface antigens, masking them from recognition by T-cells; or actively by prior immunization of the recipient with graft antigens which evoke specific antibodies and form antigen-antibody complexes which bind to the antigen receptor sites of the T-cells and block their cytotoxic activity.
  • Greenville Gastric Bypass [M0023714]
  • Grommet Insertion [M0013849]
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration [M0460599]
    Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits at the damaged site to stimulate and control of the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal [M0025259]
    Techniques for enhancing and directing cell growth to repopulate specific parts of the PERIODONTIUM that have been damaged by PERIODONTAL DISEASES; TOOTH DISEASES; or TRAUMA, or to correct TOOTH ABNORMALITIES. Repopulation and repair is achieved by guiding the progenitor cells to reproduce in the desired location by blocking contact with surrounding tissue by use of membranes composed of synthetic or natural material that may include growth inducing factors as well.
  • Gynecologic Anesthesia [M0001161]
  • Gynecologic Surgical Procedures [M0020868]
    Surgery performed on the female genitalia.
  • Gyrectomy [M0018048]
  • Habilitation [M0018728]
  • Hair Removal [M0009754]
  • Halsted Mastectomy [M0023745]
  • Handwashing [M0009792]
    The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of removing soil or microorganisms.
  • Harm Reduction [M0421213]
    The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.
  • Heart Arrest, Induced [M0009940]
    A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).
  • Heart Bypass, Left [M0027893]
    Diversion of the flow of blood from the pulmonary veins directly to the aorta, avoiding the left atrium and the left ventricle (Dorland, 27th ed). This is a temporary procedure usually performed to assist other surgical procedures.
  • Heart Bypass, Right [M0027892]
    Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance to the right atrium directly to the pulmonary arteries, avoiding the right atrium and right ventricle (Dorland, 28th ed). This a permanent procedure often performed to bypass a congenitally deformed right atrium or right ventricle.
  • Heart Massage [M0009957]
    Rhythmic compression of the heart by pressure applied manually over the sternum (closed heart massage) or directly to the heart through an opening in the chest wall (open heart massage). It is done to reinstate and maintain circulation. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Heart Transplantation [M0024504]
    The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation [M0029593]
    Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
  • Heart-Lung Transplantation [M0024523]
    The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.
  • Heliotherapy [M0010003]
    The treatment of disease by exposing the body to the sun's rays; the therapeutic use of sunbathing. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization [M0029153]
    The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Purging [M0354503]
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation [M0027607]
    Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
  • Hematoporphyrin Photoradiation [M0010058]
    Photochemotherapy using visible light, usually red, topically or delivered locally by fiberoptic probe to tissues sensitized with hematoporphyrins.
  • Hemi-Fontan Procedure [M0028060]
  • Hemibody Irradiation [M0026690]
    Irradiation of one half or both halves of the body in the treatment of disseminated cancer or widespread metastases. It is used to treat diffuse metastases in one session as opposed to multiple fields over an extended period. The more frequent treatment modalities are upper hemibody irradiation (UHBI) or lower hemibody irradiation (LHBI). Less common is mid-body irradiation (MBI). In the treatment of both halves of the body sequentially, hemibody irradiation permits radiotherapy of the whole body with larger doses of radiation than could be accomplished with WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION. It is sometimes called "systemic" hemibody irradiation with reference to its use in widespread cancer or metastases. (P. Rubin et al. Cancer, Vol 55, p2210, 1985)
  • Hemipelvectomy [M0010081]
    Amputation of a lower limb through the sacroiliac joint.
  • Hemispherectomy [M0415993]
    A neurosurgical procedure that removes or disconnects the epileptogenic CEREBRAL CORTEX of a hemisphere. Hemispherectomy is usually performed for patients with intractable unilateral EPILEPSY due to malformations of cortical development or brain lesions. Depending on the epileptogenic area in the hemisphere, cortical removal can be total or partial.
  • Hemodiafiltration [M0026644]
    The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.
  • Hemodialysis [M0010102]
    Removal of certain elements from the blood based on the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane.
  • Hemodialysis, Home [M0010104]
    Long-term maintenance hemodialysis in the home.
  • Hemodilution [M0010105]
    Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
  • Hemofiltration [M0010109]
    Extracorporeal ultrafiltration technique without hemodialysis for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.
  • Hemofiltration, Continuous Arteriovenous [M0010108]
  • Hemoperfusion [M0010146]
    Removal of toxins or metabolites from the circulation by the passing of blood, within a suitable extracorporeal circuit, over semipermeable microcapsules containing adsorbents (e.g., activated charcoal) or enzymes, other enzyme preparations (e.g., gel-entrapped microsomes, membrane-free enzymes bound to artificial carriers), or other adsorbents (e.g., various resins, albumin-conjugated agarose).
  • Hemostasis, Endoscopic [M0025260]
    Control of bleeding performed through the channel of the endoscope. Techniques include use of lasers, heater probes, bipolar electrocoagulation, and local injection. Endoscopic hemostasis is commonly used to treat bleeding esophageal and gastrointestinal varices and ulcers.
  • Hemostasis, Surgical [M0010181]
    Control of bleeding during or after surgery.
  • Hemostatic Techniques [M0010182]
    Techniques for controlling bleeding.
  • Hepatectomy [M0010195]
    Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation [M0407971]
    A respiratory support system that applies high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) for airway clearance by removing mucus to enhance pulmonary function.
  • High-Frequency Jet Ventilation [M0010354]
    Respiratory support system used primarily with rates of about 100 to 200/min with volumes of from about one to three times predicted anatomic dead space. Used to treat respiratory failure and maintain ventilation under severe circumstances.
  • High-Frequency Oscillation [M0010355]
  • High-Frequency Positive Pressure Ventilation [M0010356]
  • High-Frequency Ventilation [M0010357]
    Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).
  • Hip Replacement, Total [M0029145]
  • Hirudin Therapy [M0371791]
    Use of HIRUDINS as an anticoagulant in the treatment of cardiological and hematological disorders.
  • Home Childbirth [M0010497]
    Childbirth taking place in the home.
  • Home Infusion Therapy [M0028047]
    Use of any infusion therapy on an ambulatory, outpatient, or other non-institutionalized basis.
  • Home Parenteral Feeding [M0024962]
  • Home Remedies [M0013271]
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy [M0029912]
    Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
  • Hydrotherapy [M0010736]
    External application of water for therapeutic purposes.
  • Hyperbaric Oxygenation [M0010810]
    The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
  • Hyperthermia, Induced [M0010869]
    Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
  • Hyperthermia, Local [M0010870]
  • Hypnosis [M0010880]
    A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.
  • Hypnosis, Anesthetic [M0010882]
  • Hypnosis, Dental [M0010883]
  • Hypophysectomy [M0010919]
    Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Hypophysectomy, Chemical [M0010920]
    Total or subtotal destruction of the pituitary gland by chemical injection. It is usually achieved by injection of ethyl alcohol via trans-sphenoidal cannulation under stereotaxic control. It is usually performed for the treatment of intractable pain.
  • Hypotension, Controlled [M0010928]
  • Hypothermia, Induced [M0010947]
    Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means.
  • Hysterectomy [M0010955]
    Excision of the uterus.
  • Hysterectomy, Vaginal [M0010956]
    Removal of the uterus through the vagina.
  • Hysteroscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332591]
  • Hysteroscopy [M0024343]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.
  • Hysterotomy [M0328030]
    An incision in the uterus, performed through either the abdomen or the vagina.
  • Ileal Conduit [M0022368]
  • Ileostomy [M0011027]
    Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.
  • Ilizarov Technique [M0028248]
    A bone fixation technique using an external fixator (FIXATORS, EXTERNAL) for lengthening limbs, correcting pseudarthroses and other deformities, and assisting the healing of otherwise hopeless traumatic or pathological fractures and infections, such as chronic osteomyelitis. The method was devised by the Russian orthopedic surgeon Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov (1921-1992). (From Bull Hosp Jt Dis 1992 Summer;52(1):1)
  • Imagery (Psychotherapy) [M0028397]
    The use of mental images produced by the imagination as a form of psychotherapy. It can be classified by the modality of its content: visual, verbal, auditory, olfactory, tactile, gustatory, or kinesthetic. Common themes derive from nature imagery (e.g., forests and mountains), water imagery (e.g., brooks and oceans), travel imagery, etc. Imagery is used in the treatment of mental disorders and in helping patients cope with other diseases. Imagery often forms a part of HYPNOSIS, of AUTOGENIC TRAINING, of RELAXATION TECHNIQUES, and of BEHAVIOR THERAPY. (From Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 4, pp29-30, 1994)
  • Immersion [M0011060]
    The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
  • Immobilization [M0011064]
    The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
  • Immune RNA Manipulation [M0024789]
  • Immunization [M0011079]
    Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
  • Immunization Schedule [M0011080]
    Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
  • Immunization, Active [M0022452]
  • Immunization, Passive [M0011081]
    Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
  • Immunization, Secondary [M0011087]
    Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
  • Immunocontraceptive Techniques [M0005099]
  • Immunoglobulin Therapy [M0011082]
  • Immunological Fertility Control [M0005098]
  • Immunosuppression [M0011170]
    Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
  • Immunotherapy [M0011172]
    Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
  • Immunotherapy, Active [M0024791]
    Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
  • Immunotherapy, Adoptive [M0024767]
    Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
  • Immunotherapy, Passive [M0011085]
  • Implantation, Endosseous [M0005892]
  • Implosive Therapy [M0011176]
    A method for extinguishing anxiety by a saturation exposure to the feared stimulus situation or its substitute.
  • Infant Care [M0011267]
    Care of infants in the home or institution.
  • Infusions, Intra-Arterial [M0011332]
    Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.
  • Infusions, Intralesional [M0410032]
    The administration of medication or fluid directly into localized lesions, by means of gravity flow or INFUSION PUMPS.
  • Infusions, Intraosseous [M0026045]
    The administration of medication or fluid through a needle directly into the bone marrow. The technique is especially useful in the management of pediatric emergencies when intravenous access to the systemic circulation is difficult.
  • Infusions, Intravenous [M0011335]
    The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
  • Infusions, Parenteral [M0011336]
    The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
  • Infusions, Regional Arterial [M0011333]
  • Inhalation of Drugs [M0000439]
  • Inhalation Therapy [M0018915]
  • Injections, Epidural [M0011347]
    The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
  • Injections, Intra-Arterial [M0011348]
  • Injections, Intra-Articular [M0011349]
  • Injections, Intradermal [M0011350]
    The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
  • Injections, Intralesional [M0023920]
    Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.
  • Injections, Intralymphatic [M0011351]
    Injections into the lymph nodes or the lymphatic system.
  • Injections, Intramuscular [M0011352]
    Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
  • Injections, Intraperitoneal [M0011353]
    Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
  • Injections, Intrathecal [M0011358]
  • Injections, Intravenous [M0011354]
    Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
  • Injections, Intraventricular [M0011355]
    Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
  • Injections, Jet [M0011356]
    The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.
  • Injections, Spinal [M0011357]
  • Injections, Subcutaneous [M0011359]
    Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
  • Innovative Therapies [M0408109]
  • Insemination, Artificial [M0011398]
    Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
  • Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous [M0011399]
    Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.
  • Insemination, Artificial, Homologous [M0011400]
    Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.
  • Instillation, Bladder [M0000445]
  • Instillation, Drug [M0011406]
    The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from irrigation in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.
  • Instillation, Vaginal [M0000442]
  • Insufflation [M0011413]
    The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
  • Insufflation Anesthesia [M0001156]
  • Insulin Shock Therapy [M0446506]
  • Intermittent Positive-Pressure Breathing [M0011516]
    Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase of spontaneous respiration.
  • Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation [M0011517]
    Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.
  • Internal Mammary Artery Implantation [M0014341]
  • Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis [M0011518]
    Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.
  • Intervertebral Disk Chemolysis [M0011559]
    The dissolving of the nucleus pulposus, the semi-gelatinous tissue of a displaced INTERVERTEBRAL DISK. It is usually achieved by the direct injection of a proteolytic enzyme, especially CHYMOPAPAIN, into the herniated disk.
  • Intestinal Bypass [M0011841]
  • Intra-Abdominal Infusions [M0011337]
  • Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping [M0011587]
    Counterpulsation in which a pumping unit synchronized with the patient's electrocardiogram rapidly fills a balloon in the aorta with helium or carbon dioxide in early diastole and evacuates the balloon at the onset of systole. As the balloon inflates, it raises aortic diastolic pressure, and as it deflates, it lowers aortic systolic pressure. The result is a decrease in left ventricular work and increased myocardial and peripheral perfusion.
  • Intramedullary Nailing [M0008804]
  • Intravenous Drip [M0011334]
  • Intravenous Feeding [M0015938]
  • Intravenous Hyperalimentation [M0015941]
  • Intravesical Injection [M0000444]
  • Intubation [M0011614]
    Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.
  • Intubation, Gastrointestinal [M0011615]
    The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.
  • Intubation, Intratracheal [M0011616]
  • Intubation, Nasogastric [M0367694]
  • Iontophoresis [M0011679]
    Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
  • Iridectomy [M0401426]
    Surgical removal of a section of the iris.
  • Irrigation [M0011726]
    The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing solution which is inserted and then removed. Any drug in the irrigation solution may be absorbed.
  • Irving Method [M0020505]
  • Ischemic Preconditioning [M0028597]
    A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ischemia and reperfusion by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)
  • Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial [M0028562]
    Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.
  • Islets of Langerhans Transplantation [M0025060]
    The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
  • Isometric Stretching [M0487892]
    This is a type of static stretching which involves the resistance of muscle groups through ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION.
  • Jaw Fixation Techniques [M0028663]
    The stable placement of surgically induced fractures of the mandible or maxilla through the use of elastics, wire ligatures, arch bars, or other splints. It is used often in the cosmetic surgery of retrognathism and prognathism. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p636)
  • Jejunoileal Bypass [M0011842]
    A procedure consisting of the SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the proximal part of the JEJUNUM to the distal portion of the ILEUM, so as to bypass the nutrient-absorptive segment of the SMALL INTESTINE. Due to the severe malnutrition and life-threatening metabolic complications, this method is no longer used to treat MORBID OBESITY.
  • Jejunostomy [M0011843]
    Surgical formation of an opening through the abdominal wall into the jejunum, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.
  • Kangaroo-Mother Care Method [M0442325]
    A method of caring for LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANT in developing countries. It is characterized by continuously keeping the nursing babies wrapped at the mother's breasts to improve survival rate.
  • Keratectomy, Laser [M0463128]
    Application of laser techniques (LASERS) to reduce or reshape the CORNEA to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS of the EYE, such as MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM.
  • Keratectomy, Photorefractive, Excimer Laser [M0028266]
    A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An excimer laser is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM in order to reshape the anterior curvature of the cornea.
  • Keratectomy, Subepithelial, Laser-Assisted [M0463150]
    A surgical technique to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS of the EYE, such as MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. In this method, the flap of CORNEAL EPITHELIUM is lifted then replaced after laser ablation of the subepithelial CORNEA. The hinged flap is created by epithelial marking and exposure of the marking to dilute alcohol.
  • Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ [M0328463]
    A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an excimer laser and the flap is returned to its original position.
  • Keratoplasty, Lamellar [M0024521]
  • Keratoplasty, Penetrating [M0024397]
    Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.
  • Keratotomy, Radial [M0011976]
    A procedure to treat myopia by cutting radial slits into the cornea to flatten it and thereby change its refractive properties.
  • Kidney Transplantation [M0024507]
    The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
  • Kroener Fimbriectomy [M0020506]
    A fimbriectomy technique that consists of excising the distal tube and fimbriae, and ligating the cut ends of the tube with silk sutures.
  • Labor, Induced [M0012116]
    Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
  • Laminectomy [M0012193]
    Excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Language Therapy [M0012210]
    Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.
  • Laparoscopy [M0016363]
    A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
  • Laparotomy [M0012216]
  • Laryngectomy [M0012234]
    Total or partial excision of the larynx.
  • Laryngoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0332989]
  • Laryngoscopy [M0012237]
    Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
  • Laser Coagulation [M0025945]
    The coagulation of tissues using lasers. These lasers produce light in the visible green wavelength that is selectively absorbed by hemoglobin, and thus it is possible to seal bleeding blood vessels.
  • Laser Surgery [M0012245]
    The use of a laser either to vaporize surface lesions or to make bloodless cuts in tissue. It does not include the coagulation of tissue by laser (LASER COAGULATION).
  • Laser Therapy, Low-Level [M0381372]
    Treatment using irradiation with light at low power intensities and with wavelengths in the range 540nm-830nm. The effects are thought to be mediated by a photochemical reaction that alters CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, leading to increased mRNA synthesis and CELL PROLIFERATION. The effects are not due to heat, as in LASER SURGERY. Low-level laser therapy has been used in general medicine, veterinary medicine, and dentistry for a wide variety of conditions, but most frequently for wound healing and pain control.
  • Laughter Therapy [M0380632]
    Therapeutic use of humor and laughter to improve emotional well being in order to facilitate improvement in health.
  • Laying-on-of-Hands [M0380691]
  • Leeching [M0371790]
    The application of LEECHES to the body to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Such medicinal leeching, an ancient medical practice, is still being used in microsurgery and the treatment of venous congestion or occlusion.
  • Lens Implantation, Intraocular [M0029157]
    Insertion of an artificial lens following removal of the crystalline lens, usually after cataract extraction.
  • Leukapheresis [M0012380]
    The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.
  • Leukocyte Reduction Filtration [M0457980]
  • Leukocyte Reduction Procedures [M0457979]
    The removal of LEUKOCYTES from BLOOD to reduce BLOOD TRANSFUSION reactions and lower the chance of transmitting VIRUSES. This may be performed by FILTRATION or by CYTAPHERESIS.
  • Leukocyte Transfusion [M0026774]
    The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
  • Leukotomy [M0018049]
  • LeVeen Shunt [M0016364]
  • Ligation [M0012510]
    Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
  • Ligation, Tubal [M0020515]
  • Light Coagulation [M0012514]
    The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
  • Limb Salvage [M0368133]
    An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.
  • Limited Resection Mastectomy [M0393769]
  • Lipectomy [M0023342]
    Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.
  • Lipoplasty [M0023343]
  • Liquid Ventilation [M0351226]
    Artificial respiration (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) using an oxygenated fluid.
  • Lithotripsy [M0012626]
    The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.
  • Lithotripsy, Laser [M0026674]
    Fragmentation of calculi, notably urinary or biliary, by laser. It is usually performed with an endoscopically guided pulsed tunable dye laser, a combination of a pulsed laser and a dye laser usually referred to as a pulsed dye laser. It is both safe and effective when extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is infeasible or unsuccessful.
  • Liver Transplantation [M0024508]
    The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
  • Lobotomy [M0018050]
  • Loop Ileostomy [M0011028]
  • Lower Body Negative Pressure [M0012709]
    External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
  • Lumbar Manipulation [M0030038]
  • Lung Transplantation [M0024522]
    The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
  • Lung Volume Reduction [M0017063]
  • Lymph Node Dissection [M0012780]
  • Lymph Node Excision [M0012779]
    Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
  • Lymphapheresis [M0012381]
  • Lymphatic Irradiation [M0023336]
    External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Lymphocyte Depletion [M0012804]
    Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
  • Lymphocyte Transfusion [M0026776]
    The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
  • Madlener Method [M0020507]
  • Male Contraception [M0005089]
  • Male Sterilization [M0020492]
  • Male Sterilization, Voluntary [M0020493]
  • Mammaplasty [M0025148]
    Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.
  • Mandibular Advancement [M0028588]
    Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
  • Mandibular Prosthesis Implantation [M0029605]
    Surgical insertion of an appliance for the replacement of areas of the mandible.
  • Mandibular Ridge Augmentation [M0000837]
  • Manipulation Therapy [M0380651]
  • Manipulation, Chiropractic [M0030037]
    Spinal adjustments made by a chiropractor to relieve pressures on the spinal cord for improvement of health.
  • Manipulation, Orthopedic [M0012991]
    The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)
  • Manipulation, Osteopathic [M0377632]
    Musculoskeletal manipulation based on the principles of OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE developed in 1874 by Dr Andrew Taylor Still.
  • Manipulation, Spinal [M0030035]
    Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.
  • Manual Therapies [M0481786]
  • Marginal Adaptation (Dentistry) [M0028101]
    The degree of proximity and interlocking of filling material to the wall of the cavity of a tooth. The term has come to be used synonymously with adaptation at the cavosurface margin. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982; J Dent 1993;21:265-73)
  • Marital Therapy [M0013036]
    A form of psychotherapy involving the husband and wife and directed to improving the marital relationship.
  • Mass Chest X-Ray [M0013076]
    X-ray screening of large groups of persons for diseases of the lung and heart by means of radiography of the chest.
  • Mass Immunization [M0400766]
    Administration of an antigen to large populations in order to produce an immune response to that antigen.
  • Mass Vaccination [M0400767]
  • Massage [M0013086]
    Group of systematic and scientific manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.
  • Mastectomy [M0013090]
  • Mastectomy, Extended Radical [M0023746]
    Radical mastectomy with removal of the ipsilateral half of the sternum and a portion of ribs two through five with the underlying pleura and the internal mammary lymph nodes.
  • Mastectomy, Modified Radical [M0023747]
    Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.
  • Mastectomy, Radical [M0023743]
    Removal of the breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and associated skin and subcutaneous tissue.
  • Mastectomy, Segmental [M0023749]
    Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
  • Mastectomy, Simple [M0023750]
    Removal of only the breast tissue and nipple and a small portion of the overlying skin.
  • Mastectomy, Subcutaneous [M0023751]
    Excision of breast tissue with preservation of overlying skin, nipple, and areola so that breast form may be reconstructed.
  • Maxillary Expansion [M0015759]
  • Maxillary Ridge Augmentation [M0000838]
  • Maxillofacial Procedures [M0029149]
  • Maxillofacial Prosthesis Implantation [M0029606]
    Surgical insertion of an appliance for the replacement of areas of the maxilla, mandible, and face. When only portions of the mandible are replaced, it is referred to as MANDIBULAR PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION.
  • Maxillomandibular Fixation [M0028662]
  • Mediastinoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0333013]
  • Mediastinoscopy [M0013201]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the anterior superior mediastinum of the thorax.
  • Medical Nutrition Therapy [M0445550]
    A medically prescribed nutrition goal for patients, generally individualized. This approach is based on the coordinated efforts of physicians, dietitians, educators, and the patients. It includes patient assessment, specific nutrition requirements, patient education, and TREATMENT OUTCOME monitoring.
  • Mental Healing [M0013407]
    The use of mind to cure disease, particularly physical illness.
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation [M0447318]
    Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
  • Mesmerism [M0010881]
  • Meyer Mastectomy [M0023744]
  • Microencapsulation [M0006825]
  • Microinjections [M0013787]
    The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
  • Micropunctures [M0018157]
  • Microsurgery [M0013826]
    The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
  • Middle Ear Ventilation [M0013850]
    Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous) otitis media, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the tympanic membrane.
  • Milieu Therapy [M0013868]
    A treatment program based on manipulation of the patient's environment by the medical staff. The patient does not participate in planning the treatment regimen.
  • Mind-Body and Relaxation Techniques [M0378172]
    A group of healing methods which emphasize mind-body interactions with intended benefits that include relaxation and emotional well being.
  • Minilaparotomy [M0012217]
  • Mohs Surgery [M0023930]
    A surgical technique used primarily in the treatment of skin neoplasms, especially basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. This procedure is a microscopically controlled excision of cutaneous tumors either after fixation in vivo or after freezing the tissue. Serial examinations of fresh tissue specimens are most frequently done.
  • Moral Development [M0014052]
    The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.
  • Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive [M0024353]
    Movement of a body part initiated and maintained by a mechanical or electrical device to restore normal range of motion to joints, muscles, or tendons after surgery, prosthesis implantation, contracture flexion, or long immobilization.
  • Mouth Rehabilitation [M0014136]
  • Mouth-to-Mouth Resuscitation [M0025695]
  • Moxibustion [M0014145]
    The burning of a small, thimble sized, smoldering plug of dried leaves on the SKIN at an ACUPUNCTURE point. Usually the plugs contain leaves of MUGWORT or moxa.
  • Mud Baths [M0014184]
  • Mud Packs [M0380655]
  • Mud Therapy [M0014183]
    The therapeutic use of mud in packs or baths taking advantage of the absorptive qualities of the mud. It has been used for rheumatism and skin problems.
  • Muscle Denervation [M0014235]
    The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
  • Muscle Stretching Exercises [M0487886]
    Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
  • Musculoskeletal Manipulations [M0377234]
    Various manipulations of body tissues, muscles and bones by hands or equipment to improve health and circulation, relieve fatigue, promote healing.
  • Music Therapy [M0014266]
    The use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.
  • Myocardial Reperfusion [M0023775]
    Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
  • Myocardial Revascularization [M0014342]
    The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Myofunctional Therapy [M0029911]
    Training of the orofacial musculature, including modification of habits, in edentulous conditions, malocclusion, or temporomandibular joint disorders. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Myringoplasty [M0014374]
    Surgical restoration of a perforated tympanic membrane by grafting. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
  • Narcosynthesis [M0014472]
  • Narcotherapy [M0014473]
    Intravenous injections of sodium amytal or sodium pentothal to induce a state in which the patient is more relaxed and communicative. Narcosuggestion, narcosynthesis, and narcoanalysis are therapeutic processes using these drug adjuncts.
  • Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure [M0448361]
    The administration of CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE by the nasal route.
  • Natural Childbirth [M0014519]
    Labor and delivery without medical intervention, usually involving RELAXATION TECHNIQUES.
  • Natural Family Planning Methods [M0019058]
    A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.
  • Natural Remedies [M0332594]
  • Naturopathy [M0014527]
    A drugless system of therapy, making use of physical forces such as air, light, water, heat, massage, etc. Treatments are often diet- and nutrition-oriented with attention given to the patient's personal history and lifestyle. (From Cassileth, Alternative Medicine Handbook, 1998, p329)
  • Neck Dissection [M0413981]
    Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.
  • Needle-Exchange Programs [M0027974]
    Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.
  • Neoadjuvant Therapy [M0029996]
    Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
  • Nephrectomy [M0014625]
    Excision of a kidney. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous [M0014638]
  • Nephrostomy, Percutaneous [M0014637]
    The insertion of a catheter through the skin and body wall into the kidney pelvis, mainly to provide urine drainage where the ureter is not functional. It is used also to remove or dissolve renal calculi and to diagnose ureteral obstruction.
  • Nerve Block [M0014641]
    Interruption of the conduction of impulses in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic solution. (Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Nerve Crossover [M0024555]
  • Nerve Crush [M0014643]
  • Nerve Transfer [M0024556]
    Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.
  • Neural Therapy of Huneke [M0472927]
    An ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE concept that local injection of anesthetics can interrupt symptoms in other, distant body locations.
  • Neuroendoscopy [M0445445]
    PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.
  • Neuroleptanalgesia [M0014712]
    A form of analgesia accompanied by general quiescence and psychic indifference to environmental stimuli, without loss of consciousness, and produced by the combined administration of a major tranquilizer (neuroleptic) and a narcotic.
  • Neuromuscular Blockade [M0028548]
    The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
  • Neuronavigation [M0415950]
    Intraoperative computer-assisted 3D navigation and guidance system generally used in neurosurgery for tracking surgical tools and localize them with respect to the patient's 3D anatomy. The pre-operative diagnostic scan is used as a reference and is transferred onto the operative field during surgery.
  • Neurosurgical Procedures [M0029134]
    Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
  • Neutron Capture Therapy [M0026170]
    A technique for the treatment of neoplasms in which an isotope is introduced into target cells followed by irradiation with thermal neutrons.
  • Nondirective Therapy [M0014950]
    A procedure in which the therapist refrains from directing the client, but instead reflects back to the client what the latter has said, sometimes restating the client's remark.
  • Noninvasive Litholapaxy [M0012627]
  • Normal Serum Globulin Therapy [M0011083]
  • Nucleotomy, Percutaneous [M0026652]
  • nursing [M0030646]
    Used with diseases for nursing care and techniques in their management. It includes the nursing role in diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive procedures.
  • Nutraceuticals [M0491638]
    A term coined from a contraction of nutrition and pharmaceutical in 1989 by Dr. Stephen DeFelice. It is used in marketing and has no regulatory definition.
  • Nutrition Therapy [M0448731]
    Improving health status of an individual by adjusting the quantities, qualities, and methods of nutrient intake.
  • Nutritional Support [M0027778]
    The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
  • Obstetric Surgical Procedures [M0020871]
    Surgery performed on the pregnant woman for conditions associated with pregnancy, labor, or the puerperium. It does not include surgery of the newborn infant.
  • Occlusal Adjustment [M0029046]
    Selective grinding of occlusal surfaces of the teeth in an effort to eliminate premature contacts and occlusal interferences; to establish optimal masticatory effectiveness, stable occlusal relationships, direction of main occlusal forces, and efficient multidirectional patterns, to improve functional relations and to induce physiologic stimulation of the masticatory system; to eliminate occlusal trauma; to eliminate abnormal muscle tension; to aid in the stabilization of orthodontic results; to treat periodontal and temporomandibular joint problems; and in restorative procedures. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
  • Occupational Therapy [M0015198]
    The field concerned with utilizing craft or work activities in the rehabilitation of patients. Occupational therapy can also refer to the activities themselves.
  • Oligonucleotide-Directed Gene Repair [M0486849]
  • Oncolytic Virotherapy [M0472752]
    Use of attenuated VIRUSES as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to selectively kill CANCER cells.
  • Oocyte Donation [M0027861]
    Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.
  • Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures [M0020867]
    Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
  • Oral Myotherapy [M0029910]
  • Oral Rehydration [M0008583]
  • Oral Rehydration Therapy [M0008581]
  • Oral Surgical Procedures [M0029150]
    Procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
  • Oral Surgical Procedures, Preprosthetic [M0020877]
    Surgery necessary for a denture to rest on a firm base, free from marked osseous protuberances or undercuts, and devoid of interfering muscle attachments, excess mucoperiosteum, hyperplasias, and fibrous or papillary growths.
  • Orbit Evisceration [M0026148]
    The surgical removal of the contents of the orbit. This includes the eyeball, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerve supply, and periosteum. It should be differentiated from EYE EVISCERATION which removes the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact.
  • Orchiectomy [M0015382]
    The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
  • Organ Harvesting [M0454399]
  • Organ Preservation [M0015392]
    The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
  • Organ Transplantation [M0025056]
    Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
  • Organotherapy [M0015423]
    Historically, the treatment of disease by the administration of animal organs or their extracts (after Brown-Sequard). At present synthetic preparations substitute for the extracts of a gland. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Orofacial Myotherapy [M0029909]
  • Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures [M0483989]
    Attachment of orthodontic devices and materials to the MOUTH area for support and to provide a counterforce to orthodontic forces.
  • Orthodontic Extrusion [M0477913]
    Orthodontic movement in the coronal direction achieved by outward tension on the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT. It does not include the operative procedure that CROWN LENGTHENING involves.
  • Orthodontic Space Closure [M0029001]
    Therapeutic closure of spaces caused by the extraction of teeth, the congenital absence of teeth, or the excessive space between teeth.
  • Orthodontics, Corrective [M0015464]
    The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).
  • Orthodontics, Interceptive [M0015465]
    Recognition and elimination of potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex.
  • Orthodontics, Preventive [M0015466]
  • Orthomolecular Therapy [M0015467]
    The use of very large doses of vitamins or other naturally occurring substances normally present in the body, frequently for the treatment of mental disorders.
  • Orthopedic Procedures [M0029136]
    Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
  • Orthopedic Surgical Procedures [M0415613]
  • Orthoptics [M0015487]
    The study and treatment of defects in binocular vision resulting from defects in the optic musculature or of faulty visual habits. It involves a technique of eye exercises designed to correct the visual axes of eyes not properly coordinated for binocular vision.
  • Osseointegrated Dental Implantation [M0005891]
  • Ossicular Replacement [M0029607]
    Surgical insertion of an implant to replace one or more of the ear ossicles.
  • Osteogenesis, Distraction [M0029477]
    Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.
  • Osteotomy [M0015556]
    The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Osteotomy, Le Fort [M0028789]
    Transverse sectioning and repositioning of the maxilla. There are three types: Le Fort I osteotomy for maxillary advancement or the treatment of maxillary fractures; Le Fort II osteotomy for the treatment of maxillary fractures; Le Fort III osteotomy for the treatment of maxillary fractures with fracture of one or more facial bones. Le Fort III is often used also to correct craniofacial dysostosis and related facial abnormalities. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1203 & p662)
  • Ostomy [M0015560]
    Surgical construction of an artificial opening (stoma) for external fistulization of a duct or vessel by insertion of a tube with or without a supportive stent.
  • Otologic Surgical Procedures [M0020865]
    Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.
  • Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures [M0020878]
    Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.
  • Outpatient Infusion Therapy [M0028046]
  • Ovarian Stimulation [M0380950]
    Use of gonadotropins to stimulate follicular growth, oocyte maturation, and the release of an ovum or ova (SUPEROVULATION).
  • Ovariectomy [M0015594]
    The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
  • Ovulation Induction [M0015607]
    Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
  • Ovulation Inhibition [M0015603]
    Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
  • Ovum Donation [M0027860]
  • Oxygen Inhalation Therapy [M0015673]
    Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Palatal Expansion Technique [M0015758]
    An orthodontic method used for correcting narrow or collapsed maxillary arches and functional cross-bite. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry),
  • Palliative Surgery [M0015775]
  • Pallidotomy [M0496947]
    Producing a lesion in the posteroventral portion of the medial GLOBUS PALLIDUS to treat PARKINSON DISEASE and other extrapyramidal disorders. The placement of the lesion is aided by STEREOTACTIC TECHNIQUES and imaging procedures.
  • Pancreas Transplantation [M0024513]
    The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
  • Pancreatectomy [M0015791]
    Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Pancreaticoduodenectomy [M0025290]
    The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.
  • Pancreaticojejunostomy [M0015806]
    Surgical anastomosis of the pancreatic duct, or the divided end of the transected pancreas, with the jejunum. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Paracentesis [M0028556]
    A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.
  • Paracervical Block [M0001163]
  • Parasympathectomy [M0026850]
    The removal or interruption of some part of the parasympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
  • Parathyroidectomy [M0024597]
    Excision of one or both of the parathyroid glands.
  • Parenteral Feeding [M0015940]
  • Parenteral Nutrition [M0015939]
    The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
  • Parenteral Nutrition, Home [M0024961]
    The at-home administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered via a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
  • Parenteral Nutrition, Home Total [M0025263]
    The at-home administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously or by some other non-alimentary route.
  • Parenteral Nutrition, Total [M0015942]
    The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.
  • Partial Hemispherectomy [M0415995]
    The procedure consists of removing frontal and temporal lobes, and complete disconnection of the remaining cortex and CORPUS CALLOSUM.
  • Partial Liquid Ventilation [M0351228]
  • Passive Antibody Transfer [M0011086]
  • Passive Stretching [M0487889]
    A technique in which one is relaxed and makes no contribution to the range of motion. Instead, an external force is used to achieve the stretching. A position is held by another body part or person, or an apparatus.
  • Patey Mastectomy [M0023748]
  • Patient Isolation [M0016058]
    The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.
  • Peat Therapy [M0380654]
  • Pelvic Exenteration [M0016101]
    Removal of all of the organs and adjacent structures of the pelvis. It is usually performed to surgically remove cancer involving the bladder, uterine cervix, or rectum. (Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Penile Implantation [M0029609]
    Surgical insertion of cylindric hydraulic devices for the treatment of organic impotence.
  • Percutaneous Administration [M0000435]
  • Percutaneous Ultrasonic Lithotripsy [M0012628]
  • Perfusion [M0016276]
  • Pericardial Window Techniques [M0016300]
    Surgical construction of an opening or window in the pericardium. It is often called subxiphoid pericardial window technique.
  • Pericardiectomy [M0016301]
    Surgical excision (total or partial) of a portion of the pericardium. Pericardiotomy refers to incision of the pericardium.
  • Pericardiocentesis [M0328555]
    Surgical puncture of the pericardial cavity for the aspiration of fluid. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Pericardiotomy [M0016302]
  • Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation [M0403303]
    Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
  • Peripheral Venous Catheterization [M0003670]
  • Peritoneal Dialysis [M0016358]
    Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.
  • Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory [M0016359]
    Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.
  • Peritoneal Lavage [M0016361]
    Washing out of the peritoneal cavity. The procedure is a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic technique following abdominal trauma or inflammation.
  • Peritoneovenous Shunt [M0016365]
    An operation for the continuous emptying of ascitic fluid into the venous system. Fluid removal is based on intraperitoneal and intrathoracic superior vena cava pressure differentials and is performed via a pressure-sensitive one-way valve connected to a tube traversing the subcutaneous tissue of the chest wall to the neck where it enters the internal jugular vein and terminates in the superior vena cava. It is used in the treatment of intractable ascites.
  • Phacoemulsification [M0028287]
    A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. The small incision allows the surgeon to use very few or even no stitches to close the tiny wound. There is usually no need for hospitalization and patients may resume most activities within days. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)
  • Pharyngectomy [M0016482]
    Surgical removal of a part of the pharynx. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Pharyngostomy [M0016485]
    External surgical fistulization of the pharynx for feeding.
  • Phlebotomy [M0028333]
    The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.
  • Phonophoresis [M0023954]
    Use of ultrasound to increase the percutaneous adsorption of drugs.
  • Photochemotherapy [M0016745]
    Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
  • Photopheresis [M0027036]
    A process in which peripheral blood is exposed in an extracorporeal flow system to photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (METHOXSALEN) and ultraviolet light - a procedure known as PUVA THERAPY. Photopheresis is at present a standard therapy for advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; it shows promise in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
  • Phototherapy [M0016762]
    Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
  • Physical Conditioning, Human [M0016784]
  • Physical Therapy Modalities [M0378753]
    Therapeutic modalities frequently used by physical therapists or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
  • Phytotherapy [M0013261]
    Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
  • Pilates-Based Exercises [M0490304]
    A form of exercise, based on the in the teachings of Joseph Pilates (1880-1967), redesigned for rehabilitation after musculoskeletal injuries. It focuses on body mechanics, posture, and strengthening of the core (back and abdominal) muscles.
  • Pituitary Irradiation [M0016921]
  • Placebos [M0016932]
    Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
  • Plaque Therapy, Radioisotope [M0002859]
  • Plasma Exchange [M0016979]
    Removal of plasma and replacement with various fluids, e.g., fresh frozen plasma, plasma protein fractions (PPF), albumin preparations, dextran solutions, saline. Used in treatment of autoimmune diseases, immune complex diseases, diseases of excess plasma factors, and other conditions.
  • Plasmapheresis [M0016986]
    Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.
  • Platelet Transfusion [M0026783]
    The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
  • Plateletpheresis [M0017025]
    The preparation of platelet concentrates with the return of red cells and platelet-poor plasma to the donor.
  • Play Therapy [M0017035]
    A treatment technique utilizing play as a medium for expression and communication between patient and therapist.
  • Pleurodesis [M0028014]
    The production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura. The procedure is used in the treatment of bronchopleural fistulas, malignant pleural effusions, and pneumothorax and often involves instillation of chemicals or other agents into the pleural space causing, in effect, a pleuritis that seals the air leak. (From Fishman, Pulmonary Diseases, 2d ed, p2233 & Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Pneumonectomy [M0017062]
    The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.
  • Pneumonolysis [M0017078]
    Division of the tissues attaching the lung to the wall of the chest cavity, to permit collapse of the lung. It was formerly used to treat tuberculosis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Pneumothorax, Artificial [M0017084]
    Injection of air or a more slowly absorbed gas such as nitrogen, into the pleural space to collapse the lung. It was formerly used to treat pulmonary tuberculosis. (From Stedman, 26th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Polypharmacy [M0028787]
    The use of multiple drugs administered to the same patient, most commonly seen in elderly patients. It includes also the administration of excessive medication. Since in the United States most drugs are dispensed as single-agent formulations, polypharmacy, though using many drugs administered to the same patient, must be differentiated from DRUG COMBINATIONS, single preparations containing two or more drugs as a fixed dose, and from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION, two or more drugs administered separately for a combined effect. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
  • Pomeroy Method [M0020509]
    A knuckle of FALLOPIAN TUBE is ligated with absorbable suture, then a small segment is excised.
  • Portacaval Shunt, Surgical [M0017337]
    Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.
  • Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical [M0017340]
    Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.
  • Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic [M0028572]
    A type of surgical portasystemic shunt to reduce portal hypertension with associated complications of esophageal varices and ascites. It is performed percutaneously through the jugular vein and involves the creation of an intrahepatic shunt between the hepatic vein and portal vein. The channel is maintained by a metallic stent. The procedure can be performed in patients who have failed sclerotherapy and is an additional option to the surgical techniques of portocaval, mesocaval, and splenorenal shunts. It takes one to three hours to perform. (JAMA 1995;273(23):1824-30)
  • Portoenterostomy, Hepatic [M0017341]
    Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.
  • Positive-Pressure Respiration [M0017347]
    A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
  • Post and Core Technique [M0017348]
    Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.
  • Post Technique [M0017349]
  • Posthumous Conception [M0411693]
    Conception after the death of the male or female biological parent through techniques such as the use of gametes that have been stored during his or her lifetime or that were collected immediately after his or her death.
  • Postmenopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy [M0024351]
  • Prayer Healing [M0013408]
  • Preanesthetic Medication [M0017447]
  • Pregnancy Reduction, Multifetal [M0027889]
    Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.
  • Premedication [M0017533]
    Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
  • Prescriptions, Drug [M0017559]
    Directions written for the preparation and administration of a drug.
  • prevention [M0030717]
  • Primary Prevention [M0017578]
    Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from secondary prevention, which is the prevention of complications or after-effects of a drug or surgical procedure, and tertiary prevention, the amelioration of the after-effects of a disease.
  • Proctocolectomy, Restorative [M0025485]
    A surgical procedure involving the excision of the COLON and RECTUM and the formation of an ILEOANAL RESERVOIR (pouch). In patients with intestinal diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, this procedure avoids the need for an OSTOMY by allowing for transanal defecation.
  • Proctoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0331501]
  • Proctoscopy [M0017636]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the rectum.
  • Programmed Electrostimulation [M0356527]
  • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Stretching [M0487888]
    This is a type of flexibility exercise which combines muscle contraction and relaxation with passive and partner-assisted stretching.
  • Prostatectomy [M0017824]
    Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).
  • Prostatectomy, Retropubic [M0017826]
  • Prostatectomy, Suprapubic [M0017827]
  • Prosthesis Adjustment [M0026839]
  • Prosthesis Coloring [M0026890]
    Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.
  • Prosthesis Fitting [M0026838]
    The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)
  • Prosthesis Implantation [M0029594]
    Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
  • Protocol Drug Therapy, Computer-Assisted [M0006853]
  • Psychiatric Somatic Therapies [M0020144]
    The biologic treatment of mental disorders (e.g., ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY), in contrast with psychotherapy. (Stone, American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988, p159)
  • Psychoanalysis [M0017989]
    The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).
  • Psychoanalytic Therapy [M0017994]
    A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.
  • Psychodrama [M0018001]
    Primarily a technique of group psychotherapy which involves a structure, directed, and dramatized acting out of the patient's personal and emotional problems.
  • Psychosurgery [M0018051]
    Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.
  • Psychotherapeutic Processes [M0021295]
    Experiential, attitudinal, emotional, or behavioral phenomena occurring during the course of treatment. They apply to the patient or therapist (i.e., nurse, doctor, etc.) individually or to their interaction. (American Psychological Association: Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
  • Psychotherapy [M0018053]
    A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
  • Psychotherapy, Brief [M0018054]
    Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.
  • Psychotherapy, Group [M0018055]
    A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.
  • Psychotherapy, Multiple [M0018057]
    The use of more than one therapist at one time in individual or group psychotherapy.
  • Psychotherapy, Rational-Emotive [M0018058]
    The replacement of illogical and unrealistic ideas with more realistic and adaptive ones through direct intervention and confrontation by the therapist.
  • Pulmonary Surgical Procedures [M0020869]
    Surgery performed on the lung.
  • Pulpectomy [M0018150]
  • Pulpotomy [M0018152]
  • Pulsed Dye Laser Lithotripsy [M0026673]
  • Pulsed Tunable Dye Laser Lithotripsy [M0026671]
  • Punctures [M0018158]
    Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.
  • PUVA Therapy [M0018192]
    Photochemotherapy using a psoralen compound as the photosensitizing agent and ultraviolet light type A (UVA).
  • Qigong [M0002914]
  • Radiation Therapy, Lymphatic [M0023337]
  • Radical Neck Dissection [M0018391]
    A surgical operation for head and neck malignancies, most of which are squamous cell carcinomas. The neck is opened laterally, the majority of the sternocleidomastoid muscle is removed, as are the regional cervical lymph nodes, the jugular vein, the spinal accessory nerve, the submaxillary gland and most of the parotid gland. There are several modifications. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992, p605)
  • Radiesthesia [M0018394]
    Therapeutic cult concerned with intangible energies surrounding the living body and based on the detection of these intrinsic radiations by dowsing, or divining, or the use of more elaborate instruments (radionics).
  • Radioimmunotherapy [M0025194]
    Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
  • Radioisotope Teletherapy [M0018424]
    A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.
  • Radiosurgery [M0025350]
    A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.
  • Radiosurgery, Linear Accelerator [M0025353]
  • Radiotherapy [M0018442]
    The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
  • Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted [M0018445]
    Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
  • Radiotherapy, Adjuvant [M0028040]
    Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
  • Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted [M0018446]
    Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.
  • Radiotherapy, Conformal [M0029924]
    Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.
  • Radiotherapy, High-Energy [M0018447]
    Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.
  • Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated [M0474805]
    CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.
  • Radiotherapy, Interstitial [M0002860]
  • Radiotherapy, Intracavity [M0002858]
  • Radiotherapy, Megavolt [M0018448]
  • Radiotherapy, Targeted [M0018443]
  • Reading [M0018543]
  • Reality Therapy [M0018548]
    Method of psychotherapeutic treatment based on assumption of patients' personal responsibility for their own behavior. The therapist actively guides patients to accurate self-perception for fulfillment of needs of self-worth and respect for others. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
  • Reconstructive Surgical Procedures [M0029154]
    Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
  • Reflexotherapy [M0018699]
    Treatment of some morbid condition by producing a reflex action, as in the household treatment of nosebleed by a piece of ice applied to the cervical spine. (Stedman, 27th ed)
  • Rehabilitation [M0018729]
    Restoration of human functions to the maximum degree possible in a person or persons suffering from disease or injury.
  • Rehabilitation, Vocational [M0018733]
    Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.
  • Rehydration [M0008582]
  • Reiki [M0333008]
  • Reinforcement (Psychology) [M0018739]
    The strengthening of a conditioned response.
  • Rejuvenation [M0018745]
    The phenomenon of youthfulness, vitality, and freshness being restored. This can apply to appearance, TISSUES, organ functions, or other areas.
  • Relaxation [M0018748]
    Activity which reduces feelings of tension.
  • Relaxation Techniques [M0018749]
    The use of muscular relaxation techniques in treatment.
  • Remission Induction [M0018766]
    Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
  • Renal Dialysis [M0355346]
    Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
  • Renal Replacement Therapy [M0026643]
    Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.
  • Reoperation [M0018782]
    A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
  • Reperfusion [M0023774]
    Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.
  • Replantation [M0018800]
    Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.
  • Reproductive Techniques [M0018814]
    Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
  • Reproductive Techniques, Assisted [M0380875]
    Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
  • Reproductive Technology [M0018815]
  • Reproductive Technology, Assisted [M0380939]
  • Residential Treatment [M0018873]
    A specialized residential treatment program for behavior disorders including substance abuse. It may include therapeutically planned group living and learning situations including teaching of adaptive skills to help patient functioning in the community. (From Kahn, A. P. and Fawcett, J. Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 1993, p320.)
  • Respiration, Artificial [M0018880]
    Any method of artifical breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2 ) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2 ).
  • Respiratory Therapy [M0018916]
    Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
  • Restraint, Physical [M0018927]
    Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
  • Resuscitation [M0018929]
    The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Retreatment [M0028643]
    The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.
  • Retrograde Obturation [M0018972]
  • Revision, Joint [M0018783]
  • Rewarming [M0026758]
    Application of heat to correct hypothermia, accidental or induced.
  • Rhinoplasty [M0019025]
    A plastic surgical operation on the nose, either reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Rhizotomy [M0028441]
    Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Rhythm Method of Family Planning [M0440898]
  • Rhythm Method of Family Planning, Calendar [M0019059]
  • Rhythm Method of Family Planning, Cervical Mucus [M0440519]
  • Rhythm Method of Family Planning, Temperature [M0019060]
  • Rhytidectomy [M0023648]
  • Rhytidoplasty [M0023647]
    Plastic surgery performed, usually by excision of skin, for the elimination of wrinkles from the skin.
  • Risk Reduction [M0429009]
  • Role Playing [M0019253]
    The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.
  • Rolfing [M0378111]
    A version of deep rigorous massage established by Ida Rolf.
  • Root Canal Obturation [M0019263]
  • Root Canal Preparation [M0028284]
    Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)
  • Root Canal Therapy [M0019264]
    A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.
  • Root Planing [M0025502]
    A procedure for smoothing of the roughened root surface or cementum of a tooth after subgingival curettage or scaling, as part of periodontal therapy.
  • Rotational Atherectomy [M0026135]
  • Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass [M0472672]
    A small proximal gastric pouch is created by double stapling that excludes the distal STOMACH. The pouch is connected to the JEJUNUM using a roux-en-Y gastrojejunal anastomosis.
  • Salpingostomy [M0019404]
    Formation of an artificial opening in a fallopian tube.
  • Salvage Therapy [M0025683]
    A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
  • Scaling, Root [M0019461]
  • Scaling, Subgingival [M0019462]
  • Scaling, Supragingival [M0019463]
  • Scleral Buckling [M0019538]
    An operation for retinal detachment which reduces the size of the globe by indenting the sclera so that it approximates the retina.
  • Scleroplasty [M0025359]
    Plastic surgery of the sclera. This procedure is used frequently to prevent blindness and poor vision in children with myopia.
  • Sclerostomy [M0019551]
    Surgical formation of an external opening in the sclera, primarily in the treatment of glaucoma.
  • Sclerotherapy [M0024347]
    Treatment of varicose veins, hemorrhoids, gastric and esophageal varices, and peptic ulcer hemorrhage by injection or infusion of chemical agents which cause localized thrombosis and eventual fibrosis and obliteration of the vessels.
  • Second-Look Surgery [M0369470]
    A followup operation to examine the outcome of the previous surgery and other treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
  • Self Administration [M0019608]
    Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
  • Sensory Art Therapies [M0378136]
    Therapies using arts or directed at the senses.
  • Serial Extraction [M0019671]
    The selective extraction of deciduous teeth during the stage of mixed dentition in accordance with the shedding and eruption of the teeth. It is done over an extended period to allow autonomous adjustment to relieve crowding of the dental arches during the eruption of the lateral incisors, canines, and premolars, eventually involving the extraction of the first premolar teeth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Serotherapy [M0011084]
  • Sex Preselection [M0019749]
    Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring. It may include SEX DETERMINATION (GENETICS) and other means.
  • Shiatsu [M0383333]
  • Shockwave Lithotripsy, Laser-Induced [M0026675]
  • Short-Wave Therapy [M0019798]
    The use of focused short radio waves to produce local hyperthermia in an injured person or diseased body area.
  • Sigmoidoscopic Surgical Procedures [M0333404]
  • Sigmoidoscopy [M0019839]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.
  • Skin Transplantation [M0024519]
    The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
  • Socioenvironmental Therapy [M0020085]
    Therapy whose primary emphasis is on the physical and social structuring of the environment to promote interpersonal relationships which will be influential in reducing behavioral disturbances of patients.
  • Sonication [M0020165]
  • Sorption Detoxification [M0024548]
    Elimination of toxic or biologically active substances from body fluids by interaction with a sorbent medium. The types of media include absorbents, adsorbents, ion-exchange materials, and complexing agents. Detoxification can be extracorporeal (hemodialysis, hemofiltration, hemoperfusion, plasmapheresis), or occur inside the body (enterosorption, peritoneal dialysis).
  • South Beach Diet [M0476016]
  • Space Maintenance [M0020191]
  • Speech Therapy [M0020257]
  • Speech, Alaryngeal [M0020258]
    Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.
  • Speech, Esophageal [M0020259]
    A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)
  • Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic [M0328585]
    An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
  • Sperm Retrieval [M0495041]
    Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.
  • Sphincteroplasty, Transduodenal [M0020296]
  • Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic [M0025458]
    Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.
  • Sphincterotomy, Transhepatic [M0020297]
    Surgery of the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla to relieve blocked biliary or pancreatic ducts.
  • Spinal Fusion [M0020316]
    Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Spiritual Healing [M0384253]
  • Spiritual Therapies [M0378180]
    Mystical, religious, or spiritual practices performed for health benefit.
  • Splenectomy [M0020366]
  • Splenorenal Shunt, Surgical [M0020374]
    Anastomosis of splenic vein to renal vein to relieve portal hypertension.
  • Split-Brain Procedure [M0478025]
    Complete severing of the CORPUS CALLOSUM. In humans it is usually performed to treat medically intractable, multifocal EPILEPSY. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS of split brain preparations are used in research.
  • Spondylodesis [M0020317]
  • Spondylosyndesis [M0020318]
  • STA-MCA Bypass [M0003892]
  • Stapedectomy [M0020420]
  • Stapes Mobilization [M0020419]
    An operation to remobilize the footplate of the stapes to relieve conductive hearing impairment caused by its immobilization through otosclerosis or middle ear disease. (Stedman, 26th ed)
  • Stapes Surgery [M0020421]
  • Static Stretching [M0487890]
    This is when one stretches to the farthest point and holds the stretch.
  • Steam Bath [M0383599]
    Therapy of sitting in a hot steamy room followed by a cool bath or shower.
  • Stem Cell Transplantation [M0403295]
    The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
  • Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy [M0495331]
  • Stereotaxic Techniques [M0020477]
    Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
  • Sterilization [M0020482]
    The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
  • Sterilization Reversal [M0020483]
    Procedures to reverse the effect of REPRODUCTIVE STERILIZATION and to regain fertility. Reversal procedures include those used to restore the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE or the VAS DEFERENS.
  • Sterilization, Involuntary [M0020488]
    Reproductive sterilization without the consent of the patient.
  • Sterilization, Reproductive [M0020496]
    Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
  • Sterilization, Tubal [M0020510]
    Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
  • Subgingival Curettage [M0020658]
    Removal of degenerated and necrotic epithelium and underlying connective tissue of a periodontal pocket in an effort to convert a chronic ulcerated wound to an acute surgical wound, thereby insuring wound healing and attachment or epithelial adhesion, and shrinkage of the marginal gingiva. The term is sometimes used in connection with smoothing of a root surface or ROOT PLANING. (Jablonski; Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
  • Suction [M0020723]
    The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.
  • Suggestion [M0020730]
    The uncritical acceptance of an idea or plan of action.
  • Sunbathing [M0010004]
  • Superovulation [M0020824]
    Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
  • Supplementary Feeding [M0011279]
  • Suprapubic Cystostomy [M0005562]
  • Surface Radiotherapy [M0002861]
  • Surgery, Computer-Assisted [M0374253]
    Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
  • Surgery, Day [M0000871]
  • Surgery, Image-Guided [M0374254]
    Interactively combining prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video to guide instruments during surgery.
  • Surgery, Office [M0000870]
  • Surgical Procedures, Elective [M0026618]
    Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
  • Surgical Procedures, Endoscopic [M0028215]
  • Surgical Procedures, Endoscopic Gastrointestinal [M0331813]
  • Surgical Procedures, Laparoscopic [M0026102]
  • Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive [M0028453]
    Procedures that avoid use of open invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device. With the reduced trauma associated with minimally invasive surgery, long hospital stays may be reduced with increased rates of short stay or day surgery.
  • Surgical Procedures, Minor [M0020870]
    Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
  • Surgical Procedures, Operative [M0020872]
    Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
  • Surgical Procedures, Thoracoscopic [M0331661]
  • Surgical Procedures, Ureteroscopic [M0333632]
  • Surgical Stapling [M0026882]
    A technique of closing incisions and wounds, or of joining and connecting tissues, in which staples are used as sutures.
  • Suture Techniques [M0020911]
  • Sweat Lodge [M0383602]
    A small hut of reeds covered with blankets used by Native American cultures. People sit around the edges and hot rocks are placed in the center and water sprinkled to create hot steam. Exiting into a cold stream completes the treatment.
  • Sympathectomy [M0020942]
    The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
  • Sympathectomy, Chemical [M0020943]
    Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
  • Sympathetic Nerve Block [M0002012]
  • Symphysiotomy [M0020948]
  • Synthetic Diet [M0008712]
  • Targeted Gene Repair [M0486848]
    A technique which uses synthetic oligonucleotides to direct the cell's inherent DNA repair system to correct a mutation at a specific site in an episome or chromosome.
  • Task Performance [M0021055]
  • Teaching [M0021085]
    The educational process of instructing.
  • Tendon Transfer [M0021157]
    Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.
  • Tenodesis [M0495284]
    Fixation of the end of a tendon to a bone, often by suturing.
  • Testicular Sperm Aspiration [M0495042]
  • Testing, Genetic Predisposition [M0009132]
  • Thalassotherapy [M0021266]
    The therapeutic use of seaside resorts; includes treatment by sea air, sea voyages, and sea bathing.
  • Therapeutic Community [M0021293]
    Psychotherapeutic technique which emphasizes socioenvironmental and interpersonal influences in the resocialization and rehabilitation of the patient. The setting is usually a hospital unit or ward in which professional and nonprofessional staff interact with the patients.
  • Therapeutic Drug Monitoring [M0495503]
  • Therapeutic Touch [M0028532]
    Placing of the hands of the healer upon the person to be cured with the intent of spiritual energetic healing.
  • therapeutic use [M0030820]
    Used with drugs, biological preparations, and physical agents for their use in the prophylaxis and treatment of disease. It includes veterinary use.
  • Therapeutics [M0021296]
    Procedures concerned with the remedial treatment or prevention of diseases.
  • Therapies, Investigational [M0391227]
    Treatments which are undergoing clinical trials or for which there is insufficient evidence to determine their effects on health outcomes; coverage for such treatments is often denied by health insurers.
  • Therapy, Computer-Assisted [M0021298]
    Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.
  • Therapy, Group [M0018056]
  • Therapy, Relaxation [M0018750]
  • Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted [M0328077]
    Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.
  • Thoracic Surgical Procedures [M0029116]
    Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.
  • Thoracoplasty [M0021407]
    Surgical removal of ribs, allowing the chest wall to move inward and collapse a diseased lung. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Thoracoscopy [M0021408]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.
  • Thoracostomy [M0021409]
    Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) into the chest cavity for drainage; used in the treatment of pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and empyema.
  • Thoracotomy [M0021410]
    Surgical incision into the chest wall.
  • Thrombectomy [M0026026]
    Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.
  • Thromboendarterectomy [M0007385]
  • Thrombolytic Therapy [M0024348]
    Use of infusions of fibrinolytic agents to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
  • Thymectomy [M0021444]
    Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Thyroidectomy [M0021486]
    Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Tissue and Organ Harvesting [M0328079]
    The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
  • Tissue Conditioning (Dental) [M0021576]
    The use of a treatment material (tissue conditioner) to re-establish tone and health to irritated oral soft tissue, usually applied to the edentulous alveolar ridge.
  • Tissue Engineering [M0368174]
    Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. A cell culture facility is required for cell harvest and expansion.
  • Tissue Expansion [M0023970]
    Process whereby tissue adjacent to a soft tissue defect is expanded by means of a subcutaneously implanted reservoir. The procedure is used in reconstructive surgery for injuries caused by trauma, burns, or ablative surgery.
  • Tissue Harvesting [M0454398]
  • Tissue Preservation [M0021589]
    The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
  • Tissue Therapy [M0021592]
    Historically, tissue transplantation, especially of refrigerated tissue (after Filatov). It was theorized that nonspecific substances, capable of initiating restorative processes, formed in tissues when refrigerated. Cell therapy (after Niehans) refers to implantation of tissue by injection. Originally this involved fresh cells but later frozen or lyophilized cells.
  • Tissue Transplantation [M0025057]
    Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
  • Tocolysis [M0023281]
    Any drug treatment modality designed to inhibit UTERINE CONTRACTION. It is used in pregnant women to arrest PREMATURE LABOR.
  • Toilet Training [M0021622]
    Conditioning to defecate and urinate in culturally acceptable places.
  • Token Economy [M0021623]
    A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.
  • Tonsillectomy [M0021665]
    Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Tooth Bleaching [M0021671]
    The use of a chemical oxidizing agent (sometimes in combination with heat) to lighten tooth discolorations. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p34)
  • Tooth Depression [M0021691]
  • Tooth Extraction [M0021680]
    The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Tooth Intrusion [M0021689]
  • Tooth Movement [M0021687]
    Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
  • Tooth Movement, Minor [M0021688]
  • Tooth Preparation [M0028659]
    Procedures carried out with regard to the teeth or tooth structures preparatory to specified dental therapeutic and surgical measures.
  • Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic [M0028640]
    The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)
  • Tooth Remineralization [M0021694]
    Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.
  • Tooth Replantation [M0021695]
    Reinsertion of a tooth into the alveolus from which it was removed or otherwise lost.
  • Tooth Uprighting [M0021692]
  • Toothbrushing [M0021705]
    The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
  • Topectomy [M0018052]
  • Total Hemispherectomy [M0415994]
    Removal of the entire cortex, sparing the BASAL GANGLIA.
  • Total Liquid Ventilation [M0351227]
  • Trabeculectomy [M0021740]
    Any surgical procedure for treatment of glaucoma by means of puncture or reshaping of the trabecular meshwork. It includes goniotomy, trabeculectomy, and laser perforation.
  • Trabeculotomy [M0021741]
  • Tracheostomy [M0021750]
    Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.
  • Tracheotomy [M0021751]
    Surgical incision of the trachea.
  • Traction [M0021755]
    The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)
  • Training Programs [M0007080]
  • Transactional Analysis [M0021772]
    A psychoanalytic therapy wherein each social transaction is analyzed to determine the involved ego state (whether parent-like, child-like, or adult-like) as a basis for understanding behavior.
  • Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation [M0007173]
    The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
  • Transplantation [M0021831]
    Transference of a tissue or organ, alive or dead, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
  • Transplantation Conditioning [M0028576]
    Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
  • Transplantation, Autologous [M0021834]
    Transplantation from another site in or on the body of the individual receiving it.
  • Transplantation, Heterologous [M0021835]
    Transplantation between animals of different species.
  • Transplantation, Heterotopic [M0024524]
    Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
  • Transplantation, Homologous [M0021836]
    Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
  • Transplantation, Isogeneic [M0021838]
    Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
  • Transurethral Electrovaporization of Prostate [M0408538]
  • Transurethral Microwave Thermotherapy [M0408540]
  • Transurethral Needle Ablation of Prostate [M0408539]
  • Transurethral Resection of Prostate [M0017825]
    Removal of all or part of the PROSTATE, often using a cystoscope and/or resectoscope passed through the URETHRA.
  • Transurethral Ultrasound-Guided Laser-Induced Prostatectomy [M0408541]
  • Transurethral Visual Laser Ablation of Prostate [M0408542]
  • Treatment [M0021297]
  • Treatment Protocols [M0004570]
  • Trephining [M0021873]
    The removal of a circular disk of the cranium. It is performed with a trephine, a small circular saw with a center pin mounted on a hollow metal shaft to which is attached a transverse handle. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
  • Triage [M0021891]
    The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.
  • Tubal Embryo Transfer [M0380713]
    Embryos are transferred to the fallopian tubes.
  • Tubal Excision [M0020511]
  • Tubal Occlusion [M0020512]
  • Tubal Occlusion, Chemical [M0020501]
  • Tubal Occlusion, Nonchemical [M0020508]
  • Tube Cecostomy [M0003711]
  • Tube Feeding [M0007462]
  • Tube Ileostomy [M0011029]
  • Tympanoplasty [M0022182]
    Surgical reconstruction of the hearing mechanism of the middle ear, with restoration of the drum membrane to protect the round window from sound pressure, and establishment of ossicular continuity between the tympanic membrane and the oval window. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
  • Tympanostomy [M0013852]
  • Tympanostomy Tube Insertion [M0013851]
  • Uchida Method [M0020514]
  • Ultrafiltration [M0022232]
    The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
  • Ultrasonic Therapy [M0022237]
    The use of focused, high-frequency sound waves to produce local hyperthermia in certain diseased or injured parts of the body or to destroy the diseased tissue.
  • Ultrasound, High-Intensity Focused, Transrectal [M0410889]
    Tissue ablation of the PROSTATE performed by ultrasound from a transducer placed in the RECTUM. The procedure is used to treat prostate cancer (PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA).
  • Ultraviolet Therapy [M0022241]
    The use of ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation in the treatment of disease, usually of the skin. This is the part of the sun's spectrum that causes sunburn and tanning. Ultraviolet A, used in PUVA, is closer to visible light and less damaging than Ultraviolet B, which is ionizing.
  • Universal Precautions [M0025354]
    Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.
  • Unnecessary Surgery [M0029053]
  • Ureteroscopy [M0027970]
    Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the ureter.
  • Ureterostomy [M0022329]
    Surgical formation of an opening in the ureter for external drainage of the urine; cutaneous route utilizes a ureteral orifice emerging through the skin.
  • Urinary Catheterization [M0022366]
    Employment or passage of a catheter into the URINARY BLADDER (urethral c.) or kidney (ureteral c.) for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.
  • Urinary Diversion [M0022367]
    Temporary or permanent diversion of the flow of urine through the ureter away from the URINARY BLADDER in the presence of a bladder disease or after cystectomy. There is a variety of techniques: direct anastomosis of ureter and bowel, cutaneous ureterostomy, ileal, jejunal or colon conduit, ureterosigmoidostomy, etc. (From Campbell's Urology, 6th ed, p2654)
  • Urogenital Surgical Procedures [M0020882]
    Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its organs and on the male or female genitalia.
  • Urologic Surgical Procedures [M0020883]
    Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.
  • Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male [M0020884]
    Surgery performed on the male genitalia.
  • Vaccination [M0022451]
    Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
  • Vaccine Therapy [M0024790]
  • Vacuum Curettage [M0022466]
    Aspiration of the contents of the uterus with a vacuum curette.
  • Vacuum Extraction, Obstetrical [M0022471]
    Removal of the fetus from the uterus or vagina at or near the end of pregnancy with a metal traction cup that is attached to the fetus' head. Negative pressure is applied and traction is made on a chain passed through the suction tube. (From Stedman, 26th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Vaginal Barrier Methods, Contraceptive [M0005090]
  • Vaginal Birth after Cesarean [M0024552]
    Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.
  • Vaginal Douching [M0444923]
    The washing of the VAGINA cavity or surface with a solution. Agents or drugs can be added to the irrigation solution.
  • Vagotomy [M0022489]
    The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
  • Vagotomy, Proximal Gastric [M0022490]
    Vagal denervation of that part of the STOMACH lined with acid-secreting mucosa (GASTRIC MUCOSA) containing the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Since the procedure leaves the vagal branches to the antrum and PYLORUS intact, it circumvents gastric drainage required with truncal vagotomy techniques.
  • Vagotomy, Selective Proximal [M0022492]
  • Vagotomy, Truncal [M0023308]
    Bilateral dissection of the abdominal branches of the vagus nerve. It is used frequently in the surgical management of duodenal and gastric ulcers, as well as in physiologic studies of gastrointestinal secretion and motility.
  • Vaporization, Laser [M0012247]
  • Variolation [M0483160]
  • Vas Deferens Reanastomosis [M0020485]
  • Vas Ligation [M0022543]
  • Vas Occlusion [M0022544]
  • Vas Occlusion, Nonchemical [M0022545]
  • Vasal Sperm Aspiration [M0495044]
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures [M0022539]
    Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
  • Vasectomy [M0022546]
    Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Vasostomy [M0022565]
  • Vasovasostomy [M0022566]
    Surgical anastomosis or fistulization of the spermatic ducts to restore fertility in a previously vasectomized male.
  • Venous Cutdown [M0025505]
    Creation of a small incised opening in a vein to permit the passage of a needle or cannula for withdrawal of blood, administration of medication, or in diagnostic or therapeutic catheterization. (Dorland, 28th ed.; Stedman, 26th ed.)
  • Venovenous Hemofiltration [M0010110]
  • Ventilation, Mechanical [M0018881]
  • Ventilator Weaning [M0023557]
    Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.
  • Ventriculocisternostomy [M0022600]
  • Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt [M0026241]
    Surgical creation of a communication between a cerebral ventricle and the peritoneum by means of a plastic tube to permit drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
  • Ventriculostomy [M0022601]
    Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.
  • Version, External Cephalic [M0360971]
    Fetal version where the head is brought down into the maternal pelvis by external manipulation.
  • Version, Fetal [M0022620]
    The artificial alteration of the fetal position to facilitate birth.
  • Vertical-Banded Gastroplasty [M0472675]
  • Vestibuloplasty [M0022645]
    Those procedures designed to widen the zone of attached gingiva and deepen the vestibular depth which will facilitate the clearance of the area for natural food passage, and provide access for toothbrushing and interdental stimulation.
  • Video-Assisted Surgery [M0328082]
    Endoscopic surgical procedures performed with visualization via video transmission. When real-time video is combined interactively with prior CT scans or MRI images, this is called image-guided surgery (see SURGERY, COMPUTER-ASSISTED).
  • Vitrectomy [M0022819]
    Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.
  • Voice Training [M0022835]
  • Voluntary Sterilization [M0020497]
  • Walking [M0024648]
    An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
  • Water Deprivation [M0022884]
    The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
  • Weightlessness Countermeasures [M0027806]
    Techniques and routines designed to prevent or reverse unwanted effects of weightlessness experienced during actual and simulated space flight, including physiologic changes related to removal of gravitational loading. Specific measures include creation of artificial gravity, exercise, low-level lower body negative pressure, and use of anti-deconditioning devices. (From Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp294-297)
  • Whirlpool Baths [M0010737]
  • Whole-Body Irradiation [M0022976]
    Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
  • X-Ray Therapy [M0023039]
  • Zone Therapy [M0380650]
  • Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer [M0026404]
    A technique in assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED) consisting of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, follicular aspiration of preovulatory oocytes, in-vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes at the pronuclear stage (before cleavage).